The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon

About 2250 B.C. : Autographed Text, Transliteration, Translation, Glossary Index of Subjects, Lists of Proper Names, Signs, Numuerals ...

Author: Robert Francis Harper

Publisher: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.

ISBN: 1584770031

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 9304

Harper, Robert Francis. The Code of Hammurabi King of Babylon. About 2250 B.C. Autographed Text Transliteration... Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1904. xxviii, 194, ciii pp. Plates, folding map of the region. Reprinted 2000 by the Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. LCCN 99-23953. ISBN 1-58477-003-1. Cloth. $75. * Complete English translation of the code with a running parallel transliteration of the original ideograms. All corrections and erasures are included. This edition also includes facsimiles of all of the original cuneiform tablets, a thorough glossary and index of subjects, lists of proper names and tables of weights and currencies.

Die Welt der Götterbilder

Author: Brigitte Groneberg,Hermann Spieckermann

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110204150

Category: Religion

Page: 388

View: 3898

Götterbilder schaffen eine eigene Welt theologischer Reflexion und religiöser Praxis. Texte vermitteln Gottesbilder von hoher Komplexität. Bildliche Darstellungen müssen indessen Gottesbilder auf das Wesentliche reduzieren. Diesen Reduktionsprozess lediglich als Simplifizierung zu begreifen, wäre unangemessen. Vielmehr handelt es sich um einen Konzentrationsprozess, der durch die bewusst evozierte Vieldeutigkeit der Wahrnehmung eine neue Komplexität erzeugt. Nicht von ungefähr besteht zwischen der durch Bilder einerseits und durch Texte andererseits vermittelte Profilierung von Gottesvorstellungen eine erhebliche Diskrepanz. Die Ursachen dafür liegen natürlich primär in den unterschiedlichen Möglichkeiten der Darstellungsmedien. Doch Medien sind nicht nur Mittel zum Zweck, sondern überlegt gewählte Filter, die Wahrnehmung gezielt leiten sollen. Der vorliegende Band untersucht dieses Phänomen in Beiträgen grundsätzlicher Art und in materialen Präsentationen aus dem Bereich des Alten Orients, Griechenlands und der Welt des Hellenismus. Bewusst sind auch Beiträge aus dem Kontakt zwischen Christentum und Islam zum Thema Bildverehrung integriert worden. Dadurch wird deutlich, welche Kompensationsstrategien entwickelt werden, wo bildliche Repräsentationen dem theologischen Verdikt unterliegen. Der Band enthält achtzehn Beiträge von international bekannten Forschern in deutscher und englischer Sprache.

The Code of Hammurabi

A Case Study

Author: Jeanne Breazeale; Jack Sholl

Publisher: Author House

ISBN: 1491813636

Category: Education

Page: 72

View: 1873

This case study shows that a widely used U. S. Government high school textbook puts an ancient King of Babylon on the same level as American founding fathers George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. The research study finds that the assertion that the Hammurabi Code is an underlying document of the United States—as millions of American high school students are being taught today—is not correct. The U.S. Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights are the founding documents of the United States. The study challenges the claim by both legalists and religionists to the presumed importance of this ancient code to the foundations of American government—now and in the past. It warns that historical revisionism of this type poses a threat to U.S. national security at a time when American values are being challenged abroad, especially in the Middle East. It finds no overall uniform oversight or coordination of parties at all levels involved in high school textbook content. The present system for fully reviewing textbooks and curricula—a combination of publishers, school boards, issue-blind teachers and academics, government and national security agencies—is not working. Unless corrected, the foundations of freedom and democracy and the Judeo-Christian spiritual values upon which they are built will continue to be seriously eroded in the nation’s high schools.

The Codes of Hammurabi and Moses

Author: W. W. Davies

Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.

ISBN: 1616404469

Category: History

Page: 128

View: 4402

The Codes of Hammurabi and Moses are thousands-years old documents, evidence of the social structure and rules of ancient civilizations. The Code of Hammurabi is roughly one thousand years older than the Ten Commandments, or Laws of Moses, which were written in 1500 B.C., and is considered the oldest set of laws in existence. Promulgated by the king Hammurabi in roughly 2250 B.C., the Code is a set of rules guiding everyday life, listing everything from punishments for stealing and murder to the prices commanded for animals, products, and services. The famous "eye for an eye" maxim comes from the Hammurabi code: "If a man puts out the eye of an equal, his eye shall be put out." W.W. Davies' translation of The Codes of Hammurabi and Moses includes an explanation of the laws and their history, a Prologue by the author, the text of the codes with comments, an Epilogue, and a detailed Index. W.W. DAVIES was one of several translators of the famous Code of Hammurabi and the Law of Moses. Little to no information is known about him other than his work with the ancient text. A professor of Hebrew at Ohio Wesleyan University, Davies's translation was from 1905, published by Jennings and Graham in Cincinnati, Ohio.

The Code of Hammurabi

Author: Hammurabi

Publisher: WS via PublishDrive

ISBN: 2378989776

Category: Art

Page: 123

View: 9021

The Code of Hammurabi (Codex Hammurabi) is a well-preserved ancient law code, created ca. 1790 BC (middle chronology) in ancient Babylon. It was enacted by the sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi. One nearly complete example of the Code survives today, inscribed on a seven foot, four inch tall basalt stele in the Akkadian language in the cuneiform script. One of the first written codes of law in recorded history. These laws were written on a stone tablet standing over eight feet tall (2.4 meters) that was found in 1901.

The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi

Author: Stanley A. Cook

Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.

ISBN: 1616404426

Category: History

Page: 328

View: 4557

The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi are thousands-years old documents, evidence of the social structure and rules of ancient civilizations. The Code of Hammurabi is roughly one thousand years older than the Ten Commandments, or Laws of Moses, which were written in 1500 B.C., and is considered the oldest set of laws in existence. Promulgated by the king Hammurabi in roughly 2250 B.C., the Code is a set of rules guiding everyday life, listing everything from punishments for stealing and murder to the prices commanded for animals, products, and services. The famous "eye for an eye" maxim comes from the Hammurabi code: "If a man puts out the eye of an equal, his eye shall be put out." S.A. Cook's translation of The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi includes the code, the history of the regions in which it was employed-Babylonia and Israel, the elements of Law, the social structures of families, workers, and slaves, information on land, agriculture, trade, and commerce, protection of the people, and a detailed Index. STANLEY ARTHUR COOK (1837-1949) was born in King's Lynn, Norfolk. He was the Regius Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge University from 1932-1938, where he also received his Bachelor's and Master's degrees. He was on the editorial staff of the Encyclopedia Biblica from 1896-1903, as well as an editorial advisor on Biblical subjects for the Encyclopedia Britannica. He edited Palestine Exploration Fund publications from 1902-1932 and authored many of his own books on ancient Hebrew and Middle East culture.

The Law Code of Hammurabi

Transliterated and Literally Translated from its Early Classical Arabic Language

Author: Saad D. Abulhab

Publisher: Blautopf Publishing

ISBN: 1981340904

Category: Law

Page: 222

View: 622

This book, which includes new translations of the old Babylonian laws of Hammurabi, is the second book by the author examining, from a historical Arabic linguistic perspective, a major Akkadian document. The first book offered new translations of three tablets from a literary work, the Epic of Gilgamesh, written in a late Babylonian language. The pioneering methodology used by the author to decipher the ancient Mesopotamian texts in both documents involves the primary utilization of old etymological Arabic manuscripts written by hundreds of accomplished scholars more than a thousand years ago. Using this methodology does not only provide more accurate, non-speculated, translations, and preserve the spirit and linguistic style of the original texts, but also provides more realistic phonetic values of the cuneiform signs. This would result in having more realistic overall text readings suitable to the one geographical and historical environment where these texts were produced, namely the greater Arabian Peninsula. The text of the Hammurabi stele offers students of both Arabic and Assyriology a perfect and unique opportunity to identify the language and grammar of its ancient Arabic language. Its vocalizations of subjects, objects, verbs, and genitives are astonishingly identical to that of classical Arabic. The loose and sometimes “chaotic” placement of words in sentences is strikingly identical to that of pre-Islamic Arabic. In, fact, the older the formal Akkadian language it seems the clearer its Arabic identity! Offering a textbook reference value, the author provided the numbered, phonetic Latin transcription for each law right above its corresponding, numbered Arabic transcription. Furthermore, he translated the text of each law literally, into Arabic and English, to illustrate how its translation was concluded, and to preserve its overall linguistic style, accounting for every word in its actual text. For easier reading experience, a full subject guide to the laws of Hammurabi is provided. All reference entries from both the historical Arabic manuscripts and the modern dictionaries of Assyriology are also provided in the appendix. In his expanded introduction, the author discussed the layout, script, and language of the Hammurabi code stele in the Louvre, and through the evidence of Hammurabi’s own words in a key paragraph in his prologue, he offered the possible meanings of the nickname Hammurabi.

The Code of Hammurabi

Author: N.A

Publisher: Kessinger Publishing

ISBN: 9781419157035

Category: History

Page: 48

View: 4954

2. If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the river prove that the accused is not guilty, and he escape unhurt, then he who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser.

The code of laws by Hammurabi

Author: Hammurabi Hammurabi

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3748110936

Category: Social Science

Page: 122

View: 7953

The Code of Hammurabi is one of the most important monuments in the history of the human race. Containing as it does the laws which were enacted by a king of Babylonia in the third millennium B.C., whose rule extended over the whole of Mesopotamia from the mouths of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates to the Mediterranean coast, we must regard it with interest. But when we reflect that the ancient Hebrew tradition ascribed the migration of Abraham from Ur of the Chaldees to this very period, and clearly means to represent their tribe father as triumphing over this very same Hammurabi (Amraphel, Gen. xiv. 1), we can hardly doubt that these very laws were part of that tradition. At any rate, they must have served to mould and fix the ideas of right throughout that great empire, and so form the state of society in Canaan when, five hundred years later, the Hebrews began to dominate that region.

The Code of Hammurabi

Author: L W King

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781522791942


Page: 100

View: 1478

This, the earliest known written legal code, was composed about 1780 B.C.E. by Hammurabi, the ruler of Bablyon. This text was excavated in 1901; it was carved on an eight foot high stone monolith. The harsh system of punishment expressed in this text prefigures the concept of 'an eye for an eye'. The Code lays out the basis of both criminal and civil law, and defines procedures for commerce and trade. This text was redacted for 1,500 years, and is considered the predecessor of Jewish and Islamic legal systems alike.

Hammurabi of Babylon

Author: Dominique Charpin

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 1848857527

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 228

View: 7791

Hammurabi was the sixth king of ancient Babylon and also its greatest. Expanding the role and influence of the Babylonian city-state into an imperium that crushed its rivals and dominated the entire fertile plain of Mesopotamia, Hammurabi (who ruled c. 1792-1750 BCE) transformed a minor kingdom into the regional superpower of its age. But this energetic monarch, whose geopolitical and military strategies were unsurpassed in his time, was more than just a war-leader or empire-builder. Renownedfor his visionary Code of Laws, Hammurabi's famous codex - written on a stele in Akkadian, and publicly displayed so that all citizens could read it - pioneered a new kind of lawmaking. The Code's 282 specific legal injunctions, alleged to have been divinely granted by the god Marduk, remain influential to this day, and offer the historian fascinating parallels with the biblical Ten Commandments. Dominique Charpin is one of the most distinguished modern scholars of ancient Babylon. In this fresh and engaging appraisal of one of antiquity's iconic figures, he shows that Hammurabi, while certainly one of the most able rulers in the whole of pre-history, was also responsible for pivotal developments in the history of civilization.

The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon about 2250 B. C

Author: Hammurabi

Publisher: Sagwan Press

ISBN: 9781376523270

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 432

View: 3929

This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

The Code of Hammurabi

The Oldest Code of Laws in the World

Author: Hammurabi King of Babylon

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781511808101


Page: 34

View: 5087

The Code of Hammurabi - Hammurabi, King of Babylon - The Oldest Code of Laws in the World - Translated by L.W. King - The Oldest Code of Laws in the World. The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a human-sized stone stele and various clay tablets. The Code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" (lex talionis) as graded depending on social status, of slave versus free man. Nearly one-half of the Code deals with matters of contract, establishing, for example, the wages to be paid to an ox driver or a surgeon. Other provisions set the terms of a transaction, establishing the liability of a builder for a house that collapses, for example, or property that is damaged while left in the care of another. A third of the code addresses issues concerning household and family relationships such as inheritance, divorce, paternity and sexual behavior. Only one provision appears to impose obligations on an official; this provision establishes that a judge who reaches an incorrect decision is to be fined and removed from the bench permanently. A handful of provisions address issues related to military service. The code was discovered by modern archaeologists in 1901, and its editio princeps translation published in 1902 by Jean-Vincent Scheil. This nearly complete example of the Code is carved into a diorite stele in the shape of a huge index finger, 2.25-metre (7.4 ft) tall (see images at right). The Code is inscribed in the Akkadian language, using cuneiform script carved into the stele. It is currently on display in the Louvre, with exact replicas in the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, the library of the Theological University of the Reformed Churches (Dutch: Theologische Universiteit Kampen voor de Gereformeerde Kerken) in The Netherlands, the Pergamon Museum of Berlin and the National Museum of Iran in Tehran.

The Code of Hammurabi (Classic Reprint)

Author: Hammurabi Hammurabi

Publisher: Forgotten Books

ISBN: 9781334595868

Category: Law

Page: 54

View: 2070

Excerpt from The Code of Hammurabi Hammurabi, who is probably to be identified with the Amraphel of Gen. Xiv. 1, was the sixth king of the first known dynasty of Babylon, and he reigned for forty-three years - about 2130 - 2088 b.c., as far as can at present be determined. He was a successful ruler and an able administrator. His Code of Laws is inscribed on a block of black diorite which was found on the acropolis of Susa by an expedition sent out by the French Government under M. De Morgan in 1901. At the top of the front side of the stele is a bas relief representing Hammurabi receiving the code from Shamash, the Sun-god. About one-eighth of the code (five columns) has been erased 3 the remaining forty-four columns contain two hundred and forty-eight separate provisions. These provisions relate almost exclusively to civil and criminal law. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

The Code of Hammurabi

The Earliest Legal Code

Author: King Hammurabi

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781987656305


Page: 60

View: 9133

The Code of Hammurabi is one of the earliest and most complete written legal codes of law. This is volume 2 in the series of 150 volumes entitled " The Trail to Liberty. " It was written in 1754 B.C. by The Babylonian King Hammurabi. King Hammurabi's Code was carved onto a massive, finger-shaped black stone stele (pillar) that was looted by invaders and finally rediscovered in 1901. The code is inscribed in the Akkadian language, using cuneiform script carved into the stele. It is considered one of the first documents that codified or formed a foundation of what would become known as civil and criminal law, especially in the West. The following is a partial list (20 of 150) of books in this series on the development of constitutional law. The Code of Hammurabi was a Mesopotamian legal code that laid a foundation for later Hebraic and European law. 1. Laws of the town Eshnunna (ca. 1800 BC), the laws of King Lipit-Ishtar of Isin (ca. 1930 BC), and Old Babylonian copies (ca. 1900-1700 BC) of the Ur-Nammu law code 2. Code of Hammurabi ( 1760 BCE) - Early Mesopotamian legal code laid basis for later Hebraic and European law. 3. Ancient Greek and Latin Library - Selected works on ancient history, customs and laws. 4. The Civil Law, tr. & ed. Samuel Parsons Scott (1932) - Includes the classics of ancient Roman law: the Law of the Twelve Tables (450 BCE), the Institutes of Gaius (180), the Rules of Ulpian (222), the Opinions of Paulus (224), the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian (533), which codified Roman Law, and the Constitutions of Leo. 5. "Constitution" of Medina (Dustur al-Madinah), Mohammed (622) - Not so much a constitution as a treaty which united Muslims, Jews, Christians and pagans, in the city-state of Medina, that exhibits some principles of constitutional design. 6. Policraticus, John of Salisbury (1159), various translations - Argued that citizens have the right to depose and kill tyrannical rulers. 7. Constitutions of Clarendon (1164) - Established rights of laymen and the church in England. 8. Assize of Clarendon (1166) - Defined rights and duties of courts and people in criminal cases. 9. Assize of Arms (1181) - Defined rights and duties of people and militias. 10. Magna Carta (1215) - Established the principle that no one, not even the king or a lawmaker, is above the law. 11. Britton, (written 1290, printed 1530) - Abridged, updated, more readable, and more widely used codification based on Bracton, originally in the French of the English court, reflecting changes in the law, including changes in juries. 12. Confirmatio Cartarum (1297) - United Magna Carta to the common law by declaring that the Magna Carta could be pled in court. 13. The Declaration of Arbroath (1320) - Scotland's declaration of independence from England. 14. The Prince, Niccolò Machiavelli (1513) - Practical advice on governance and statecraft, with thoughts on the kinds of problems any government must be able to solve to endure. 15. Utopia, Thomas More (1516) - Satirical analysis of shortcomings of his society and a vision of what could be. 16. Discourses on Livy, Niccolò Machiavelli (1517 tr. Henry Neville 1675) - Argues for the ideal form of government being a republic based on popular consent, defended by militia. 17. Relectiones, Franciscus de Victoria (lect. 1532, first pub. 1557) - Includes De Indis and De iure belli, arguing for humane treatment of native Americans and of enemies in war. Provided the basis for the law of nations doctrine. 18. Discourse on Voluntary Servitude, Étienne De La Boétie (1548, tr.) - People are ultimately responsible for their servitude, and non-violent resistance can win their freedom. 19. De Republica Anglorum, Thomas Smith (1565, 1583) - describes the constitution of England under Elizabeth I, that indicates tendencies toward republican ideals. 20. Vindiciae Contra Tyrannos (Defense of Liberty Against Tyrants), "Junius Brutus" (Orig. Fr. 1581, Eng. tr. 1622, 1689).

The Code of Hammurabi: (annotated)(Illustrated)

Author: Hammurabi

Publisher: Independently Published

ISBN: 9781728919348

Category: Law

Page: 76

View: 7292

The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology). It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code. A partial copy exists on a 2.25 metre (7.5 ft) stone stele. It consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" (lex talionis) as graded depending on social status, of slave versus free, man or woman.