The Dynamical Systems Approach to Cognition

Concepts and Empirical Paradigms Based on Self-organization, Embodiment, and Coordination Dynamics

Author: Wolfgang Tschacher,Jean-Pierre Dauwalder

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812386106

Category: Psychology

Page: 330

View: 1528

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The shared platform of the articles collected in this volume is used to advocate a dynamical systems approach to cognition. It is argued that recent developments in cognitive science towards an account of embodiment, together with the general approach of complexity theory and dynamics, have a major impact on behavioral and cognitive science. The book points out that there are two domains that follow naturally from the stance of embodiment: first, coordination dynamics is an established empirical paradigm that is best able to aid the approach; second, the obvious goal-directedness of intelligent action (i.e., intentionality) is nicely addressed in the framework of the dynamical synergetic approach.

A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action

Author: Esther Thelen,Linda B. Smith

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262700597

Category: Psychology

Page: 376

View: 8067

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"A radical departure from most of current cognitive development theory.... Nativists, structuralists, empiricists and social constructivists will disagree with different parts of this book. Yet this landmark volume is essential reading for all of them." -- Annette Karmiloff-Smith and Mark H. Johnson, "Nature" A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action presents a comprehensive and detailed theory of early human development based on the principles of dynamic systems theory. Beginning with their own research in motor, perceptual, and cognitive development, Thelen and Smith raise fundamental questions about prevailing assumptions in the field. They propose a new theory of the development of cognition and action, unifying recent advances in dynamic systems theory with current research in neuroscience and neural development. In particular, they show how by processes of exploration and selection, multimodal experiences form the bases for self-organizing perception-action categories. Thelen and Smith offer a radical alternative to current cognitive theory, both in their emphasis on dynamic representation and in their focus on processes of change. Among the first attempt to apply complexity theory to psychology, they suggest reinterpretations of several classic issues in early cognitive development. The book is divided into three sections. The first discusses the nature of developmental processes in general terms, the second covers dynamic principles in process and mechanism, and the third looks at how a dynamic theory can be applied to enduring puzzles of development. Cognitive Psychology series

The Dynamical Systems Approach to Cognition

Concepts and Empirical Paradigms Based on Self-Organization, Embodiment, and Coordination Dynamics

Author: Wolfgang Tschacher,Jean-Pierre Dauwalder

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814485004

Category: Medical

Page: 344

View: 616

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The shared platform of the articles collected in this volume is used to advocate a dynamical systems approach to cognition. It is argued that recent developments in cognitive science towards an account of embodiment, together with the general approach of complexity theory and dynamics, have a major impact on behavioral and cognitive science. The book points out that there are two domains that follow naturally from the stance of embodiment: first, coordination dynamics is an established empirical paradigm that is best able to aid the approach; second, the obvious goal-directedness of intelligent action (i.e., intentionality) is nicely addressed in the framework of the dynamical synergetic approach. Contents:Intelligent Behavior: A Synergetic View (H Haken)Grounded in the World: Developmental Origins of the Embodied Mind (E Thelen)Cognitive Coordination Dynamics (S Kelso)What is Coordinated in Bimanual Coordination? (F Mechsner & W Prinz)Cognition in Action: The Interplay of Attention and Bimanual Coordination Dynamics (J J Temprado)A Synergetic Approach to Describe the Stability and Variability of Motor Behavior (K Witte et al.)The Role of Synchronization in Perception-Action (T-C Chan et al.)A Mean-Field Approach to Self-Organization in Spatially Extended Perception-Action and Psychological Systems (T Frank & P J Beek)Self-Organizing Systems Show Apparent Intentionality (W Tschacher et al.)The Embodiment of Intentionality (S Jordan)Cognitive Science, Representations and Dynamical Systems Theory (P Haselager)Self-Steered Self-Organization (F Keijzer)Brain Dynamics: Methodological Issues and Applications in Psychiatic and Neurologic Diseases (L Fezard)SIRN (Synergetic Inter-Representation Networks), Artifacts and Snow's Two Cultures (J Portugali)Dynamical Systems Theory: Application to Pedagogy (J Abraham) Readership: Psychologists, cognitive scientists, computer scientists, biologists and philosophers. Keywords:Cognitive Science;Consciousness;Dynamical Systems Theory;Self-Organization;Philosophy of Mind;Motor Coordination

A Dynamic Systems Approach to Development

Applications

Author: Linda B. Smith,Esther Thelen

Publisher: Bradford Books

ISBN: N.A

Category: FAMILY & RELATIONSHIPS

Page: 414

View: 2593

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A Dynamic Systems Approach to Development explores the value of dynamical systems principles for solving the enduring puzzles of development, including the ultimate source of change, the problems of continuity and discontinuities, and nonlinear outcomes and individual differences. What do laser lights, crystals, walking, reaching, and concepts have in common? All are complex dynamic systems. Over the last decade, the burgeoning fields of synergetics and nonlinear dynamics have shown in mathematically precise ways how such complex systems can produce emergent order from the cooperation of many simpler elements. A Dynamic Systems Approach to Development explores the value of dynamical systems principles for solving the enduring puzzles of development, including the ultimate source of change, the problems of continuity and discontinuities, and nonlinear outcomes and individual differences. This companion volume to the forthcoming A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action shows how the ideas of dynamic systems may form the basis for a new theory of human development. The problems considered include areas of motor development, perceptual and cognitive development, and social development. The use of dynamic systems ranges from the metaphorical to the rigorously mathematical, but in all cases the contributions present a step forward in developmental theory.

Dynamical Cognitive Science

Author: Lawrence M. Ward

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262232173

Category: Psychology

Page: 355

View: 4107

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An introduction to the application of dynamical systems science to the cognitive sciences.

Mind as Motion

Explorations in the Dynamics of Cognition

Author: Robert F. Port,Timothy Van Gelder

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262161503

Category: Psychology

Page: 590

View: 8324

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The first comprehensive presentation of the dynamical approach to cognition. It contains a representative sampling of original, current research on topics such as perception, motor control, speech and language, decision making, and development.

Dynamics, Synergetics, Autonomous Agents

Nonlinear Systems Approaches to Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science

Author: Wolfgang Tschacher,Jean-Pierre Dauwalder

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810238377

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 3124

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This volume focuses on the modeling of cognition, and brings together contributions from psychologists and researchers in the field of cognitive science. The shared platform of this work is to advocate a dynamical systems approach to cognition. Several aspects of this approach are considered here: chaos theory, artificial intelligence and Alife models, catastrophe theory and, most importantly, self-organization theory or synergetics. The application of nonlinear systems theory to cognitive science in general, and to cognitive psychology in particular, is a growing field that has gained further momentum thanks to new contributions from the science of robotics. The recent development in cognitive science towards an account of embodiment, together with the general approach of complexity theory and dynamics, will have a major impact on our psychological understanding of reasoning, thinking and behavior.

Toward a Unified Theory of Development

Connectionism and Dynamic Systems Theory Re-considered

Author: John P. Spencer,Michael S. C. Thomas,James L. McClelland

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 389

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This resource defines and refines two major theoretical approaches within developmental science that address the central issues of development-connectionism and dynamical systems theory.

The Continuity of Mind

Author: Michael Spivey Professor of Psychology Cornell University

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198038151

Category: Psychology

Page: 448

View: 894

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The cognitive and neural sciences have been on the brink of a paradigm shift for over a decade. The traditional information-processing framework in psychology, with its computer metaphor of the mind, is still considered to be the mainstream approach, but dynamical-systems accounts of mental activity are now receiving a more rigorous treatment, allowing them to more beyond merely brandishing trendy buzzwords. The Continuity of the Mind will help to galvanize the forces of dynamical systems theory, cognitive and computational neuroscience, connectionism, and ecological psychology that are needed to complete this paradigm shift. In The Continuity of the Mind Michael Spivey lays bare the fact that comprehending a spoken sentence, understanding a visual scene, or just thinking about the days events involves the serial coalescing of different neuronal activation patterns, i.e., a state-space trajectory that flirts with a series of point attractors. As a result, the brain cannot help but spend most of its time instantiating patterns of activity that are in between identifiable mental states rather than in them. When this scenario is combined with the fact that most cognitive processes are richly embedded in their environmental context in real time, the state space (in which brief visitations of attractor basins are your thoughts) suddenly encompasses not just neuronal dimensions, but extends to biomechanical and environmental dimensions as well. As a result, your moment-by-moment experience of the world around you, even right now, can be described as a continuous trajectory through a high-dimensional state space that is comprised of diverse mental states. Spivey has arranged The Continuity of the Mind to present a systematic overview of how perception, cognition, and action are partially overlapping segments of one continuous mental flow, rather than three distinct mental systems. The initial chapters provide empirical demonstrations of the gray areas in mental activity that happen in between discretely labeled mental events, as well as geometric visualizations of attractors in state space that make the dynamical-systems framework seem less mathematically abstract. The middle chapters present scores of behavioral and neurophysiological studies that portray the continuous temporal dynamics inherent in categorization, language comprehension, visual perception, as well as attention, action, and reasoning. The final chapters conclude with discussions of what the mind itself must look like if its activity is continuous in time and its contents are distributed in state space.

Dynamical Systems in Social Psychology

Author: Robin R. Vallacher,Andrzej Nowak

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780127099903

Category: Medical

Page: 305

View: 6097

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A dynamical system refers to a set of elements that interact in complex, often nonlinear ways to form coherent patterns. Because of the complexity of these interactions, the system as a whole may evolve over time in seemingly unpredictable ways as new patterns of behavior emerge. This metatheory has proven useful in understanding diverse phenomena in meteorology, population biology, statistical mechanics, economics, and cosmology. The book demonstrates how the dynamical systems perspective can be applied to theory construction and research in social psychology, and in doing so, provides fresh insight into such complex phenomena as interpersonal behavior, social relations, attitudes, and social cognition.

Radical Embodied Cognitive Science

Author: Anthony Chemero

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262258080

Category: Philosophy

Page: 272

View: 1691

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While philosophers of mind have been arguing over the status of mental representations in cognitive science, cognitive scientists have been quietly engaged in studying perception, action, and cognition without explaining them in terms of mental representation. In this book, Anthony Chemero describes this nonrepresentational approach (which he terms radical embodied cognitive science), puts it in historical and conceptual context, and applies it to traditional problems in the philosophy of mind. Radical embodied cognitive science is a direct descendant of the American naturalist psychology of William James and John Dewey, and follows them in viewing perception and cognition to be understandable only in terms of action in the environment. Chemero argues that cognition should be described in terms of agent-environment dynamics rather than in terms of computation and representation. After outlining this orientation to cognition, Chemero proposes a methodology: dynamical systems theory, which would explain things dynamically and without reference to representation. He also advances a background theory: Gibsonian ecological psychology, "shored up" and clarified. Chemero then looks at some traditional philosophical problems (reductionism, epistemological skepticism, metaphysical realism, consciousness) through the lens of radical embodied cognitive science and concludes that the comparative ease with which it resolves these problems, combined with its empirical promise, makes this approach to cognitive science a rewarding one. "Jerry Fodor is my favorite philosopher," Chemero writes in his preface, adding, "I think that Jerry Fodor is wrong about nearly everything." With this book, Chemero explains nonrepresentational, dynamical, ecological cognitive science as clearly and as rigorously as Jerry Fodor explained computational cognitive science in his classic work The Language of Thought.

Dynamic Patterns

The Self-organization of Brain and Behavior

Author: J. A. Scott Kelso

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262611312

Category: Psychology

Page: 334

View: 8179

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foreword by Hermann Haken For the past twenty years Scott Kelso's research has focused on extending the physical concepts of self- organization and the mathematical tools of nonlinear dynamics to understand how human beings (and human brains) perceive, intend, learn, control, and coordinate complex behaviors. In this book Kelso proposes a new, general framework within which to connect brain, mind, and behavior.Kelso's prescription for mental life breaks dramatically with the classical computational approach that is still the operative framework for many newer psychological and neurophysiological studies. His core thesis is that the creation and evolution of patterned behavior at all levels -- from neurons to mind -- is governed by the generic processes of self-organization. Both human brain and behavior are shown to exhibit features of pattern-forming dynamical systems, including multistability, abrupt phase transitions, crises, and intermittency.Dynamic Patterns brings together different aspects of this approach to the study of human behavior, using simple experimental examples and illustrations to convey essential concepts, strategies, and methods, with a minimum of mathematics.Kelso begins with a general account of dynamic pattern formation. He then takes up behavior, focusing initially on identifying pattern-forming instabilities in human sensorimotor coordination. Moving back and forth between theory and experiment, he establishes the notion that the same pattern-forming mechanisms apply regardless of the component parts involved (parts of the body, parts of the nervous system, parts of society) and the medium through which the parts are coupled. Finally, employing the latest techniques to observe spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity, Kelso shows that the human brain is fundamentally a pattern forming dynamical system, poised on the brink of instability. Self-organization thus underlies the cooperative action of neurons that produces human behavior in all its forms.

Dynamical Social Psychology

Author: Andrzej Nowak,Robin R. Vallacher

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 9781572303539

Category: Psychology

Page: 318

View: 9744

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Traditional approaches to social psychology have proven highly successful in identifying causal mechanisms underlying human thought and behavior. With the recent advent of the dynamical approach, it is now possible to assemble sets of such mechanisms into coherent systems. This book uses innovative concepts and tools to illuminate the processes by which individuals, groups, and societies evolve and change in a systemic, self-sustaining manner, at times seemingly independent of external influences. Readers learn how the dynamical approach facilitates novel predictions and insights into such social psychological phenomena as attitudes, social judgment, goal-directed behavior, attraction, and relationships. Featuring a wealth of charts and figures derived from original research and computer simulations, the volume is grounded in classic and contemporary theories of social psychology.

Dynamic Thinking

A Primer on Dynamic Field Theory

Author: Gregor Schöner,John Spencer,Dft Research Group

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199300569

Category: Cognitive psychology

Page: 416

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"This book describes a new theoretical approach--Dynamic Field Theory (DFT)--that explains how people think and act"--

Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience

Author: Eugene M. Izhikevich

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262090430

Category: Medical

Page: 441

View: 3157

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In order to model neuronal behavior or to interpret the results of modeling studies, neuroscientists must call upon methods of nonlinear dynamics. This book offers an introduction to nonlinear dynamical systems theory for researchers and graduate students in neuroscience. It also provides an overview of neuroscience for mathematicians who want to learn the basic facts of electrophysiology. Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience presents a systematic study of the relationship of electrophysiology, nonlinear dynamics, and computational properties of neurons. It emphasizes that information processing in the brain depends not only on the electrophysiological properties of neurons but also on their dynamical properties. The book introduces dynamical systems, starting with one- and two-dimensional Hodgkin-Huxley-type models and continuing to a description of bursting systems. Each chapter proceeds from the simple to the complex, and provides sample problems at the end. The book explains all necessary mathematical concepts using geometrical intuition; it includes many figures and few equations, making it especially suitable for non-mathematicians. Each concept is presented in terms of both neuroscience and mathematics, providing a link between the two disciplines. Nonlinear dynamical systems theory is at the core of computational neuroscience research, but it is not a standard part of the graduate neuroscience curriculum—or taught by math or physics department in a way that is suitable for students of biology. This book offers neuroscience students and researchers a comprehensive account of concepts and methods increasingly used in computational neuroscience. An additional chapter on synchronization, with more advanced material, can be found at the author's website, www.izhikevich.com.

Representation and Behavior

Author: Fred Keijzer

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262263320

Category: Psychology

Page: 296

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Representation is a fundamental concept within cognitive science. Most often, representations are interpreted as mental representations, theoretical entities that are the bearers of meaning and the source of intentionality. This approach views representation as the internal reflection of external circumstances -- that is, as the end station of sensory processes that translate the environmental state of affairs into a set of mental representations.Fred Keijzer stresses, however, that representations are also the starting point for a set of processes that lead back to the external environment. They are used as theoretical components within an explanation of a person's outwardly visible behavior. In this book Keijzer investigates the usefulness of representation for behavioral explanation, irrespective of mental issues. Viewing representation solely in terms of its contribution to explaining behavior allows him to build a serious case for a nonrepresentational approach and to evaluate representation's role in cognitive science.Keijzer provides a reconstruction of cognitive science's implicit representational explanation of behavior, which he calls Agent Theory (AT). AT is the use of mind as a subpersonal mechanism of behavior. He proposes an alternative to AT called Behavioral Systems Theory (BST), which explains behavior as the result of interactions between an organism and its environment. Keijzer compares BST to related work in the biology of cognition, in the building of animal-like robots, and in dynamical systems theory. Most important, he extends BST to the difficult issue of anticipatory behavior through an analogy between behavior and morphogenesis, the process by which a multicellular body develops.

Connectionism and the Philosophy of Psychology

Author: Terence Horgan,Terry Horgan,John Tienson

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262082488

Category: Psychology

Page: 207

View: 364

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"Horgan and Tienson's Connectionism and the Philosophy of Psychology develops an outline of a truly original theory of cognition. No one interested in the theory of cognitive architecture can afford to ignore this book." -- Brian P. McLaughlin, Professor of Philosophy, Rutgers University "A fascinating read. The book is original and thought-provoking. Horgan and Tienson has staked out a new and sophisticated position on cognition, which is likely to find a very wide audience indeed in both philosophy and cognitive science." -- Michael Tye, Professor of Philosophy, Temple University; Visiting Professor of Philosophy, King's College, London Human cognition is soft. It is too flexible, too rich, and too open-ended to be captured by hard (precise, exceptionless) rules of the sort that can constitute a computer program. In Connectionism and the Philosophy of Psychology, Horgan and Tienson articulate and defend a new view of cognition. In place of the classical paradigm that take the mind to be a computer (or a group of linked computers), they propose that the mind is best understood as a dynamical system realized in a neural network. Although Horgan and Tienson assert that cognition cannot be understood in classical terms of the algorithm-governed manipulation of symbols, they don't abandon syntax. Instead, they insist that human cognition is symbolic, and that cognitive processes are sensitive to the structure of symbols in the brain: the very richness of cognition requires a system of mental representations within which there are syntactically complex symbols and structure-sensitive processing. However, syntactic constituentsneed not be parts of complex representations, and structure sensitive processes need not conform to algorithms. Cognition requires a language of thought, but a language of thought implicated in processes that are not governed by hard rules. Instead, symbols are generated and transformed in response to interacting cognitive forces, which are determined by multiple, simultaneous, (robustly) soft constraints. Thus, cognitive processes conform to soft (ceteris paribus) laws, rather than to hard laws. Cognitive forces are subserved by, but not identical with, physical forces in a network; the organization and the interaction of cognitive forces are best understood in terms of the mathematical theory of dynamical systems. The concluding chapter elaborates the authors' proposed dynamical cognition framework. "A Bradford Book"

Philosophy of Complex Systems

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080931227

Category: Philosophy

Page: 952

View: 7833

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The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of complex nonlinear dynamical systems, especially in recent years. -Comprehensive coverage of all main theories in the philosophy of Complex Systems -Clearly written expositions of fundamental ideas and concepts -Definitive discussions by leading researchers in the field -Summaries of leading-edge research in related fields are also included

Handbook of Cognitive Science

An Embodied Approach

Author: Paco Calvo,Toni Gomila

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080914879

Category: Computers

Page: 498

View: 873

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The Handbook of Cognitive Science provides an overview of recent developments in cognition research, relying upon non-classical approaches. Cognition is explained as the continuous interplay between brain, body, and environment, without relying on classical notions of computations and representation to explain cognition. The handbook serves as a valuable companion for readers interested in foundational aspects of cognitive science, and neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. The handbook begins with an introduction to embodied cognitive science, and then breaks up the chapters into separate sections on conceptual issues, formal approaches, embodiment in perception and action, embodiment from an artificial perspective, embodied meaning, and emotion and consciousness. Contributors to the book represent research overviews from around the globe including the US, UK, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, France, Sweden, and the Netherlands.

Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics

A Systems Approach, Second Edition

Author: Stephen J. Guastello

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466560096

Category: Computers

Page: 501

View: 8894

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Although still true to its original focus on the person–machine interface, the field of human factors psychology (ergonomics) has expanded to include stress research, accident analysis and prevention, and nonlinear dynamical systems theory (how systems change over time), human group dynamics, and environmental psychology. Reflecting new developments in the field, Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics: A Systems Approach, Second Edition addresses a wide range of human factors and ergonomics principles found in conventional and twenty-first century technologies and environments. Based on the author’s thirty years of experience, the text emphasizes fundamental concepts, systems thinking, the changing nature of the person-machine interface, and the dynamics of systems as they change over time. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Developments in working memory, degrees of freedom in cognitive processes, subjective workload, decision-making, and situation awareness Updated information on cognitive workload and fatigue Additional principles for HFE, networks, multiple person-machine systems, and human-robot swarms Accident analysis and prevention includes resilience, new developments in safety climate, and an update to the inventory of accident prevention techniques and their relative effectiveness Problems in "big data" mining Psychomotor control and its relevance to human-robot systems Navigation in real-world environment Trust in automation and augmented cognition Computer technology permeates every aspect of the human–machine system, and has only become more ubiquitous since the previous edition. The systems are becoming more complex, so it should stand to reason that theories need to evolve to cope with the new sources of complexity. While many books cover traditional topics and theory, they to not focus on the practical problems students will face in the future. With broad coverage that ranges from physical ergonomics to cognitive aspects of human-machine interaction and includes dynamic approaches to system failure, this book increases the number of methods and analytical tools that are available for the human factors researcher.