The Containment of Organised Crime and Terrorism

Thirty-Five Years of Research on Police, Judicial and Administrative Cooperation

Author: Cyrille J.C.F. Fijnaut

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004281940

Category: Law

Page: 998

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This unique volume collects articles and contributions to edited books published throughout his distinguished career by Professor Cyrille Fijnaut, one of the world's leading experts in the fields of organised crime, security and criminology. It makes clear what issues the author systematically explored over the years and how he helped to shape the fields in which he has worked, and continues to work. The texts, reflecting the author's profound understanding of these complex fields and wealth of experience on a practical level, are presented systematically. In addition, the volume offers English translations of seminal articles published originally in Dutch, thus making these important texts accessible to international scholars for the first time ever. The volume thus constitutes a unique and indispensable resource for scholars and practitioners, inside and outside the Netherlands.

Organized Crime in the Netherlands

Author: Cyrille Fijnaut

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9789041110275

Category: Law

Page: 248

View: 6785

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Nowadays organized crime is a very important political issue in Europe. However, scientific studies on the nature and seriousness of this problem are very scarce in the member states of the Council of Europe and the European Union. This national study on organized crime in the Netherlands was prepared for the Commission of Inquiry of the Dutch Parliament that recently made an investigation into the regulation and use of undercover policing. It not only contains an analysis of the contemporary manifestations of traditional organized crime, but also answers the question whether organized crime already has penetrated legitimate sectors of the economy or not. In addition special attention is paid to the role of the liberal professions and the banking system; and to the use of counter-strategies by criminal groups (corruption, intimidation, violence, disinformation, etc.)

Organised Crime in Europe

Concepts, Patterns and Control Policies in the European Union and Beyond

Author: Cyrille Fijnaut,Letizia Paoli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402027656

Category: Social Science

Page: 1073

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This volume represents the first attempt to systematically compare organised crime concepts, as well as historical and contemporary patterns and control policies in thirteen European countries. These include seven ‘old’ EU Member States, two ‘new’ members, a candidate country, and three non-EU countries. Based on a standardised research protocol, thirty-three experts from different legal and social disciplines provide insight through detailed country reports. On this basis, the editors compare organised crime patterns and policies in Europe and assess EU initiatives against organised crime.

Transnational Organized Crime

Analyses of a Global Challenge to Democracy (Conception: Regine Schönenberg and Annette von Schönfeld)

Author: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung,Regine Schönenberg

Publisher: transcript Verlag

ISBN: 383942495X

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 554

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Transnational organized crime interferes with the everyday lives of more and more people - and represents a serious threat to democracy. By now, organized crime has become an inherent feature of economic globalization, and the fine line between the legal and illegal operation of business networks is blurred. Additionally, few experts could claim to have comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the laws and regulations governing the international flow of trade, and hence of the borderline towards criminal transactions. This book offers contributions from 12 countries around the world authored by 25 experts from a wide range of academic disciplines, representatives from civil society organizations and private industry, journalists, as well as activists. Recognizing the complexity of the issue, this publication provides a cross cultural and multi-disciplinary analysis of transnational organized crime including a historical approach from different regional and cultural contexts.

Organised Crime Prevention in the Netherlands

Exposing the Effectiveness of Preventive Measures

Author: C. R. A. van der Schoot,Cathelijne van der Schoot

Publisher: Boom Koninklijke Uitgevers

ISBN: 9789054546665

Category: Political Science

Page: 250

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What is the effectiveness of organised crime prevention? The research presented here examines the possible effectiveness of three preventive measures taken against organised crime in the Netherlands: the anti-money laundering intervention, the screening and auditing approach and the administrative approach of the City of Amsterdam. By assessing the programme theory, the programme process and the programme impacts it determines the plausible outcomes and observed outputs. Together these outcomes and outputs determine the possible effectiveness of the preventive measures.

Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism

Author: Committee on Research Standards and Practices to Prevent the Destructive Application of Biotechnology,Development, Security, and Cooperation,Policy and Global Affairs,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309089778

Category: Political Science

Page: 164

View: 570

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In recent years much has happened to justify an examination of biological research in light of national security concerns. The destructive application of biotechnology research includes activities such as spreading common pathogens or transforming them into even more lethal forms. Policymakers and the scientific community at large must put forth a vigorous and immediate response to this challenge. This new book by the National Research Council recommends that the government expand existing regulations and rely on self-governance by scientists rather than adopt intrusive new policies. One key recommendation of the report is that the government should not attempt to regulate scientific publishing but should trust scientists and journals to screen their papers for security risks, a task some journals have already taken up. With biological information and tools widely distributed, regulating only U.S. researchers would have little effect. A new International Forum on Biosecurity should encourage the adoption of similar measures around the world. Seven types of risky studies would require approval by the Institutional Biosafety Committees that already oversee recombinant DNA research at some 400 U.S. institutions. These "experiments of concern" include making an infectious agent more lethal and rendering vaccines powerless.

Establishing Law and Order After Conflict

Author: Seth G. Jones,Jeremy M. Wilson,Andrew Rathmell,K. Jack Riley

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833040928

Category: Law

Page: 292

View: 9656

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In a nation-building operation, outside states invest much of their resources in establishing and maintaining the host country's police, internal security forces, and justice system. This book examines post-Cold War reconstruction efforts, such as those in Iraq and Afghanistan, and assesses the success of U.S. and allied efforts in reconstructing internal security institutions.

The Security Economy

Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9264107746

Category:

Page: 158

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With the market for security goods and services having expanded rapidly since 9/11, this study examines the potential costs of major disruptions, the trade-offs between tighter security and economic efficiency, and the implications of tighter security for privacy and other democratic liberties.

Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed

The MSF Experience

Author: Claire Magone,Michael Neuman,Fabrice Weissman

Publisher: Hurst

ISBN: 1849045267

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 8975

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From international NGOs to UN agencies, from donors to observers of humanitarianism, opinion is unanimous: in a context of the alleged "clash of civilizations", our "humanitarian space" is shrinking. Put another way, the freedom of action and of speech of humanitarians is being eroded due to the radicalisation of conflicts and the reaffirmation of state sovereignty over aid actors and policies. The purpose of this book is to challenge this assumption through an analysis of the events that have marked MSF's history since 2003 (when MSF published its first general work on humanitarian action and its relationships with governments). It addresses the evolution of humanitarian goals, the resistance to these goals and the political arrangements that overcame this resistance (or that failed to do so). The contributors seek to analyse the political transactions and balances of power and interests that allow aid activities to move forward, but that are usually masked by the lofty rhetoric of "humanitarian principles". They focus on one key question: what is an acceptable compromise for MSF? This book seeks to puncture a number of the myths that have grown up over the forty years since MSF was founded and describes in detail how the ideals of humanitarian principles and "humanitarian space" operating in conflict zones are in reality illusory. How, in fact, it is the grubby negotiations with varying parties, each of whom have their own vested interests, that may allow organisations such as MSF to operate in a given crisis situation - or not.

Pacific Currents

The Responses of U.S. Allies and Security Partners in East Asia to China's Rise

Author: Evan S. Medeiros

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833044648

Category: Political Science

Page: 279

View: 7911

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China1s importance in the Asia-Pacific has been on the rise, raising concerns about competition the United States. The authors examined the reactions of six U.S. allies and partners to China1s rise. All six see China as an economic opportunity. They want it to be engaged productively in regional affairs, but without becoming dominant. They want the United States to remain deeply engaged in the region.

Contraband Corridor

Making a Living at the Mexico-Guatemala Border

Author: Rebecca Berke Galemba

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781503603981

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 8742

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The Mexico-Guatemala border has emerged as a geopolitical hotspot of illicit flows of both goods and people. Contraband Corridor seeks to understand the border from the perspective of its long-term inhabitants. Challenging simplistic assumptions regarding security, trade, and illegality, Rebecca Galemba details how residents along the Mexico-Guatemala border engage in, and justify, extra-legal practices in the context of heightened border security, restricted economic opportunities, and official regional trade integration policies that exclude regional inhabitants. Rather than assuming that extra-legal activities necessarily threaten the state and formal economy, Galemba's ethnography illustrates the complex ways that the formal, informal, legal, and illegal economies intertwine. Smuggling basic commodities across the border provides a means for borderland peasants to make a living in the context of neoliberal economic policies that decimated agricultural livelihoods and dismantled previous farmer supports and price guarantees. Yet smuggling also exacerbates prevailing inequalities, obstructs the possibility of more substantive political and economic change, and provides low-risk economic benefits to formal businesses, select state agents, and other illicit actors, often at the expense of border residents. Galemba argues that securitized neoliberalism works to value certain economic activities and actors and exclude and criminalize others, even when the informal and illicit economy is increasingly one of the poor's only remaining options and informality even permeates the formal sector. Contraband Corridor contends that security, neoliberalism, and illegality are interdependent in complex ways. Yet how they unfold depends on negotiations between diverse border actors.

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

A Path Forward

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309142393

Category: Law

Page: 348

View: 2824

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Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.

Drugs and Decision-making in the European Union

Author: Tim Boekhout van Solinge

Publisher: En Mets En Schilt Uitgevers

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 159

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Drugs are a perennial topic within the institutions of the European Union--the Commission, Council and Parlia-ment. The "drug problem" is also regularly tabled on the agenda of the European Council, the biannual summit of the government leaders of the fifteen member states. The E.U. systematically brings drug-related issues into virtually all of its political dialogues with Third World countries and regional organizations. It even stresses the importance of anti-drug measures as part of trade agreements and development cooperation. By such means, the European Union has become an important player in the world of international drug control. This book gives an overview of the European Union's anti-drug measures and focuses on its decision-making process. It looks at why drugs have acquired a prominent position on the European political agenda and identifies the political function they serve in terms of domestic drug policy and international relations. This study shows that instead of solving the drug problem, the European Union's bureaucracy actually helps to keep it alive and well. Tim Boekhout van Solinge is a researcher at the Centre for Drug Research of the University of Amsterdam.

The Killing Consensus

Police, Organized Crime, and the Regulation of Life and Death in Urban Brazil

Author: Graham Denyer Willis

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520285700

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

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We hold many assumptions about police work—that it is the responsibility of the state, or that police officers are given the right to kill in the name of public safety or self-defense. But in The Killing Consensus, Graham Denyer Willis shows how in São Paulo, Brazil, killing and the arbitration of “normal” killing in the name of social order are actually conducted by two groups—the police and organized crime—both operating according to parallel logics of murder. Based on three years of ethnographic fieldwork, Willis's book traces how homicide detectives categorize two types of killing: the first resulting from “resistance” to police arrest (which is often broadly defined) and the second at the hands of a crime "family' known as the Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC). Death at the hands of police happens regularly, while the PCC’s centralized control and strict moral code among criminals has also routinized killing, ironically making the city feel safer for most residents. In a fractured urban security environment, where killing mirrors patterns of inequitable urbanization and historical exclusion along class, gender, and racial lines, Denyer Willis's research finds that the city’s cyclical periods of peace and violence can best be understood through an unspoken but mutually observed consensus on the right to kill. This consensus hinges on common notions and street-level practices of who can die, where, how, and by whom, revealing an empirically distinct configuration of authority that Denyer Willis calls sovereignty by consensus.

Customs Modernization Handbook

Author: Luc De Wulf,Jose B. Sokol

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821383728

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

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Trade integration contributes substantially to economic development and poverty alleviation. In recent years much progress was made to liberalize the trade regime, but customs procedures are often still complex, costly and non-transparent. This situation leads to misallocation of resources. 'Customs Modernization Handbook' provides an overview of the key elements of a successful customs modernization strategy and draws lessons from a number of successful customs reforms as well as from customs reform projects that have been undertaken by the World Bank. It describes a number of key import procedures, that have proved particularly troublesome for customs administrations and traders, and provides practical guidelines to enhance their efficiency. The Handbook also reviews the appropriate legal framework for customs operations as well as strategies to combat corruption.

Critical Restorative Justice

Author: Ivo Aertsen,Brunilda Pali

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1509906630

Category: Law

Page: 352

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Theories and practices of justice do not meet the socio-political challenges of our times. For those theorists attempting to develop an alternative to the criminal justice system, restorative justice has provided an alternative horizon. The restorative justice approach involves meeting people, understanding and recognising their vulnerability through participatory and deliberative forums and practices. The aim of this collection is to bridge the distance between restorative justice and the critical theory tradition. It, on the one hand, takes into account the limits of restorative justice as they have been articulated, or can be articulated through critical social theory, and on the other hand emphasises the ground-breaking potential that restorative justice can bring to this tradition as a way to address crimes, conflicts and injustices, and to pursue justice.

The World of Crime

Breaking the Silence on Problems of Security, Justice and Development Across the World

Author: Jan Van Dijk

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1506320899

Category: Social Science

Page: 456

View: 5731

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"This book is important for students who want to put domestic crime and justice issues and criminological theories in an international perspective....It is more than likely that this book will also interest all those who are professionally or privately interested in issues of crime, corruption, terrorism, law enforcement, criminal justice and sustainable development." —Johnson Thomas, BUSINESS INDIA In today's interdependent world, governments must become more transparent about their crime and justice problems. The World of Crime: Breaking the Silence on Problems of Security, Justice and Development Across the World seeks to break the "conspiracy of silence" regarding statistical information on these sensitive issues. It subsequently analyzes the macro causes of crime such as rapid urbanization, economic inequality, gender discrimination, abuse of alcohol, and drugs and availability of guns. Furthermore, the book analyzes the impact of crime on individuals and societies. Using a wealth of statistical information, the author underlines the need of greater international efforts to tackle transnational problems of crime. Key Features Presents 13 chapters, which are organized in 4 main parts, that cover measurement challenges, common crimes, emerging global crimes, criminal justice, and international perspectives on crime and justice Contains statistical data taken from 2005 International Crime Victim Surveys Includes high quality figures such as scatter plots, graphs, and maps Features summary reviews and figure footnotes at the ends of each chapter Intended Audience: The book is intended as a supplementary text for introduction to criminology, criminal justice, and comparative justice courses and is also appropriate for those professionally interested in security, criminal justice and development.