Alpine Biodiversity in Europe

Author: Laszlo Nagy,Georg Grabherr,Christian Körner,Desmond B.A. Thompson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642189679

Category: Science

Page: 479

View: 9703

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The United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, spawned a multitude of pro grammes aimed at assessing, managing and conserving the earth's biological diversity. One important issue addressed at the conference was the mountain environment. A specific feature of high mountains is the so-called alpine zone, i. e. the treeless regions at the uppermost reaches. Though covering only a very small proportion of the land surface, the alpine zone contains a rela tively large number of plants, animals, fungi and microbes which are specifi cally adapted to cold environments. This zone contributes fundamentally to the planet's biodiversity and provides many resources for mountain dwelling as well as lowland people. However, rapid and largely man-made changes are affecting mountain ecosystems, such as soil erosion, losses of habitat and genetic diversity, and climate change, all of which have to be addressed. As stated in the European Community Biodiversity Strategy, "the global scale of biodiversity reduction or losses and the interdependence of different species and ecosystems across national borders demands concerted international action". Managing biodiversity in a rational and sustainable way needs basic knowledge on its qualitative and quantitative aspects at local, regional and global scales. This is particularly true for mountains, which are distributed throughout the world and are indeed hot spots of biodiversity in absolute terms as well as relative to the surrounding lowlands.

The Biology of Disturbed Habitats

Author: Lawrence R. Walker

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199575290

Category: Science

Page: 319

View: 436

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Providing a global summary of the biology of disturbance ecology, this text offers both the conceptual underpinnings and practical advice required to comprehend and address the unprecedented environmental challenges facing humans. It examines both natural and anthropogenic disturbances in aquatic and terrestrial habitats.

Tropical Alpine Environments

Plant Form and Function

Author: Philip W. Rundel,Alan P. Smith,F. C. Meinzer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521420891

Category: Medical

Page: 376

View: 5810

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Plants growing in tropical alpine environments (at altitudes above the closed canopy forest and below the limit of plant life) have evolved distinct forms to cope with a hostile environment characterized by cold, drought and fire. Unlike temperate alpine environments, where there are distinct seasons of favourable and unfavourable conditions for growth, tropical alpine habitats present summer conditions every day and winter conditions every night. Using examples from all over the tropics, this fascinating account reviews, for the first time, the unique form and functional relationships of tropical alpine plants examining both their physiological ecology and population biology. It will appeal to anyone interested in tropical vegetation and plant physiological adaptations to hostile environment, as well as to researchers in biogeography and ecology.

Alpine Plant Life

Functional Plant Ecology of High Mountain Ecosystems

Author: Christian Körner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364298018X

Category: Science

Page: 343

View: 9725

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Generations of plant scientists have been fascinated by alpine plant lifean ecosystem that experiences dramatic climatic gradients over a very short distance. This comprehensive book examines a wide range of topics including alpine climate and soils, plant distribution and the treeline phenomenon, plant stress and development, global change at high elevation, and the human impact on alpine vegetation. Geographically, the book covers all parts of the world including the tropics.

The Biology of Peatlands, 2e

Author: Håkan Rydin,John K. Jeglum,J. K. Jeglum

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199602999

Category: Nature

Page: 382

View: 3046

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The Biology of Peatlands Second Edition provides a comprehensive overview of peatland ecosystems, examining the entire range of biota (microbes, invertebrates, plants and vertebrates) present in this habitat and considering management, conservation and restoration issues. The second edition has been fully revised and updated with the latest research.

The Biology of Disturbed Habitats

Author: Lawrence R. Walker

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199575290

Category: Science

Page: 319

View: 483

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Providing a global summary of the biology of disturbance ecology, this text offers both the conceptual underpinnings and practical advice required to comprehend and address the unprecedented environmental challenges facing humans. It examines both natural and anthropogenic disturbances in aquatic and terrestrial habitats.

The Biology of Caves and Other Subterranean Habitats

Author: David C. Culver,Tanja Pipan

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191551457

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 5098

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Caves and other subterranean habitats with their often strange (even bizarre) inhabitants have long been objects of fascination, curiosity, and debate. The question of how such organisms have evolved, and the relative roles of natural selection and genetic drift, has engaged subterranean biologists for decades. Indeed, these studies continue to inform the more general question of adaptation and evolution. However, interest in subterranean biology is not limited to questions of evolutionary biology. Both the distribution and the apparent ancient age of many subterranean species continue to be of significant interest to biogeographers. Subterranean ecosystems generally exhibit little or no primary productivity and, as "extreme" ecosystems, provide general insights into ecosystem function. Furthermore, the simplicity of subterranean communities relative to most surface-dwelling communities makes them useful model systems for the study of species interactions such as competition and predation, as well as more general principles of ecosystem function. The rarity of many cave species makes them of special interest in conservation biology. The Biology of Caves and other Subterranean Habitats offers a concise but comprehensive introduction to cave ecology. Whilst there is an emphasis on the organisms that dominate this unique environment, conservation and management aspects are also considered. The book includes a global range of examples and case studies from both caves and non-cave subterranean habitats; it also provides a clear explanation of specialized terms used by speleologists. This accessible text will appeal to researchers new to the field and to the many professional ecologists and conservation practitioners requiring a concise but authoritative overview. Its engaging style will also make it suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in cave and subterranean biology.

Mountain Goats

Ecology, Behavior, and Conservation of an Alpine Ungulate

Author: Marco Festa-Bianchet,Steeve D. Côté

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781597267731

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 4237

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Mountain goats have been among the least studied of North American ungulates, leaving wildlife managers with little information on which to base harvest strategies or conservation plans. This book offers the first comprehensive assessment of the ecology and behavior of mountain goats, setting forth the results of a remarkable 16-year longitudinal study of more than 300 marked individuals in a population in Alberta, Canada. The authors’ thorough, long-term study allowed them to draw important conclusions about mountain goat ecology—including individual reproductive strategies, population dynamics, and sensitivity to human disturbance—and to use those conclusions in offering guidance for developing effective conservation strategies. Chapters examine: -habitat use, vegetation quality, and seasonal movements -sexual segregation and social organization -individual variability in yearly and lifetime reproductive success of females -age- and sex-specific survival and dispersal -reproductive strategies and population dynamics -management and conservation of mountain goats The book also draws on the rich literature on long-term monitoring of marked ungulates to explore similarities and differences between mountain goats and other species, particularly bighorn sheep and ibex. By monitoring a marked population over a long period of time, researchers were able to document changes in sex-age structure and identify factors driving population dynamics. Because it explores the links between individual life-history strategy and population dynamics in a natural setting, Mountain Goats will be an invaluable resource for wildlife managers, researchers in ecology and animal behavior, conservationists, population biologists, and anyone concerned with the ecology and management of natural populations, especially in alpine environments.

Alpine Plants of the Northwest

Wyoming to Alaska

Author: Jim Pojar,Andrew MacKinnon,Rosamund A. Pojar,Curtis Björk,Hans Roemer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781551058924

Category: Nature

Page: 527

View: 8637

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Two of the Northwests most respected nature writers have collaborated once again to produce an outstanding field guide to the plants that grow at high elevation, above the tree line, in the mountain systems of the Western Cordillera. The book features more than 500 plants found in the alpine regions of western North America. MacKinnons and Pojars rich and engaging notes on each species include descriptions of the unique characteristics of each plant, as well as of its habitat and range. The book features full-colour photographs throughout. Whether you are a professional botanist, a mountain guide, an amateur naturalist or simply an outdoor enthusiast who loves to brave the high country, you will find this book of immense value. Among other virtues, it will help to enhance your appreciation of the fragility and vitality of this unique group of plants, and to realise the need for care and responsibility when navigating alpine meadows and mountain slopes.

Habitat Suitability and Distribution Models

with Applications in R

Author: Antoine Guisan,Wilfried Thuiller,Niklaus E. Zimmermann

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521765137

Category: Nature

Page: 498

View: 2947

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This book introduces the key stages of niche-based habitat suitability model building, evaluation and prediction required for understanding and predicting future patterns of species and biodiversity. Beginning with the main theory behind ecological niches and species distributions, the book proceeds through all major steps of model building, from conceptualization and model training to model evaluation and spatio-temporal predictions. Extensive examples using R support graduate students and researchers in quantifying ecological niches and predicting species distributions with their own data, and help to address key environmental and conservation problems. Reflecting this highly active field of research, the book incorporates the latest developments from informatics and statistics, as well as using data from remote sources such as satellite imagery. A website at www.unil.ch/hsdm contains the codes and supporting material required to run the examples and teach courses.

Alpine Plants

Ecology for Gardeners

Author: J. E. G. Good,D. Millward

Publisher: Timber Press (OR)

ISBN: N.A

Category: Gardening

Page: 176

View: 3437

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A concise introduction to the science behind the success of alpine plants, this fascinating and accessible book will enable gardeners to tailor their cultivation practices in lowland gardens to mimic the alpine habitat as closely as possible.

Shallow Subterranean Habitats

Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation

Author: David C. Culver,Tanja Pipan

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199646171

Category: Science

Page: 258

View: 6985

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Shallow subterranean habitats (SSHs) are areas of habitable space that are less than 10 m in depth from the surface. These range from large areas such as shallow caves and lava tubes, to tiny areas such as cracks in ceilings, or spaces in soil. Whilst being very different in many ways, they are often bound together by shared characteristics of the habitats and their faunas, and their study can help us to understand subterranean habitats in general. This book concentrates on the more typical SSHs of intermediate size (seepage springs, spaces between rocks, cracks in lava etc.), describing the habitats, their fauna, and the ecological and evolutionary questions posed. Similarities and differences between the habitats are considered and discussed in a broader ecological and evolutionary context. The book is mainly aimed at students and researchers in the field of subterranean biology, but will also be of interest to a wider range of ecologists, evolutionary biologists, freshwater biologists, and conservationists. There will also be an audience of environmental professionals.

Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Grouse

Published for the Cooper Ornithological Society

Author: Brett K. Sandercock,Kathy Martin,Gernot Segelbacher

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520950577

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 336

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Grouse—an ecologically important group of birds that include capercaillie, prairie chickens, and ptarmigan—are distributed throughout the forests, grasslands, and tundra of Europe, Asia, and North America. Today, many grouse populations are in decline, and the conservation and management of these charismatic birds is becoming a global concern. This volume summarizes current knowledge of grouse biology in 25 chapters contributed by 80 researchers from field studies around the world. Organized in four sections—Spatial Ecology, Habitat Relationships, Population Biology, and Conservation and Management—the chapters offer important insights into spatial requirements, movements, and demography of grouse. Much of the research employs emerging tools in ecology that span biogeochemistry, molecular genetics, endocrinology, radio-telemetry, and remote sensing. The chapters explore topics including the impacts of climate change, energy development, and harvest, and give new evidence for life-history changes in response to human activities.

The Biology of Peatlands, 2e

Author: Håkan Rydin,John K. Jeglum

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191508292

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 1034

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Peatlands form important landscape elements in many parts of the world and play significant roles for biodiversity and global carbon balance. This new edition has been fully revised and updated, documenting the latest advances in areas such as microbial processes and relations between biological processes and hydrology. As well as thoroughly referencing the latest research, the authors expose a rich older literature where an immense repository of natural history has accumulated. The Biology of Peatlands starts with an overview of the main peatland types (marsh, swamp, fen, and bog), before examining the entire range of biota present (microbes, invertebrates, plants, and vertebrates), together with their specific adaptations to peatland habitats. Detailed coverage is devoted to the genus Sphagnum, the most important functional plant group in northern peatlands, although tropical and southern hemisphere peatlands are also covered. Throughout the book the interactions between organisms and environmental conditions (especially wetness, availability of oxygen, and pH) are emphasized, with chapters on the physical and chemical characteristics of peat, the role of peat as an archive of past vegetation and climate, and peatland succession and development. Several other key factors and processes are then examined, including hydrology and nutrient cycling. The fascinating peatland landforms in different parts of the world are described, together with theories on how they have developed. Human interactions with peatlands are considered in terms of management, conservation, and restoration. A final chapter, new to this edition, focuses on the role of peatlands as sources or sinks for the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane, and the influences of climate change on peatlands. This timely and accessible text is suitable for students and researchers of peatland ecology, as well as providing an authoritative overview for professional ecologists and conservation biologists.

Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates

Author: James H. Thorp

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123748550

Category: Science

Page: 1021

View: 1436

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The third edition of Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates continues the tradition of in-depth coverage of the biology, ecology, phylogeny, and identification of freshwater invertebrates from the USA and Canada. This text serves as an authoritative single source for a broad coverage of the anatomy, physiology, ecology, and phylogeny of all major groups of invertebrates in inland waters of North America, north of Mexico.

The Biology of Coral Reefs

Author: Charles Sheppard,Simon Davy,Nicholas Graham,Graham Pilling

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198787340

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 1404

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Coral reefs represent the most spectacular and diverse marine ecosystem on the planet as well as a critical source of income for millions of people. However, the combined effects of human activity have led to a rapid decline in the health of reefs worldwide, with many now facing complete destruction. Their world-wide deterioration and over-exploitation has continued and even accelerated in many areas since the publication of the first edition in 2009. At the same time, there has been a near doubling in the number of scientific papers that have been written in this short time about coral reef biology and the ability to acclimate to ocean warming and acidification. This new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, incorporating the significant increase in knowledge gained over the last decade whilst retaining the book's focus as a concise and affordable overview of the field. The Biology of Coral Reefs provides an integrated overview of the function, physiology, ecology, and behaviour of coral reef organisms. Each chapter is enriched with a selection of 'boxes' on specific aspects written by internationally recognised experts. As with other books in the Biology of Habitats Series, the emphasis in this book is on the organisms that dominate this marine environment although pollution, conservation, climate change, and experimental aspects are also included. Indeed, particular emphasis is placed on conservation and management due to the habitat's critically endangered status. A global range of examples is employed which gives the book international relevance.

Cold-Adapted Organisms

Ecology, Physiology, Enzymology and Molecular Biology

Author: Rosa Margesin,Franz Schinner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662062852

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 8041

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Representing the latest knowledge of the ecology and the physiology of cold-adapted microorganisms, plants and animals, this book explains the mechanisms of cold-adaptation on the enzymatic and molecular level, including results from the first crystal structures of enzymes of cold-adapted organisms.

Birds and Habitat

Relationships in Changing Landscapes

Author: Robert J. Fuller

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521897564

Category: Nature

Page: 542

View: 4352

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Synthesises important concepts, patterns and issues relating to avian habitat selection, drawing on examples from Europe, North America and Australia.

Snow Leopards

Biodiversity of the World: Conservation from Genes to Landscapes

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128024968

Category: Nature

Page: 644

View: 497

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Snow Leopards: Biodiversity of the World: Conservation from Genes to Landscapes is the only comprehensive work on the biology, behavior, and conservation status of the snow leopard, a species that has long been one of the least studied, and hence poorly understood, of the large cats. Breakthroughs in technologies and methodologies to study this elusive cat have come rapidly, including non-invasive genetics, camera traps, and GPS-satellite collaring. The book begins with chapters on the genetic standing and taxonomy of the snow leopard, followed by chapters on their behavior and ecology. Additional contributions follow on the current and emerging threats to the species, which include longstanding concerns, such as poaching and conflicts with livestock, and new and emerging threats such as mining and climate change. A section on conservation solutions, backed by valuable case studies, starts with an overview of the important role mountain communities play in assuring the snow leopard’s long-term persistence. In addition, chapters on the role of captive snow leopards for the conservation of the species, state-of-the-art techniques and technologies for studying and monitoring snow leopards, status reports from around the region, and future perspectives, such as transboundary conservation initiatives, international conventions (CITES, CMS, etc.), the role of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group and the Snow Leopard Network, and undertakings such as the Global Snow Leopard Forum facilitated by the World Bank are also included. Serves as the first and only comprehensive book on the biology, behavior, and conservation status of the snow leopard Brings together the most current scientific knowledge, documents the most pressing conservation issues, and shares success stories in alleviating the broad threats that now jeopardize the long-term survival of this species Brings current knowledge of the species, not only to researchers and conservationists, but also to decision makers, academics, and students Edited by recognized snow leopard experts, with more than 50 years of collective experience in research and conservation of the species