The Biology of Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

Author: Karen J. Esler,Anna L. Jacobsen,R. Brandon Pratt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198739133

Category:

Page: 352

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The world's mediterranean-type climate regions (including areas within the Mediterranean, South Africa, Australia, California, and Chile) have long been of interest to biologists by virtue of their extraordinary biodiversity and the appearance of evolutionary convergence between thesedisparate regions. These regions contain many rare and endemic species. Their mild climate makes them appealing places to live and visit and this has resulted in numerous threats to the species and communities that occupy them. Threats include a wide range of factors such as habitat loss due todevelopment and agriculture, disturbance, invasive species, and climate change. As a result, they continue to attract far more attention than their limited geographic area might suggest. This book provides a concise but comprehensive introduction to mediterranean-type ecosystems. As with other booksin the Biology of Habitats Series, the emphasis in this book is on the organisms that dominate these regions although their management, conservation, and restoration are also considered. The book is intended for students, naturalists, practitioners, and professionals without any previous knowledge of mediterranean-type ecosystem ecology. It is an accessible text suitable for graduate students and researchers of mediterranean-type ecosystem ecology and geography, as well asprofessional ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and conservation biologists requiring a concise, authoritative overview of the topic.

Mediterranean Type Ecosystems

Origin and Structure

Author: Francesco Di Castri

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780387061061

Category: Bioclimatology

Page: 405

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Historical view of the concept of ecosystem convergence. Vegetation in Mediterranean climate regions. Soil systems in Mediterranean climate regions. Plant biogeography. Animal biogeography and ecological niche. Human activities affecting Mediterranean ecosystems.

Fire in Mediterranean Ecosystems

Author: Jon E. Keeley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521824915

Category: Science

Page: 515

View: 1567

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Explores the role of fire in Mediterranean-type climate ecosystems, providing unique insights into the assembly and evolutionary convergence of ecosystems.

Landscape Disturbance and Biodiversity in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

Author: Philip W. Rundel,Gloria Montenegro,Fabian Jaksic

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 366203543X

Category: Science

Page: 451

View: 6625

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Human impact on natural landscapes through urbanization and agricultural expansion are becoming more and more dramatic and are the cause of serious environmental problems. This volume examines the effect of landscape disturbance on plant and animal diversity in the five mediterranean-climate regions of the world. It begins with three introductory chapters broadly reviewing the issues of landscape degradation. Further contributions describe regional land use conflicts in each of the five regions. Landscape disturbance and plant diversity, and landscape disturbance and animal diversity are treated in separate chapters. Four contributions deal with demography and ecophysiology in vegetation succession following disturbance. The volume closes with a consideration of the future addressing aspects of environmental politics.

Mediterranean-type Ecosystems

A data source book

Author: R.L. Specht,Philip Rundel,W.E. Westman,P.C. Catling,Jonathan Majer,Penelope Greenslade

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400930992

Category: Science

Page: 248

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The regions of the world which experience a mediterranean type climate, with a cool wet season alternating with a hot dry summer, contain some of the world's most attractive landscapes. In the Old World, the mediterranean landscapes became the cradle of civilization; other mediterranean areas of the world have attracted considerable populations for many centuries. These large human populations have exerted consid erable stress on the fragile ecosystems which developed in these sunny, but droughted, fire-prone land scapes. The mediterranean landscape has thus become one of the most threatened in the world. In recent years much has been learned about the structure and function of mediterranean-type ecosystems (Di Castri and Mooney 1973, Mooney 1977, Thrower and Bradbury 1977, Mooney and Conrad 1977, Specht 1979, 1981, Miller 1981, Di Castri et at. 1981, Conrad and Oeche11982, Queze11982, Margaris and Mooney 1981, Kruger et ai. 1983, Long and Pons 1984, Dell et ai. 1986, Tenhunen et ai. 1987). Much of this research has been fostered under the International Biological Program (IBP), UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) and, recently, the International Society of Mediterranean Ecologists (ISOMED). To facilitate intercontinental comparisons, many of these studies have concentrated on a limited number of intensive sites thought to be representative of a general region.

Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

The Role of Nutrients

Author: F.J. Kruger,D.T. Mitchell,J.U.M. Jarvis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642689353

Category: Science

Page: 556

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The theory of ecological convergence underlies the biogeographers' maps of world biome-types. It also determines the degree to which ecological principles, derived from research on particular populations, communities or ecosystems, are generally valid, and hence also to what extent resource management principles are general. To quote Di Castri and Mooney (1973): "In effect, in order to assess the transfer of technology, it is essential to know to what extent information acquired from studying one particular ecosystem is applicable to another ecosystem of the same type but situated in a different location. " The five relatively small, isolated, mediterranean-climate zones of the earth, each with its distinct fauna and flora, have provided the ideal testing grounds for this theory. A heritage of precisely focused ecosystems research has resulted, beginning with the international comparative analyses conducted by Specht (l969a, b) but with antecedents in earlier studies in South Australia (Specht and Rayson 1957, Specht 1973). Cody and Mooney (1978) reviewed the information available at the time for the four zones excepting Australia and concluded that the arrays of strategy-types to be found among the different biotas were so similar that they could be explained only in terms of the convergence hypothesis; nevertheless, evident differences in community organization and dynamics, especially phenol ogy, required closer study of resource availability and resource-use patterns to better explain relations between form and function overall, and to assess the degree of convergence at higher levels of organization than the population.

Biodiversity of mediterranean ecosystems in Australia

Author: Richard J. Hobbs

Publisher: Surrey Beatty and Sons

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 246

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Collection of papers written following a workshop on the ecosystem function of biodiversity in Mediterranean ecosystems of Australia, held by the CSIRO in Perth in December 1991. Discusses such topics as the impact of changes in land use and climate. Each chapter includes a list of references. The editor is a principal research scientist with CSIRO's Division of Wildlife and Ecology in Perth.

Mediterranean Oak Woodland Working Landscapes

Dehesas of Spain and Ranchlands of California

Author: Pablo Campos,Lynn Huntsinger,Jose Luis Oviedo,Paul F Starrs,Mario Diaz,Richard B Standiford,Gregorio Montero

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400767072

Category: Science

Page: 508

View: 7029

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The oak tree was a boon companion as humans expanded their presence across much of the globe. While oak woodlands (Quercus spp.) come today in stunningly diverse forms, the stately dehesas of Spain and the dramatic oak-dominated ranchlands of California are working landscapes where cultivation and manipulation for a couple of millennia have shaped Mediterranean-type ecosystems into a profoundly modified yet productive environment that is sought-after by every manner of species. The grazing of wildlife and livestock in oak woodlands yields a remarkable plant and animal biodiversity, creating a mosaic of habitats and visually pleasing savannas. Added products unique to Spain such as Iberian pigs and cork, and in California multiple landowner benefits, include valued ecosystem services that allow owners, visitors, and conservation supporters to experience the benefits of woodland life. With its 15 chapters a decade in the making, this handsomely illustrated book covers key topics in oak woodland policy, ecology, and management in Spain and California, presenting new research results and reviewing an existing expert literature.

The Biology of Coastal Sand Dunes

Author: M. Anwar Maun

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198570368

Category: Nature

Page: 265

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A concise but comprehensive introduction to the biology of coastal sand dunes. The emphasis in this book is on the organisms that dominate this predominantly marine environment, although pollution, conservation, management and experimental aspects are considered.

Invasion Dynamics

Author: Cang Hui,David M. Richardson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191062537

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 5601

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Humans have moved organisms around the world for centuries but it is only relatively recently that invasion ecology has grown into a mainstream research field. This book examines both the spread and impact dynamics of invasive species, placing the science of invasion biology on a new, more rigorous, theoretical footing, and proposing a concept of adaptive networks as the foundation for future research. Biological invasions are considered not as simple actions of invaders and reactions of invaded ecosystems, but as co-evolving complex adaptive systems with emergent features of network complexity and invasibility. Invasion Dynamics focuses on the ecology of invasive species and their impacts in recipient social-ecological systems. It discusses not only key advances and challenges within the traditional domain of invasion ecology, but introduces approaches, concepts, and insights from many other disciplines such as complexity science, systems science, and ecology more broadly. It will be of great value to invasion biologists analyzing spread and/or impact dynamics as well as other ecologists interested in spread processes or habitat management.

Mediterranean Ecogeography

Author: Harriett Allen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317877136

Category: Science

Page: 286

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A core textbook series that aims to provide students with accessible, up-to-date accounts of Ecogeography - the marriage of ecology with geography - in the primary terrestrial and marine environments. This is the first book in the series on Mediterranean Ecogeography. Biological diversity in the Mediterranean Basin is amongst the highest of any region on earth, both in terms of total species numbers and endemism. The flora is estimated at about 25,000 species of flowering plants and ferns, compared with about 6000 species in non-Mediterranean Europe. About 50% of these are endemic. Diversity amongst vertebrate animals is also high, though endemism rates are lower than for plants. The high levels of diversity contribute to, and are a reflection of, the considerable variability of landscape. This results from a combination of factors including geological and tectonic history, relief and physiography, climate, geomorphological processes, hydrology, soils, the incidence of fires and impact of human activities. The landscapes of the Mediterranean Basin are thus varied and fragmented; a mosaic of ecosystems and communities. Mediterranean Ecogeography aims to examine and explain this heterogeneity, and the approach is focused on the ecogeography of the region. Analysing the factors which account for the present distributions of plants and animals, and the functioning of ecosystems within the Mediterranean Basin can help in the understanding of the relationship between people and natural ecosystems. A key to the conservation of these ecosystems is the wise use of resources, biological and physical. In addition, it is vital to assess how the natural environments of the region will respond to further change. In the last twenty years, understanding of the functioning of mediterranean-type ecosystems has advanced through several international projects. This book draws upon the findings of these, and other research in the Mediterranean Basin, to present a comprehensive text on a key region of the world, and the problems and prospects of its environmental exploitation.

Histories of Bioinvasions in the Mediterranean

Author: Ana Isabel Queiroz,Simon Pooley

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319749862

Category: Nature

Page: 260

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Bioinvasions is a current top research subject for natural sciences, social sciences and humanities and a major concern for conservationists, land managers and planners. In the last decades, new findings, perspectives and practices have revealed the multifaceted challenges of preventing new introductions and dealing with those invasive species that harm natural ecosystems, economy and human welfare. This book brings together environmental historians and natural scientists to share their studies and experiences on the human dimensions of biological invasions from the ancient past to the current challenges. The collection of papers focuses on the Mediterranean region and deals with aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems on the mainland and islands, ranging from marine and freshwater environments to coastal marshlands and forests. A wide diversity of animals and plants are featured, from marine fishes to marine and freshwater crustaceans, invertebrates, reptiles and amphibians, birds and mammals, to grasses, shrubs and trees. This book is a contribution to the scientific debate on how to deal with the historical dimensions of biological invasions, fostering dialogue between cultural and ecological explanations of environmental change, to inform environmental policy and management. It has been organized in three sections: the first is the editors’ introduction, in which they review the existing literature and highlight relevant concepts and ideas; the second is about alien species in the Mediterranean region; the third includes cases from other Mediterranean-type regions.

Global Warming and Biological Diversity

Author: Robert L. Peters,Thomas E. Lovejoy

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300059304

Category: Science

Page: 386

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This book discusses in detail the consequences of global warming for ecosystems and includes commentary by distinguished scientists on many aspects of this critical problem.

Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground

Author: L.R. Walker

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080550848

Category: Science

Page: 868

View: 4058

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As the human population inexorably grows, its cumulative impact on the Earth's resources is hard to ignore. The ability of the Earth to support more humans is dependent on the ability of humans to manage natural resources wisely. Because disturbance alters resource levels, effective management requires understanding of the ecology of disturbance. This book is the first to take a global approach to the description of both natural and anthropogenic disturbance regimes that physically impact the ground. Natural disturbances such as erosion, volcanoes, wind, herbivory, flooding and drought plus anthropogenic disturbances such as foresty, grazing, mining, urbanization and military actions are considered. Both disturbance impacts and the biotic recovery are addressed as well as the interactions of different types of disturbance. Other chapters cover processes that are important to the understanding of disturbance of all types including soil processes, nutrient cycles, primary productivity, succession, animal behaviour and competition. Humans react to disturbances by avoiding, exacerbating, or restoring them or by passing environmental legislation. All of these issues are covered in this book. Managers need better predictive models and robust data-collections that help determine both site-specfic and generalized responses to disturbance. Multiple disturbances have a complex effect on both physical and biotic processes as they interact. This book provides a wealth of detail about the process of disturbance and recovery as well as a synthesis of the current state of knowledge about disturbance theory, with extensive documentation.

Plant-animal interactions in Mediterranean-type ecosystems

Author: Margarita Arianoutsou-Faraggitaki,R.H. Groves

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401109087

Category: Science

Page: 184

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The Sixth International Conference on Mediterranean Climate ecosystems was held at Maleme (Crete), Greece, from September 23 to September 27, 1991. This conference had as its theme 'Plant-Animal Interactions in Mediterranean-type Ecosystems'. Most of the papers presented to that meeting have already been published (see Thanos, C.A. ed., 1992, Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems, Athens, 389 pp.). These 57 papers were all necessarily short. But the theme of plant-animal interactions was considered by the Organizing Committee to be so important to a fundamental understanding of the ecology of Mediterranean-climate ecosystems and to an enhanced management ·of those systems that various international research scientists were invited to prepare longer contributions on major aspects of the overall theme. The Book that follows represents the result of those invitations. All five regions of Mediterranean climate are represented - Chile, California, southern Australia and the Cape Province of South Africa, as well as the Mediterranean Basin itself.

The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses

Author: Peter J. Hogarth

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191025917

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 9023

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Mangroves and seagrasses form extensive and highly productive ecosystems that are both biologically diverse and economically valuable. This book, now in its third edition and fully updated throughout, continues to provide a current and comprehensive introduction to all aspects of the biology and ecology of mangroves and seagrasses. Using a global range of examples and case studies, it describes the unique adaptations of these plants to their exacting environments; the rich and diverse communities of organisms that depend on mangrove forests and seagrass meadows (including tree-climbing shrimps, synchronously flashing fireflies, and 'gardening' seacows); the links between mangrove, seagrass, and other habitats; and the evolution, biodiversity, and biogeography of mangroves and seagrasses. The economic value of mangroves and seagrasses is also discussed, including approaches to rational management of these vital resources and techniques for the restoration of degraded habitats. A final chapter, new to this edition, examines the potential effects of global climate change including sea level rise. As with other titles in the Biology of Habitats Series, particular emphasis is placed on the organisms that dominate these fascinating aquatic ecosystems although pollution, conservation, and experimental aspects are also considered. This accessible textbook assumes no previous knowledge of mangrove or seagrass ecology and is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professional ecologists, conservation practitioners, and resource managers.

Fire and Ecosystems

Author: T.T. Kozlowski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323146171

Category: Science

Page: 556

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Fire and Ecosystems focuses on a number of aspects of fire ecology. This book deals separately with both harmful and beneficial effects of fire on soils, soil organisms, animals, and plants. This reference material elucidates the effects of fire on grasslands and considers the role of fire in temperate forests and related ecosystems. Four chapters are presented on a regional basis to highlight variations in responses, especially plant succession, to fire. The use of fire in land management is also explored. This book will serve as an invaluable reference material to researchers, teachers, and land managers.