The Biology of Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

Author: Karen J. Esler,Anna L. Jacobsen,R. Brandon Pratt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019105965X

Category: Science

Page: 368

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The world's mediterranean-type climate regions (including areas within the Mediterranean, South Africa, Australia, California, and Chile) have long been of interest to biologists by virtue of their extraordinary biodiversity and the appearance of evolutionary convergence between these disparate regions. These regions contain many rare and endemic species. Their mild climate makes them appealing places to live and visit and this has resulted in numerous threats to the species and communities that occupy them. Threats include a wide range of factors such as habitat loss due to development and agriculture, disturbance, invasive species, and climate change. As a result, they continue to attract far more attention than their limited geographic area might suggest. This book provides a concise but comprehensive introduction to mediterranean-type ecosystems. It is an accessible text which provides an authoritative overview of the topic. As with other books in the Biology of Habitats Series, the emphasis in this book is on the organisms that dominate these regions although their management, conservation, and restoration are also considered.

Landscape Disturbance and Biodiversity in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

Author: Philip W. Rundel,Gloria Montenegro,Fabian M. Jaksic

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 366203543X

Category: Science

Page: 451

View: 1328

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Human impact on natural landscapes through urbanization and agricultural expansion are becoming more and more dramatic and are the cause of serious environmental problems. This volume examines the effect of landscape disturbance on plant and animal diversity in the five mediterranean-climate regions of the world. It begins with three introductory chapters broadly reviewing the issues of landscape degradation. Further contributions describe regional land use conflicts in each of the five regions. Landscape disturbance and plant diversity, and landscape disturbance and animal diversity are treated in separate chapters. Four contributions deal with demography and ecophysiology in vegetation succession following disturbance. The volume closes with a consideration of the future addressing aspects of environmental politics.

Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

The Role of Nutrients

Author: F.J. Kruger,D.T. Mitchell,J.U.M. Jarvis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642689353

Category: Science

Page: 556

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The theory of ecological convergence underlies the biogeographers' maps of world biome-types. It also determines the degree to which ecological principles, derived from research on particular populations, communities or ecosystems, are generally valid, and hence also to what extent resource management principles are general. To quote Di Castri and Mooney (1973): "In effect, in order to assess the transfer of technology, it is essential to know to what extent information acquired from studying one particular ecosystem is applicable to another ecosystem of the same type but situated in a different location. " The five relatively small, isolated, mediterranean-climate zones of the earth, each with its distinct fauna and flora, have provided the ideal testing grounds for this theory. A heritage of precisely focused ecosystems research has resulted, beginning with the international comparative analyses conducted by Specht (l969a, b) but with antecedents in earlier studies in South Australia (Specht and Rayson 1957, Specht 1973). Cody and Mooney (1978) reviewed the information available at the time for the four zones excepting Australia and concluded that the arrays of strategy-types to be found among the different biotas were so similar that they could be explained only in terms of the convergence hypothesis; nevertheless, evident differences in community organization and dynamics, especially phenol ogy, required closer study of resource availability and resource-use patterns to better explain relations between form and function overall, and to assess the degree of convergence at higher levels of organization than the population.

Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

The Function of Biodiversity

Author: George W. Davis,David M. Richardson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642788815

Category: Science

Page: 366

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Human activities are causing species extinctions at a rate and magnitude rivaling those of past geologic extinction events. Exploring mediterranean-type ecosystems - the Mediterranean Basin, California, Chile, Australia, and South Africa - this volume addresses the question whether biological diversity plays a significant role in the functioning of natural ecosystems, and to what extent that diversity can be reduced without causing system malfunction. Comparative studies in ecosystems that are similar in certain respects, but differ in others, offer considerable scope for gaining new insights into the links between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change

Author: James S. Clark,Helene Cachier,Johann G. Goldammer,Brian J. Stocks

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364259171X

Category: Science

Page: 492

View: 4696

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Biomass burning profoundly affects atmospheric chemistry, the carbon cycle, and climate and may have done so for millions of years. Bringing together renowned experts from paleoecology, fire ecology, atmospheric chemistry, and organic chemistry, the volume elucidates the role of fire during global changes of the past and future. Topics covered include: the characterization of combustion products that occur in sediments, including char, soot/fly ash, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; the calibration of these constituents against atmospheric measurements from wildland and prescribed fire emissions; spatial and temporal patterns in combustion emissions at scales of individual burns to the globe.

Global Change and Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems

Author: Jose Moreno,Walter C. Oechel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 527

View: 7269

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Regions with Mediterranean-type climates include parts of California, South America, Australia, and of course, Europe. The effect of global climate change on these heavily populated areas will have major social and political ramifications. This volume addresses issues in these areas, from processes at the leaf level to the individual, ecosystem, and landscape levels. This book will serve to raise awareness on the significance of these types of ecosystems, and on their sensitivity to the threat that global change represents.

Biology and Wildlife of the Mediterranean Region

Author: Jacques Blondel,James Aronson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198500351

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 1082

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The Mediterranean is an outstanding 'hot-spot' of biological diversity. It is exceptional not only for this, but also because of its long history of interactions between its human inhabitants and the other fauna and flora of the region. The cradle of many civilizations, the Mediterranean region has been host to humans for thousands of years. This book is the first to synthesise our current understanding of the ecology, biology, and geology of Mediterranean animals, birds, and plants, and their habitats. The authors focus on the unique historical determinants and spatial patterns of Mediterranean biodiversity. In particular, the dramatic impacts of long-term human activities on the region's landscapes, flora, and fauna, are considered. This fascinating story will be of interest to researchers and students in ecology, biology, conservation, and geography, as well as to naturalists, and ecotourists visiting this popular holiday region.

Mediterranean Island Landscapes

Natural and Cultural Approaches

Author: Ioannis N. Vogiatzakis,Gloria Pungetti,A.M. Mannion

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402050640

Category: Science

Page: 369

View: 8740

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Mediterranean islands exhibit many similarities in their biotic ecological, physical and environmental characteristics. There are also many differences in terms of their human colonization and current anthropogenic pressures. This book addresses in three sections these characteristics and examines the major environmental changes that the islands experienced during the Quaternary period. The first section provides details on natural and cultural factors which have shaped island landscapes. It describes the environmental and cultural changes of the Holocene and their effects on biota, as well as on the current human pressures that are now threats to the sustainability of the island communities. The second section focuses on the landscapes of the largest islands namely Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Cyprus, Crete, Malta and the Balearics. Each island chapter includes a special topic reflecting a particular characteristic of the island. Part three presents strategies for action towards sustainability in Mediterranean islands and concludes with a comparison between the largest islands. Despite several published books on Mediterranean ecosystems/landscapes there is no existing book dealing with Mediterranean islands in a collective manner. Students, researchers and university lecturers in environmental science, geography, biology and ecology will find this work invaluable as a cross-disciplinary text while planners and politicians will welcome the succinct summaries as background material to planning decisions.

Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology

The Legacy of Charles Elton

Author: David M. Richardson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444330004

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 3268

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Invasion ecology is the study of the causes and consequences of the introduction of organisms to areas outside their native range. Interest in this field has exploded in the past few decades. Explaining why and how organisms are moved around the world, how and why some become established and invade, and how best to manage invasive species in the face of global change are all crucial issues that interest biogeographers, ecologists and environmental managers in all parts of the world. This book brings together the insights of more than 50 authors to examine the origins, foundations, current dimensions and potential trajectories of invasion ecology. It revisits key tenets of the foundations of invasion ecology, including contributions of pioneering naturalists of the 19th century, including Charles Darwin and British ecologist Charles Elton, whose 1958 monograph on invasive species is widely acknowledged as having focussed scientific attention on biological invasions.

Progress in Botany

Author: Karl Esser,Ulrich Lüttge,Wolfram Beyschlag,Jin Murata

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540407218

Category: Science

Page: 628

View: 1149

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With one volume each year, this series keeps scientists and advanced students informed of the latest developments and results in all areas of the plant sciences. The present volume includes reviews on genetics, cell biology, physiology, comparative morphology, systematics, ecology, and vegetation science.

Energy Research Abstracts

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Power resources

Page: N.A

View: 7087

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Includes all works deriving from DOE, other related government-sponsored information and foreign nonnuclear information.

Terrestrial Global Productivity

Author: Jacques Roy,Bernard Saugier,Harold A. Mooney

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780125052900

Category: Science

Page: 573

View: 1564

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As the global climate changes, there are concomitant changes in global biological productivity. This book is devoted to the assessment of terrestrial Net Primary Productivity ("the total amount of energy acquired by green plants during photosynthesis, minus the energy lost through respiration"--APDS&T, pp. 1457). The book is comprised of three major sections. The first section is a review of the processes that operate globally to influence productivity--these are the initial conditions of any model of primary productivity. The second section is comprised of chapters that assess the contribution of particular ecosystems to global productivity. The final major section contains chapters of a synthetic nature that describe attempts to model global productivity. This book should appeal to both ecologists and environmental scientists.

Biological Invasions

A Global Perspective

Author: F. di Castri,R. H. Groves,F. J. Kruger,M. Rejm?nek,M. Williamson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 525

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Surveys the state-of-knowledge concerning the dramatic rearrangement of the Earth's biota over the past few centuries. An international group of contributors examines animals, plants, and microorganisms that have been successful invaders in nonagricultural regions, with emphasis on those that have disrupted ecosystem function. Presents reports from Great Britain, the Continent, the Mediterranean, Africa, and the U.S., including an overview of cross-continental comparisons.

Plant Invaders

The Threat to Natural Ecosystems

Author: Quentin C.B. Cronk,Janice L. Fuller

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134203586

Category: Nature

Page: 256

View: 9099

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A practical guide to the protection and management of ecosystems against invasions by non-indigenous plant species. The authors seek to offer an accessible account of the subject and how to protect natural habitats. The majority of countries suffer from invasive plants and there are case studies from North America, Europe, Australia, South and South East Asia and the Pacific and Atlantic islands. There is also a list of invasive species, with their countries of origin and regions of introduction.

Allelopathy

Basic and applied aspects

Author: S.J. Rizvi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412394003

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 6057

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Science is essentially a descriptive and experimental device. It observes nature, constructs hypotheses, plans experiments and proposes theories. The theory is never contemplated as the 'final truth', but remains ever subject to modifications, changes and rejections. The science of allelopathy in a similar way has emerged, and exists on a similar footing; our endeavour should be to keep it fresh and innovative with addition of newer in formation and concepts with the rejection of older ideas and antiquated techniques. During the past few decades encouraging results have been obtained in various aspects of allelopathic researches. However, in addition to continuing efforts in all these directions, constant attempts are to be made to describe the mechanics of allelopathic activity in molecular terms and to discover ways and means to exploit it for the welfare of mankind. We feel that multidisciplinary efforts are the only tool to achieve this goal. It is the hope of the editors that this book will serve as a document which identifies an integrated approach, through which research both to understand and exploit allelopathy can be conducted. The present volume arose out of an attempt to bring together eminent scientists in allelopathy to describe their work, of a highly diverse nature, under one title.

Forest Service

leaders in conservation research

Author: United States. Forest Service

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 15

View: 9951

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