The Dynamical Systems Approach to Cognition

Concepts and Empirical Paradigms Based on Self-organization, Embodiment, and Coordination Dynamics

Author: Wolfgang Tschacher,Jean-Pierre Dauwalder

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812386106

Category: Psychology

Page: 330

View: 3614

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The shared platform of the articles collected in this volume is used to advocate a dynamical systems approach to cognition. It is argued that recent developments in cognitive science towards an account of embodiment, together with the general approach of complexity theory and dynamics, have a major impact on behavioral and cognitive science. The book points out that there are two domains that follow naturally from the stance of embodiment: first, coordination dynamics is an established empirical paradigm that is best able to aid the approach; second, the obvious goal-directedness of intelligent action (i.e., intentionality) is nicely addressed in the framework of the dynamical synergetic approach.

The Dynamical Systems Approach to Cognition

Concepts and Empirical Paradigms Based on Self-Organization, Embodiment, and Coordination Dynamics

Author: Wolfgang Tschacher,Jean-Pierre Dauwalder

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814485004

Category: Medical

Page: 344

View: 4580

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The shared platform of the articles collected in this volume is used to advocate a dynamical systems approach to cognition. It is argued that recent developments in cognitive science towards an account of embodiment, together with the general approach of complexity theory and dynamics, have a major impact on behavioral and cognitive science. The book points out that there are two domains that follow naturally from the stance of embodiment: first, coordination dynamics is an established empirical paradigm that is best able to aid the approach; second, the obvious goal-directedness of intelligent action (i.e., intentionality) is nicely addressed in the framework of the dynamical synergetic approach. Contents:Intelligent Behavior: A Synergetic View (H Haken)Grounded in the World: Developmental Origins of the Embodied Mind (E Thelen)Cognitive Coordination Dynamics (S Kelso)What is Coordinated in Bimanual Coordination? (F Mechsner & W Prinz)Cognition in Action: The Interplay of Attention and Bimanual Coordination Dynamics (J J Temprado)A Synergetic Approach to Describe the Stability and Variability of Motor Behavior (K Witte et al.)The Role of Synchronization in Perception-Action (T-C Chan et al.)A Mean-Field Approach to Self-Organization in Spatially Extended Perception-Action and Psychological Systems (T Frank & P J Beek)Self-Organizing Systems Show Apparent Intentionality (W Tschacher et al.)The Embodiment of Intentionality (S Jordan)Cognitive Science, Representations and Dynamical Systems Theory (P Haselager)Self-Steered Self-Organization (F Keijzer)Brain Dynamics: Methodological Issues and Applications in Psychiatic and Neurologic Diseases (L Fezard)SIRN (Synergetic Inter-Representation Networks), Artifacts and Snow's Two Cultures (J Portugali)Dynamical Systems Theory: Application to Pedagogy (J Abraham) Readership: Psychologists, cognitive scientists, computer scientists, biologists and philosophers. Keywords:Cognitive Science;Consciousness;Dynamical Systems Theory;Self-Organization;Philosophy of Mind;Motor Coordination

A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action

Author: Esther Thelen,Linda B. Smith

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262700597

Category: Psychology

Page: 376

View: 5597

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"A radical departure from most of current cognitive development theory.... Nativists, structuralists, empiricists and social constructivists will disagree with different parts of this book. Yet this landmark volume is essential reading for all of them." -- Annette Karmiloff-Smith and Mark H. Johnson, "Nature" A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action presents a comprehensive and detailed theory of early human development based on the principles of dynamic systems theory. Beginning with their own research in motor, perceptual, and cognitive development, Thelen and Smith raise fundamental questions about prevailing assumptions in the field. They propose a new theory of the development of cognition and action, unifying recent advances in dynamic systems theory with current research in neuroscience and neural development. In particular, they show how by processes of exploration and selection, multimodal experiences form the bases for self-organizing perception-action categories. Thelen and Smith offer a radical alternative to current cognitive theory, both in their emphasis on dynamic representation and in their focus on processes of change. Among the first attempt to apply complexity theory to psychology, they suggest reinterpretations of several classic issues in early cognitive development. The book is divided into three sections. The first discusses the nature of developmental processes in general terms, the second covers dynamic principles in process and mechanism, and the third looks at how a dynamic theory can be applied to enduring puzzles of development. Cognitive Psychology series

Dynamics, Synergetics, Autonomous Agents

Nonlinear Systems Approaches to Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science

Author: Wolfgang Tschacher,Jean-Pierre Dauwalder

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810238377

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 1746

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This volume focuses on the modeling of cognition, and brings together contributions from psychologists and researchers in the field of cognitive science. The shared platform of this work is to advocate a dynamical systems approach to cognition. Several aspects of this approach are considered here: chaos theory, artificial intelligence and Alife models, catastrophe theory and, most importantly, self-organization theory or synergetics. The application of nonlinear systems theory to cognitive science in general, and to cognitive psychology in particular, is a growing field that has gained further momentum thanks to new contributions from the science of robotics. The recent development in cognitive science towards an account of embodiment, together with the general approach of complexity theory and dynamics, will have a major impact on our psychological understanding of reasoning, thinking and behavior.

A Dynamic Systems Approach to Development

Applications

Author: Linda B. Smith,Esther Thelen

Publisher: Bradford Books

ISBN: N.A

Category: FAMILY & RELATIONSHIPS

Page: 414

View: 6947

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A Dynamic Systems Approach to Development explores the value of dynamical systems principles for solving the enduring puzzles of development, including the ultimate source of change, the problems of continuity and discontinuities, and nonlinear outcomes and individual differences. What do laser lights, crystals, walking, reaching, and concepts have in common? All are complex dynamic systems. Over the last decade, the burgeoning fields of synergetics and nonlinear dynamics have shown in mathematically precise ways how such complex systems can produce emergent order from the cooperation of many simpler elements. A Dynamic Systems Approach to Development explores the value of dynamical systems principles for solving the enduring puzzles of development, including the ultimate source of change, the problems of continuity and discontinuities, and nonlinear outcomes and individual differences. This companion volume to the forthcoming A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action shows how the ideas of dynamic systems may form the basis for a new theory of human development. The problems considered include areas of motor development, perceptual and cognitive development, and social development. The use of dynamic systems ranges from the metaphorical to the rigorously mathematical, but in all cases the contributions present a step forward in developmental theory.

Virtual Teacher

Cognitive Approach to e-Learning Material

Author: Boris Aberšek,Bojan Borstner,Janez Bregant

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443870056

Category: Psychology

Page: 305

View: 2389

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Today in the age of technology, contemporary researchers from the fields of philosophy, cognitive science, neurobiology, and artificial intelligence ask many questions about the nature of the mind and body, originating in ancient Greek philosophy. Among those, are also questions about the relationship between humans and machines, and the implications this carries for solving traditional problems within philosophy. In this book, the term 'machine' is taken to refer to every system which, in the contemporary world, tries to make a task easier for humans, or even tries to replace the human altogether, such as a humanoid robot able to perform different physical activities, as well as various mental activities, like decision-making and problem-solving.The volume makes the first step towards a connection between certain different disciplines involved in education. The gap between neurochemistry, cognitive science, neurobiology and other rapidly developing disciplines, on one side, and education as part of social sciences, on the other, currently appears to be great and even unbridgeable except by analogy, metonymy and metaphor.From the experiences of recent years, it seems clear that the existing educational system, as a whole, is perceived as an ailing system that fails to meet the needs of a major portion of the society it serves. This book brings to attention a form of learning that transcends logic and rhetorical appeal. It defines appropriate architecture on the basis of cognitive science and methods of artificial intelligence, taking into account that a school system is a dynamical system which follows the dynamical systems theory. The volume shows how to build an intelligent tutoring system, and an intelligent teaching/learning system upon it. Through the use of intelligent tutoring systems, students are placed in an active role, as opposed to the passive role that they more or less have today.

Integrative Systems Approaches to Natural and Social Dynamics

Systems Science 2000

Author: M. Matthies,H. Malchow,J. Kriz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642565859

Category: Science

Page: 593

View: 3036

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At the start of the new millennium, mankind is challenged by a paradox: the more we know about the world the more uncertain we become in understanding and predicting how it works. This book presents an outline of a new basis for Systems Science, and a methodology for its application in complex environmental, economic, social, and technological systems.

Dynamical Cognitive Science

Author: Lawrence M. Ward

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262232173

Category: Psychology

Page: 355

View: 4616

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An introduction to the application of dynamical systems science to the cognitive sciences. Dynamical Cognitive Science makes available to the cognitive science community the analytical tools and techniques of dynamical systems science, adding the variables of change and time to the study of human cognition. The unifying theme is that human behavior is an "unfolding in time" whose study should be augmented by the application of time-sensitive tools from disciplines such as physics, mathematics, and economics, where change over time is of central importance. The book provides a fast-paced, comprehensive introduction to the application of dynamical systems science to the cognitive sciences. Topics include linear and nonlinear time series analysis, chaos theory, complexity theory, relaxation oscillators, and metatheoretical issues of modeling and theory building. Tools and techniques are discussed in the context of their application to basic cognitive science problems, including perception, memory, psychophysics, judgment and decision making, and consciousness. The final chapter summarizes the contemporary study of consciousness and suggests how dynamical approaches to cognitive science can help to advance our understanding of this central concept.

Mind as Motion

Explorations in the Dynamics of Cognition

Author: Robert F. Port,Timothy Van Gelder

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262161503

Category: Psychology

Page: 590

View: 4903

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The first comprehensive presentation of the dynamical approach to cognition. It contains a representative sampling of original, current research on topics such as perception, motor control, speech and language, decision making, and development.

The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology

Author: Ron Sun

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521674107

Category: Computers

Page: 753

View: 416

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This book is a definitive reference source for the growing, increasingly more important, and interdisciplinary field of computational cognitive modeling, that is, computational psychology. It combines breadth of coverage with definitive statements by leading scientists in this field. Research in computational cognitive modeling explores the essence of cognition and various cognitive functionalities through developing detailed, process-based understanding by specifying computational mechanisms, structures, and processes. Given the complexity of the human mind and its manifestation in behavioral flexibility, process-based computational models may be necessary to explicate and elucidate the intricate details of the mind. The key to understanding cognitive processes is often in fine details. Computational models provide algorithmic specificity: detailed, exactly specified, and carefully thought-out steps, arranged in precise yet flexible sequences. These models provide both conceptual clarity and precision at the same time. This book substantiates this approach through overviews and many examples.

Computation, Dynamics, and Cognition

Author: Marco Giunti

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195358193

Category: Philosophy

Page: 192

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Currently there is growing interest in the application of dynamical methods to the study of cognition. Computation, Dynamics, and Cognition investigates this convergence from a theoretical and philosophical perspective, generating a provocative new view of the aims and methods of cognitive science. Advancing the dynamical approach as the methodological frame best equipped to guide inquiry in the field's two main research programs--the symbolic and connectionist approaches--Marco Giunti engages a host of questions crucial not only to the science of cognition, but also to computation theory, dynamical systems theory, philosophy of mind, and philosophy of science. In chapter one Giunti employs a dynamical viewpoint to explore foundational issues in computation theory. Using the concept of Turing computability, he precisely and originally defines the nature of a computational system, sharpening our understanding of computation theory and its applications. In chapter two he generalizes his definition of a computational system, arguing that the concept of Turing computability itself is relative to the kind of support on which Turing machine operate. Chapter three completes the book's conceptual foundation, discussing a form of scientific explanation for real dynamical systems that Giunti calls "Galilean explanation." The book's fourth and final chapter develops the methodological thesis that all cognitive systems are dynamical systems. On Giunti's view, a dynamical approach is likely to benefit even those scientific explanations of cognition which are based on symbolic models. Giunti concludes by proposing a new modeling practice for cognitive science, one based on "Galilean models" of cognitive systems. Innovative, lucidly-written, and broad-ranging in its analysis, Computation, Dynamics, and Cognition will interest philosophers of science and mind, as well as cognitive scientists, computer scientists, and theorists of dynamical systems. This book elaborates a comprehensive picture of the application of dynamical methods to the study of cognition. Giunti argues that both computational systems and connectionist networks are special types of dynamical systems. He shows how this dynamical approach can be applied to problems of cognition, information processing, consciousness, meaning, and the relation between body and mind.

The Continuity of Mind

Author: Michael Spivey Professor of Psychology Cornell University

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198038151

Category: Psychology

Page: 448

View: 8251

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The cognitive and neural sciences have been on the brink of a paradigm shift for over a decade. The traditional information-processing framework in psychology, with its computer metaphor of the mind, is still considered to be the mainstream approach, but dynamical-systems accounts of mental activity are now receiving a more rigorous treatment, allowing them to more beyond merely brandishing trendy buzzwords. The Continuity of the Mind will help to galvanize the forces of dynamical systems theory, cognitive and computational neuroscience, connectionism, and ecological psychology that are needed to complete this paradigm shift. In The Continuity of the Mind Michael Spivey lays bare the fact that comprehending a spoken sentence, understanding a visual scene, or just thinking about the days events involves the serial coalescing of different neuronal activation patterns, i.e., a state-space trajectory that flirts with a series of point attractors. As a result, the brain cannot help but spend most of its time instantiating patterns of activity that are in between identifiable mental states rather than in them. When this scenario is combined with the fact that most cognitive processes are richly embedded in their environmental context in real time, the state space (in which brief visitations of attractor basins are your thoughts) suddenly encompasses not just neuronal dimensions, but extends to biomechanical and environmental dimensions as well. As a result, your moment-by-moment experience of the world around you, even right now, can be described as a continuous trajectory through a high-dimensional state space that is comprised of diverse mental states. Spivey has arranged The Continuity of the Mind to present a systematic overview of how perception, cognition, and action are partially overlapping segments of one continuous mental flow, rather than three distinct mental systems. The initial chapters provide empirical demonstrations of the gray areas in mental activity that happen in between discretely labeled mental events, as well as geometric visualizations of attractors in state space that make the dynamical-systems framework seem less mathematically abstract. The middle chapters present scores of behavioral and neurophysiological studies that portray the continuous temporal dynamics inherent in categorization, language comprehension, visual perception, as well as attention, action, and reasoning. The final chapters conclude with discussions of what the mind itself must look like if its activity is continuous in time and its contents are distributed in state space.

Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind

Author: Robert D. Rupert

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199888647

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

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Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind surveys philosophical issues raised by the situated movement in cognitive science, that is, the treatment of cognitive phenomena as the joint products of brain, body, and environment.

Reconstructing the Cognitive World

The Next Step

Author: Michael Wheeler

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262232401

Category: Philosophy

Page: 340

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An argument for a non-Cartesian philosophical foundation for cognitive science that combines elements of Heideggerian phenomenology, a dynamical systems approach to cognition, and insights from artificial intelligence-related robotics.

Abductive Cognition

The Epistemological and Eco-Cognitive Dimensions of Hypothetical Reasoning

Author: Lorenzo Magnani

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642036317

Category: Computers

Page: 535

View: 9177

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This volume explores abductive cognition, an important but, at least until the third quarter of the last century, neglected topic in cognition. It aims at increasing knowledge about creative and expert inferences.

A System Architecture Approach to the Brain

From Neurons to Consciousness

Author: L. Andrew Coward

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781594544330

Category: Medical

Page: 349

View: 8986

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This book is the integrated presentation of a large body of work on understanding the operation of biological brains as systems. The work has been carried out by the author over the last 22 years, and leads to a claim that it is relatively straightforward to understand how human cognition results from and is supported by physiological processes in the brain. This claim has roots in the technology for designing and manufacturing electronic systems which manage extremely complex telecommunications networks with high reliability, in real time and with no human intervention. Such systems perform very large numbers of interacting control features. Although there is little direct resemblance between such systems and biological brains, the ways in which these practical considerations force system architectures within some specific bounds leads to an understanding of how different but analogous practical considerations constrain the architectures of brains within different bounds called the Recommendation Architecture. These architectural bounds make it possible to relate cognitive phenomena to physiological processes.

Complex Systems and Cognitive Processes

Author: Roberto Serra,Gianni Zanarini

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642466788

Category: Computers

Page: 205

View: 8871

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This volume describes our intellectual path from the physics of complex sys tems to the science of artificial cognitive systems. It was exciting to discover that many of the concepts and methods which succeed in describing the self organizing phenomena of the physical world are relevant also for understand ing cognitive processes. Several nonlinear physicists have felt the fascination of such discovery in recent years. In this volume, we will limit our discussion to artificial cognitive systems, without attempting to model either the cognitive behaviour or the nervous structure of humans or animals. On the one hand, such artificial systems are important per se; on the other hand, it can be expected that their study will shed light on some general principles which are relevant also to biological cognitive systems. The main purpose of this volume is to show that nonlinear dynamical systems have several properties which make them particularly attractive for reaching some of the goals of artificial intelligence. The enthusiasm which was mentioned above must however be qualified by a critical consideration of the limitations of the dynamical systems approach. Understanding cognitive processes is a tremendous scientific challenge, and the achievements reached so far allow no single method to claim that it is the only valid one. In particular, the approach based upon nonlinear dynamical systems, which is our main topic, is still in an early stage of development.

Aspects of Automatic Text Analysis

Author: Alexander Mehler,Reinhard Köhler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540375201

Category: Computers

Page: 464

View: 3243

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The significance of natural language texts as the prime information structure for the management and dissemination of knowledge is - as the rise of the web shows - still increasing. Making relevant texts available in different contexts is of primary importance for efficient task completion in academic and industrial settings. Meeting this demand requires automatic form and content based processing of texts, which enables to reconstruct or even to explore the dynamic relationship of language system, text event and context type. The rise of new application areas, disciplines and methods (e.g. text and web mining) testify to the importance of this task. Moreover, the growing area of new media demands the further development of methods of text analysis with respect to their computational linguistic, information theoretical, and mathematical underpinning. This book contributes to this task. It collects contributions of authors from a multidisciplinary area who focus on the topic of automatic text analysis from several (i.e. linguistic, mathematical, and information theoretical) perspectives. It describes methodological as well as methodical foundations and collects approaches in the field of text and corpus linguistics. In this sense, it contributes to the computational linguistic and information theoretical grounding of automatic text analysis.

From Animals to Animats 9

9th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, SAB 2006, Rome, Italy, September 25-29, 2006, Proceedings

Author: Stefano Nolfi,Gianluca Baldassare,Raffaele Calabretta,John Hallam,Davide Marocco,Orazio Miglino,Jean-Arcady Meyer,Domenico Parisi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540386084

Category: Computers

Page: 869

View: 4871

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, SAB 2006. The 35 revised full papers and 35 revised poster papers presented are organized in topical sections on the animat approach to adaptive behaviour, perception and motor control, action selection and behavioral sequences, navigation and internal world models, learning and adaptation, evolution, collective and social behaviours, applied adaptive behavior and more.

Radical Embodied Cognitive Science

Author: Anthony Chemero

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262258080

Category: Philosophy

Page: 272

View: 2451

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While philosophers of mind have been arguing over the status of mental representations in cognitive science, cognitive scientists have been quietly engaged in studying perception, action, and cognition without explaining them in terms of mental representation. In this book, Anthony Chemero describes this nonrepresentational approach (which he terms radical embodied cognitive science), puts it in historical and conceptual context, and applies it to traditional problems in the philosophy of mind. Radical embodied cognitive science is a direct descendant of the American naturalist psychology of William James and John Dewey, and follows them in viewing perception and cognition to be understandable only in terms of action in the environment. Chemero argues that cognition should be described in terms of agent-environment dynamics rather than in terms of computation and representation. After outlining this orientation to cognition, Chemero proposes a methodology: dynamical systems theory, which would explain things dynamically and without reference to representation. He also advances a background theory: Gibsonian ecological psychology, "shored up" and clarified. Chemero then looks at some traditional philosophical problems (reductionism, epistemological skepticism, metaphysical realism, consciousness) through the lens of radical embodied cognitive science and concludes that the comparative ease with which it resolves these problems, combined with its empirical promise, makes this approach to cognitive science a rewarding one. "Jerry Fodor is my favorite philosopher," Chemero writes in his preface, adding, "I think that Jerry Fodor is wrong about nearly everything." With this book, Chemero explains nonrepresentational, dynamical, ecological cognitive science as clearly and as rigorously as Jerry Fodor explained computational cognitive science in his classic work The Language of Thought.