The Biology of African Savannahs

Author: William Bates

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198702701

Category: Savanna ecology

Page: 352

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Savannah habitats comprise an ecologically important, but ultimately fragile, ecosystem. They constitute one of the largest biomes on Earth, covering almost 20% of the land surface, and can be simply described as tropical and subtropical grasslands with scattered bushes and trees. Most savannahs occur in Africa, although smaller areas can be found in South America, India, and Australia. They form a rich mosaic of diverse ecosystems, and this book offers a concise but comprehensive introduction to their ecology, biodiversity, and conservation. The Biology of African Savannahs describes the major plants (grasses, and trees such as Acacia) and animals (mainly large mammals) that live in this habitat, and examines the biological and ecological factors that influence their population size, interactions (such as predation), and community composition. Conservation issues such as climate change, hunting, and conflict between wildlife and domestic animals are also discussed. This new edition has been updated throughout with the latest research in the field, and contains new technique boxes which introduce readers to some of the analytical methods used to study African savannahs. This accessible text is suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in savannah and tropical ecology as part of a wider ecology and/or conservation biology degree programme. It will also be of relevance and use to the many professional ecologists and conservation practitioners requiring a concise but authoritative overview of the topic.

Savannas of Our Birth

People, Wildlife, and Change in East Africa

Author: Robin Spencer Reid

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520273559

Category: Nature

Page: 396

View: 1977

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"Ultimately, we can all trace our origins back to the savannas of Africa. Robin Reid's book provides an eloquent introduction into the biology of the savannas that shaped us as humans; simultaneously, she provides an insightful and comprehensive overview of current and future threats to East African savannas and the steps that need to be taken to conserve the world we first lived in. Don't go to East Africa without first reading this book; it will enhance your safari and empower your research."Andrew P. Dobson, author of "Conservation and Biodiversity " ""Savannas of Our Birth" provides a balanced, scientific, and accessible examination of the current state of East African savannas and the relationships among the wildlife and people who live there. Reid examines how savannas came to be and what alternative futures may be possible by trying to chart a middle ground in contentious debates about conservation and local rights."J. Terrence McCabe, author of "Cattle Bring Us to Our Enemies: Turkana Ecology, History, and Raiding in a Disequilibrium System" "Reid's research focusing on pastoralists has reminded me that wildlife and domestic livestock co-existed to their mutual benefit for the last 2000 years. With reopened eyes, I've even seen it for myself in the case of the Masai and the savanna wildlife I study. There is an extraordinary wealth of information in this book."Richard D. Estes, author of "The Behavior Guide to African Mammals""

The Biology of Peatlands, 2e

Author: Håkan Rydin,John K. Jeglum

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191508292

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 1971

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Peatlands form important landscape elements in many parts of the world and play significant roles for biodiversity and global carbon balance. This new edition has been fully revised and updated, documenting the latest advances in areas such as microbial processes and relations between biological processes and hydrology. As well as thoroughly referencing the latest research, the authors expose a rich older literature where an immense repository of natural history has accumulated. The Biology of Peatlands starts with an overview of the main peatland types (marsh, swamp, fen, and bog), before examining the entire range of biota present (microbes, invertebrates, plants, and vertebrates), together with their specific adaptations to peatland habitats. Detailed coverage is devoted to the genus Sphagnum, the most important functional plant group in northern peatlands, although tropical and southern hemisphere peatlands are also covered. Throughout the book the interactions between organisms and environmental conditions (especially wetness, availability of oxygen, and pH) are emphasized, with chapters on the physical and chemical characteristics of peat, the role of peat as an archive of past vegetation and climate, and peatland succession and development. Several other key factors and processes are then examined, including hydrology and nutrient cycling. The fascinating peatland landforms in different parts of the world are described, together with theories on how they have developed. Human interactions with peatlands are considered in terms of management, conservation, and restoration. A final chapter, new to this edition, focuses on the role of peatlands as sources or sinks for the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane, and the influences of climate change on peatlands. This timely and accessible text is suitable for students and researchers of peatland ecology, as well as providing an authoritative overview for professional ecologists and conservation biologists.

The Biology of Coral Reefs

Author: Charles R. C. Sheppard,Simon K. Davy,Graham M. Pilling

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191057347

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 5806

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Coral reefs represent the most spectacular and diverse marine ecosystem on the planet as well as a critical source of income for millions of people. However, the combined effects of human activity have led to a rapid decline in the health of reefs worldwide, with many now facing complete destruction. This timely book provides an integrated overview of the function, physiology, ecology, and behaviour of coral reef organisms. Each chapter is enriched with a selection of 'boxes' on specific aspects written by internationally recognised experts. As with other books in the Biology of Habitats Series, the emphasis in this book is on the organisms that dominate this marine environment although pollution, conservation, climate change, and experimental aspects are also included. Indeed, particular emphasis is placed on conservation and management due to the habitat's critically endangered status. A global range of examples is employed which gives the book international relevance. This accessible text is intended for students, naturalists and professionals and assumes no previous knowledge of coral reef biology. It is particularly suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students (in departments of biology, geography, and environmental science) taking courses in coral reef ecology, marine biology, oceanography and conservation biology, as well as the many professional ecologists and conservation biologists requiring a concise overview of the topic. It will also be of relevance and use to reef managers, recreational divers, and amateur naturalists.

Environmental Anthropology

Future Directions

Author: Helen Kopnina,Eleanor Shoreman-Ouimet

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135044120

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 8226

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This volume presents new theoretical approaches, methodologies, subject pools, and topics in the field of environmental anthropology. Environmental anthropologists are increasingly focusing on self-reflection - not just on themselves and their impacts on environmental research, but also on the reflexive qualities of their subjects, and the extent to which these individuals are questioning their own environmental behavior. Here, contributors confront the very notion of "natural resources" in granting non-human species their subjectivity and arguing for deeper understanding of "nature," and "wilderness" beyond the label of "ecosystem services." By engaging in interdisciplinary efforts, these anthropologists present new ways for their colleagues, subjects, peers and communities to understand the causes of, and alternatives to environmental destruction. This book demonstrates that environmental anthropology has moved beyond the construction of rural, small group theory, entering into a mode of solution-based methodologies and interdisciplinary theories for understanding human-environmental interactions. It is focused on post-rural existence, health and environmental risk assessment, on the realm of alternative actions, and emphasizes the necessary steps towards preventing environmental crisis.

The Biologist's Imagination

Innovation in the Biosciences

Author: William Hoffman,Leo Furcht

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199361312

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 4716

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Scholars and policymakers alike agree that innovation in the biosciences is key to future growth. The field continues to shift and expand, and it is certainly changing the way people live their lives in a variety of ways. With a large share of federal research dollars devoted to the biosciences, the field is just beginning to live up to its billing as a source of innovation, economic productivity and growth. Vast untapped potential to imagine and innovate exists in the biosciences given new tools now widely available. In The Biologist's Imagination, William Hoffman and Leo Furcht examine the history of innovation in the biosciences, tracing technological innovation from the late eighteenth century to the present and placing special emphasis on how and where technology evolves. Place is often key to innovation, from the early industrial age to the rise of the biotechnology industry in the second half of the twentieth century. The book uses the distinct history of bioinnovation to discuss current trends as they relate to medicine, agriculture, energy, industry, ecosystems, and climate. Fast-moving research fields like genomics, synthetic biology, stem cell research, neuroscience, bioautomation and bioprinting are accelerating these trends. Hoffman and Furcht argue that our system of bioscience innovation is itself in need of innovation. It needs to adapt to the massive changes brought about by converging technologies and the globalization of higher education, workforce skills, and entrepreneurship. The Biologist's Imagination is both a review of past models for bioscience innovation and a forward-looking, original argument for what future models should take into account.

African Savannas

Global Narratives & Local Knowledge of Environmental Change

Author: Thomas J. Bassett,Donald Crummey

Publisher: James Currey Publishers

ISBN: 9780852554241

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 270

View: 1333

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This work outlines the importance of local knowledge for understanding environmental change.

Jungle Jim and Jungle Jen In the African Savannahs

Author: Jennifer J. Bergin

Publisher: BalboaPress

ISBN: 9781452553139

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 68

View: 2300

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Jungle Jim and Jungle Jen in the African Savannahs is the first in a series of illustrated children’s books. Jim is a calm, patient biologist and Jen is a humorous city slicker eager to learn. Join them on this hilarious adventure of elephant rides and mongoose meetings, snake scares and baboon bashes, with special times shared with a local tribe. Though the story is fictional, the facts about the animals and geography are real. There is so much to learn here on Earth ?. Editing Team: Edward and Ruth Madziire

East African Ecosystems and Their Conservation

Author: T. R. McClanahan,T. P. Young

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195108175

Category: Science

Page: 452

View: 9339

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East Africa is one of the most diverse and interesting tropical area on the planet. It is home not only to the last great megafaunal assemblage, but also to human populations with the highest growth rates. This book draws on the expertise of leading ecologists, each intimately familiar with a particular set of East African ecosystems, to provide the first in-depth and integrated account of the ecology, management, threats, and conservation of these diverse ecosystems. Summarizing the tremendous wealth of scientific research that has come out of East Africa in the last few decades, each chapter analyzes a given ecosystem type, taking the reader through the basics of its ecology, its historical use (and misuse) by humans, and its prospects for conservation. Throughout the book, linkages and similarities among ecosystems are emphasized, the historical and contemporary role of humans in shaping these ecosystems is considered, fundamental principles of ecology are considered, and interesting case studies are highlighted. Students and researchers in ecology, conservation biology, and environmental sciences will find this book useful in their work.

Das geheime Leben der Bäume

Was sie fühlen, wie sie kommunizieren - die Entdeckung einer verborgenen Welt

Author: Peter Wohlleben

Publisher: Ludwig

ISBN: 3641114004

Category: Nature

Page: 224

View: 4522

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Ein neuer Blick auf alte Freunde Erstaunliche Dinge geschehen im Wald: Bäume, die miteinander kommunizieren. Bäume, die ihren Nachwuchs, aber auch alte und kranke Nachbarn liebevoll umsorgen und pflegen. Bäume, die Empfindungen haben, Gefühle, ein Gedächtnis. Unglaublich? Aber wahr! – Der Förster Peter Wohlleben erzählt faszinierende Geschichten über die ungeahnten und höchst erstaunlichen Fähigkeiten der Bäume. Dazu zieht er die neuesten wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse ebenso heran wie seine eigenen unmittelbaren Erfahrungen mit dem Wald und schafft so eine aufregend neue Begegnung für die Leser: Wir schließen Bekanntschaft mit einem Lebewesen, das uns vertraut schien, uns aber hier erstmals in seiner ganzen Lebendigkeit vor Augen tritt. Und wir betreten eine völlig neue Welt ...

Is the Planet Full?

Author: Ian Goldin

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191017450

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 264

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What are the impacts of population growth? Can our planet support the demands of the ten billion people anticipated to be the world's population by the middle of this century? While it is common to hear about the problems of overpopulation, might there be unexplored benefits of increasing numbers of people in the world? How can we both consider and harness the potential benefits brought by a healthier, wealthier and larger population? May more people mean more scientists to discover how our world works, more inventors and thinkers to help solve the world's problems, more skilled people to put these ideas into practice? In this book, leading academics with a wide range of expertise in demography, philosophy, biology, climate science, economics and environmental sustainability explore the contexts, costs and benefits of a burgeoning population on our economic, social and environmental systems.

African Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories and Mitigation Options: Forestry, Land-Use Change, and Agriculture

Johannesburg, South Africa 29 May – June 1995

Author: John F. Fitzgerald,Barbara V. Braatz,Sandra Brown,Augustine O. Isichei,Eric O. Odada,Robert J. Scholes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940091637X

Category: Science

Page: 220

View: 4484

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As atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases continue to increase, so does the potential for atmospheric warming and associated climate change. In an effort to address the threat of global climate change, 155 countries signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. As of the first session of the Conference of the Parties, 128 nations had ratified the Convention. Among their other commitments, Parties to the Convention must develop and periodically update national inventories of net anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions using comparable methodologies, and must develop and implement national programs to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. To further the development of emission inventories and mitigation options within the African context, 64 governmental and non-governmental scientists and policy analysts from 23 nations gathered at a workshop near Johannesburg, South Africa from 29 May to 2 June 1995. The workshop focused on forestry, land-use change, and agriculture, because these sectors not only are responsible for the majority of emissions from the continent and provide promising opportunities for emissions mitigation, but also are a vital component of African economic growth and development. This book presents the workshop's major conclusions and findings, as well as individual papers that were prepared for the workshop, each of which was peer-reviewed and accepted for publication as part of the workshop process. The papers cover four areas: (1) issues are associated with data collection and emission factor determination; (2) problems associated with applying the IPCC inventory methodologies in Africa; (3) results of national inventory assessments in Africa; and (4) possible emissions mitigation options and methods for evaluating their potential viability. As the first book dedicated solely to greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation options in Africa, this will be an invaluable resource to scientists, policymakers, and development specialists interested in global climate change and Africa.

The biology of deserts

Author: David Ward

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 339

View: 2442

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"This accessible text is suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in desert ecology. It will also appeal to researchers new to the field and to the many professional ecologists and conservation practitioners requiring a concise but authoritative overview of this fascinating habitat."--BOOK JACKET.

Guts and Brains

An Integrative Approach to the Hominin Record

Author: Wil Roebroeks

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9789087280147

Category: Social Science

Page: 277

View: 4061

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The human brain and its one hundred billion neurons compose the most complex organ in the body and harness more than 20% of all the energy we produce. Why do we have such large and energy-demanding brains, and how have we been able to afford such an expensive organ for thousands of years? Guts and Brains discusses the key variables at stake in such a question, including the relationship between brain size and diet, diet and social organization, and large brains and the human sexual division of labor. Showcasing how small changes in the diet of early hominins came to have large implications for the behavior of modern humans, this interdisciplinary volume provides an entry for the reader into understanding the development of both early primates and our own species.

Issues in Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2012 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1481645382

Category: Science

Page: 996

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Issues in Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. The editors have built Issues in Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Plant Nutrition and Soil Science in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals

Author: Peter John Ucko,G. W. Dimbleby

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 0202365573

Category: Social Science

Page: 581

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The domestication of plants and animals was one of the greatest steps forward taken by mankind. Although it was first achieved long ago, we still need to know what led to it and how, and even when, it took place. Only when we have this understanding will we be able to appreciate fully the important social and economic consequences of this step. Even more important, an understanding of this achievement is basic to any insight into modern man's relationship to his habitat. In the last decade or two a change in methods of investigating these events has taken place, due to the mutual realization by archaeologists and natural scientists that each held part of the key and neither alone had the whole. Inevitably, perhaps, the floodgate that was opened has resulted in a spate of new knowledge, which is scattered in the form of specialist reports in diverse journals. This volume results from presentations at the Institute of Archaeology, London University, discussing the domestication and exploitation of plants and animals. Workers in the archaeological, anthropological, and biological fields attempted to bridge the gap between their respective disciplines through personal contact and discussion. Modern techniques and the result of their application to the classical problems of domestication, selection, and spread of cereals and of cattle were discussed, but so were comparable problems in plants and animals not previously considered in this context. Although there were differing opinions on taxonomic classification, the editors have standardized and simplified the usage throughout this book. In particular, they have omitted references to authorities and adopted the binomial classification for both botanical and zoological names. They followed this procedure in all cases except where sub-specific differences are discussed and also standardized orthography of sites. Peter J. Ucko is professor emeritus of archaeology at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London. His research interests include the history of archaeology, prehistoric art and images, and interpretation of archaeological collections and site displays. G. W. Dimbleby (1917-2000) was Chair of Human Environment at the Institute of Archaeology, London University. He was the founding editor of the Journal of Archeological Science. Throughout his life he served on important committees such as Science-based Archaeology Committee of the Science Research Council and the Committee for Rescue Archaeology of the Ancient Monuments Board of England.

An African Savanna

Synthesis of the Nylsvley Study

Author: R. J. Scholes,B. H. Walker

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521612104

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 7363

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This book develops a unified vision of the ecology of dry savannas, a little studied ecosystem.

The Avian Migrant

The Biology of Bird Migration

Author: John H. Rappole

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231518633

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 5628

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The purpose of migration, regardless of the distance involved, is to exploit two or more environments suitable for survival or reproduction over time, usually on a seasonal basis. Yet individual organisms can practice the phenomenon differently, and birds deploy unique patterns of movement over particular segments of time. Incorporating the latest research on bird migration, this concise, critical assessment offers contemporary readers a firm grasp of what defines an avian migrant, how the organism came to be, what is known about its behavior, and how we can resolve its enduring mysteries. John H. Rappole's sophisticated survey of field data clarifies key ecological, biological, physiological, navigational, and evolutionary concerns. He begins with the very first migrants, who traded a home environment of greater stability for one of greater seasonality, and uses the structure of the annual cycle to examine the difference between migratory birds and their resident counterparts. He ultimately connects these differences to evolutionary milestones that have shaped a migrant lifestyle through natural selection. Rather than catalogue and describe various aspects of bird migration, Rappole considers how the avian migrant fits within a larger ecological frame, enabling a richer understanding of the phenomenon and its critical role in sustaining a hospitable and productive environment. Rappole concludes with a focus on population biology and conservation across time periods, considering the link between bird migration and the spread of disease among birds and humans, and the effects of global warming on migrant breeding ranges, reaction norms, and macroecology.