The Dynamical Systems Approach to Cognition

Concepts and Empirical Paradigms Based on Self-organization, Embodiment, and Coordination Dynamics

Author: Wolfgang Tschacher,Jean-Pierre Dauwalder

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812386106

Category: Psychology

Page: 330

View: 7774

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The shared platform of the articles collected in this volume is used to advocate a dynamical systems approach to cognition. It is argued that recent developments in cognitive science towards an account of embodiment, together with the general approach of complexity theory and dynamics, have a major impact on behavioral and cognitive science. The book points out that there are two domains that follow naturally from the stance of embodiment: first, coordination dynamics is an established empirical paradigm that is best able to aid the approach; second, the obvious goal-directedness of intelligent action (i.e., intentionality) is nicely addressed in the framework of the dynamical synergetic approach.

The Dynamical Systems Approach to Cognition

Concepts and Empirical Paradigms Based on Self-Organization, Embodiment, and Coordination Dynamics

Author: Wolfgang Tschacher,Jean-Pierre Dauwalder

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814485004

Category: Medical

Page: 344

View: 5981

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The shared platform of the articles collected in this volume is used to advocate a dynamical systems approach to cognition. It is argued that recent developments in cognitive science towards an account of embodiment, together with the general approach of complexity theory and dynamics, have a major impact on behavioral and cognitive science. The book points out that there are two domains that follow naturally from the stance of embodiment: first, coordination dynamics is an established empirical paradigm that is best able to aid the approach; second, the obvious goal-directedness of intelligent action (i.e., intentionality) is nicely addressed in the framework of the dynamical synergetic approach. Contents:Intelligent Behavior: A Synergetic View (H Haken)Grounded in the World: Developmental Origins of the Embodied Mind (E Thelen)Cognitive Coordination Dynamics (S Kelso)What is Coordinated in Bimanual Coordination? (F Mechsner & W Prinz)Cognition in Action: The Interplay of Attention and Bimanual Coordination Dynamics (J J Temprado)A Synergetic Approach to Describe the Stability and Variability of Motor Behavior (K Witte et al.)The Role of Synchronization in Perception-Action (T-C Chan et al.)A Mean-Field Approach to Self-Organization in Spatially Extended Perception-Action and Psychological Systems (T Frank & P J Beek)Self-Organizing Systems Show Apparent Intentionality (W Tschacher et al.)The Embodiment of Intentionality (S Jordan)Cognitive Science, Representations and Dynamical Systems Theory (P Haselager)Self-Steered Self-Organization (F Keijzer)Brain Dynamics: Methodological Issues and Applications in Psychiatic and Neurologic Diseases (L Fezard)SIRN (Synergetic Inter-Representation Networks), Artifacts and Snow's Two Cultures (J Portugali)Dynamical Systems Theory: Application to Pedagogy (J Abraham) Readership: Psychologists, cognitive scientists, computer scientists, biologists and philosophers. Keywords:Cognitive Science;Consciousness;Dynamical Systems Theory;Self-Organization;Philosophy of Mind;Motor Coordination

A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action

Author: Esther Thelen,Linda B. Smith

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262700597

Category: Psychology

Page: 376

View: 9482

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"A radical departure from most of current cognitive development theory.... Nativists, structuralists, empiricists and social constructivists will disagree with different parts of this book. Yet this landmark volume is essential reading for all of them." -- Annette Karmiloff-Smith and Mark H. Johnson, "Nature" A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action presents a comprehensive and detailed theory of early human development based on the principles of dynamic systems theory. Beginning with their own research in motor, perceptual, and cognitive development, Thelen and Smith raise fundamental questions about prevailing assumptions in the field. They propose a new theory of the development of cognition and action, unifying recent advances in dynamic systems theory with current research in neuroscience and neural development. In particular, they show how by processes of exploration and selection, multimodal experiences form the bases for self-organizing perception-action categories. Thelen and Smith offer a radical alternative to current cognitive theory, both in their emphasis on dynamic representation and in their focus on processes of change. Among the first attempt to apply complexity theory to psychology, they suggest reinterpretations of several classic issues in early cognitive development. The book is divided into three sections. The first discusses the nature of developmental processes in general terms, the second covers dynamic principles in process and mechanism, and the third looks at how a dynamic theory can be applied to enduring puzzles of development. Cognitive Psychology series

A Dynamic Systems Approach to Development

Applications

Author: Linda B. Smith,Esther Thelen

Publisher: Bradford Books

ISBN: N.A

Category: FAMILY & RELATIONSHIPS

Page: 414

View: 3044

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A Dynamic Systems Approach to Development explores the value of dynamical systems principles for solving the enduring puzzles of development, including the ultimate source of change, the problems of continuity and discontinuities, and nonlinear outcomes and individual differences. What do laser lights, crystals, walking, reaching, and concepts have in common? All are complex dynamic systems. Over the last decade, the burgeoning fields of synergetics and nonlinear dynamics have shown in mathematically precise ways how such complex systems can produce emergent order from the cooperation of many simpler elements. A Dynamic Systems Approach to Development explores the value of dynamical systems principles for solving the enduring puzzles of development, including the ultimate source of change, the problems of continuity and discontinuities, and nonlinear outcomes and individual differences. This companion volume to the forthcoming A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action shows how the ideas of dynamic systems may form the basis for a new theory of human development. The problems considered include areas of motor development, perceptual and cognitive development, and social development. The use of dynamic systems ranges from the metaphorical to the rigorously mathematical, but in all cases the contributions present a step forward in developmental theory.

Dynamics, Synergetics, Autonomous Agents

Nonlinear Systems Approaches to Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science

Author: Wolfgang Tschacher,Jean-Pierre Dauwalder

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810238377

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 5566

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This volume focuses on the modeling of cognition, and brings together contributions from psychologists and researchers in the field of cognitive science. The shared platform of this work is to advocate a dynamical systems approach to cognition. Several aspects of this approach are considered here: chaos theory, artificial intelligence and Alife models, catastrophe theory and, most importantly, self-organization theory or synergetics. The application of nonlinear systems theory to cognitive science in general, and to cognitive psychology in particular, is a growing field that has gained further momentum thanks to new contributions from the science of robotics. The recent development in cognitive science towards an account of embodiment, together with the general approach of complexity theory and dynamics, will have a major impact on our psychological understanding of reasoning, thinking and behavior.

Dynamical Cognitive Science

Author: Lawrence M. Ward

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262232173

Category: Psychology

Page: 355

View: 3481

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An introduction to the application of dynamical systems science to the cognitive sciences. Dynamical Cognitive Science makes available to the cognitive science community the analytical tools and techniques of dynamical systems science, adding the variables of change and time to the study of human cognition. The unifying theme is that human behavior is an "unfolding in time" whose study should be augmented by the application of time-sensitive tools from disciplines such as physics, mathematics, and economics, where change over time is of central importance. The book provides a fast-paced, comprehensive introduction to the application of dynamical systems science to the cognitive sciences. Topics include linear and nonlinear time series analysis, chaos theory, complexity theory, relaxation oscillators, and metatheoretical issues of modeling and theory building. Tools and techniques are discussed in the context of their application to basic cognitive science problems, including perception, memory, psychophysics, judgment and decision making, and consciousness. The final chapter summarizes the contemporary study of consciousness and suggests how dynamical approaches to cognitive science can help to advance our understanding of this central concept.

Mind as Motion

Explorations in the Dynamics of Cognition

Author: Robert F. Port,Timothy Van Gelder

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262161503

Category: Psychology

Page: 590

View: 3054

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The first comprehensive presentation of the dynamical approach to cognition. It contains a representative sampling of original, current research on topics such as perception, motor control, speech and language, decision making, and development.

The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology

Author: Ron Sun

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521674107

Category: Computers

Page: 753

View: 1813

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This book is a definitive reference source for the growing, increasingly more important, and interdisciplinary field of computational cognitive modeling, that is, computational psychology. It combines breadth of coverage with definitive statements by leading scientists in this field. Research in computational cognitive modeling explores the essence of cognition and various cognitive functionalities through developing detailed, process-based understanding by specifying computational mechanisms, structures, and processes. Given the complexity of the human mind and its manifestation in behavioral flexibility, process-based computational models may be necessary to explicate and elucidate the intricate details of the mind. The key to understanding cognitive processes is often in fine details. Computational models provide algorithmic specificity: detailed, exactly specified, and carefully thought-out steps, arranged in precise yet flexible sequences. These models provide both conceptual clarity and precision at the same time. This book substantiates this approach through overviews and many examples.

Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind

Author: Robert D. Rupert

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199888647

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

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Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind surveys philosophical issues raised by the situated movement in cognitive science, that is, the treatment of cognitive phenomena as the joint products of brain, body, and environment.

Reconstructing the Cognitive World

The Next Step

Author: Michael Wheeler

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262232401

Category: Philosophy

Page: 340

View: 3137

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An argument for a non-Cartesian philosophical foundation for cognitive science that combines elements of Heideggerian phenomenology, a dynamical systems approach to cognition, and insights from artificial intelligence-related robotics.

Abductive Cognition

The Epistemological and Eco-Cognitive Dimensions of Hypothetical Reasoning

Author: Lorenzo Magnani

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642036317

Category: Computers

Page: 535

View: 9024

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This volume explores abductive cognition, an important but, at least until the third quarter of the last century, neglected topic in cognition. It aims at increasing knowledge about creative and expert inferences.

A System Architecture Approach to the Brain

From Neurons to Consciousness

Author: L. Andrew Coward

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781594544330

Category: Medical

Page: 349

View: 7385

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This book is the integrated presentation of a large body of work on understanding the operation of biological brains as systems. The work has been carried out by the author over the last 22 years, and leads to a claim that it is relatively straightforward to understand how human cognition results from and is supported by physiological processes in the brain. This claim has roots in the technology for designing and manufacturing electronic systems which manage extremely complex telecommunications networks with high reliability, in real time and with no human intervention. Such systems perform very large numbers of interacting control features. Although there is little direct resemblance between such systems and biological brains, the ways in which these practical considerations force system architectures within some specific bounds leads to an understanding of how different but analogous practical considerations constrain the architectures of brains within different bounds called the Recommendation Architecture. These architectural bounds make it possible to relate cognitive phenomena to physiological processes.

Aspects of Automatic Text Analysis

Author: Alexander Mehler,Reinhard Köhler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540375201

Category: Computers

Page: 464

View: 2119

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The significance of natural language texts as the prime information structure for the management and dissemination of knowledge is - as the rise of the web shows - still increasing. Making relevant texts available in different contexts is of primary importance for efficient task completion in academic and industrial settings. Meeting this demand requires automatic form and content based processing of texts, which enables to reconstruct or even to explore the dynamic relationship of language system, text event and context type. The rise of new application areas, disciplines and methods (e.g. text and web mining) testify to the importance of this task. Moreover, the growing area of new media demands the further development of methods of text analysis with respect to their computational linguistic, information theoretical, and mathematical underpinning. This book contributes to this task. It collects contributions of authors from a multidisciplinary area who focus on the topic of automatic text analysis from several (i.e. linguistic, mathematical, and information theoretical) perspectives. It describes methodological as well as methodical foundations and collects approaches in the field of text and corpus linguistics. In this sense, it contributes to the computational linguistic and information theoretical grounding of automatic text analysis.

From Animals to Animats 9

9th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, SAB 2006, Rome, Italy, September 25-29, 2006, Proceedings

Author: Stefano Nolfi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540386084

Category: Computers

Page: 869

View: 9847

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, SAB 2006. The 35 revised full papers and 35 revised poster papers presented are organized in topical sections on the animat approach to adaptive behaviour, perception and motor control, action selection and behavioral sequences, navigation and internal world models, learning and adaptation, evolution, collective and social behaviours, applied adaptive behavior and more.

Complex Systems and Cognitive Processes

Author: Roberto Serra,Gianni Zanarini

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642466788

Category: Computers

Page: 205

View: 4255

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This volume describes our intellectual path from the physics of complex sys tems to the science of artificial cognitive systems. It was exciting to discover that many of the concepts and methods which succeed in describing the self organizing phenomena of the physical world are relevant also for understand ing cognitive processes. Several nonlinear physicists have felt the fascination of such discovery in recent years. In this volume, we will limit our discussion to artificial cognitive systems, without attempting to model either the cognitive behaviour or the nervous structure of humans or animals. On the one hand, such artificial systems are important per se; on the other hand, it can be expected that their study will shed light on some general principles which are relevant also to biological cognitive systems. The main purpose of this volume is to show that nonlinear dynamical systems have several properties which make them particularly attractive for reaching some of the goals of artificial intelligence. The enthusiasm which was mentioned above must however be qualified by a critical consideration of the limitations of the dynamical systems approach. Understanding cognitive processes is a tremendous scientific challenge, and the achievements reached so far allow no single method to claim that it is the only valid one. In particular, the approach based upon nonlinear dynamical systems, which is our main topic, is still in an early stage of development.

Computation, Dynamics, and Cognition

Author: Marco Giunti

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195358193

Category: Philosophy

Page: 192

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Currently there is growing interest in the application of dynamical methods to the study of cognition. Computation, Dynamics, and Cognition investigates this convergence from a theoretical and philosophical perspective, generating a provocative new view of the aims and methods of cognitive science. Advancing the dynamical approach as the methodological frame best equipped to guide inquiry in the field's two main research programs--the symbolic and connectionist approaches--Marco Giunti engages a host of questions crucial not only to the science of cognition, but also to computation theory, dynamical systems theory, philosophy of mind, and philosophy of science. In chapter one Giunti employs a dynamical viewpoint to explore foundational issues in computation theory. Using the concept of Turing computability, he precisely and originally defines the nature of a computational system, sharpening our understanding of computation theory and its applications. In chapter two he generalizes his definition of a computational system, arguing that the concept of Turing computability itself is relative to the kind of support on which Turing machine operate. Chapter three completes the book's conceptual foundation, discussing a form of scientific explanation for real dynamical systems that Giunti calls "Galilean explanation." The book's fourth and final chapter develops the methodological thesis that all cognitive systems are dynamical systems. On Giunti's view, a dynamical approach is likely to benefit even those scientific explanations of cognition which are based on symbolic models. Giunti concludes by proposing a new modeling practice for cognitive science, one based on "Galilean models" of cognitive systems. Innovative, lucidly-written, and broad-ranging in its analysis, Computation, Dynamics, and Cognition will interest philosophers of science and mind, as well as cognitive scientists, computer scientists, and theorists of dynamical systems. This book elaborates a comprehensive picture of the application of dynamical methods to the study of cognition. Giunti argues that both computational systems and connectionist networks are special types of dynamical systems. He shows how this dynamical approach can be applied to problems of cognition, information processing, consciousness, meaning, and the relation between body and mind.

Beyond the Brain

How Body and Environment Shape Animal and Human Minds

Author: Louise Barrett

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400838349

Category: Psychology

Page: 288

View: 7586

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When a chimpanzee stockpiles rocks as weapons or when a frog sends out mating calls, we might easily assume these animals know their own motivations--that they use the same psychological mechanisms that we do. But as Beyond the Brain indicates, this is a dangerous assumption because animals have different evolutionary trajectories, ecological niches, and physical attributes. How do these differences influence animal thinking and behavior? Removing our human-centered spectacles, Louise Barrett investigates the mind and brain and offers an alternative approach for understanding animal and human cognition. Drawing on examples from animal behavior, comparative psychology, robotics, artificial life, developmental psychology, and cognitive science, Barrett provides remarkable new insights into how animals and humans depend on their bodies and environment--not just their brains--to behave intelligently. Barrett begins with an overview of human cognitive adaptations and how these color our views of other species, brains, and minds. Considering when it is worth having a big brain--or indeed having a brain at all--she investigates exactly what brains are good at. Showing that the brain's evolutionary function guides action in the world, she looks at how physical structure contributes to cognitive processes, and she demonstrates how these processes employ materials and resources in specific environments. Arguing that thinking and behavior constitute a property of the whole organism, not just the brain, Beyond the Brain illustrates how the body, brain, and cognition are tied to the wider world.

The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology

Author: Jaan Valsiner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199366225

Category: Psychology

Page: 1136

View: 8829

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The goal of cultural psychology is to explain the ways in which human cultural constructions -- for example, rituals, stereotypes, and meanings -- organize and direct human acting, feeling, and thinking in different social contexts. A rapidly growing, international field of scholarship, cultural psychology is ready for an interdisciplinary, primary resource. Linking psychology, anthropology, sociology, archaeology, and history, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the quintessential volume that unites the variable perspectives from these disciplines. Comprised of over fifty contributed chapters, this book provides a necessary, comprehensive overview of contemporary cultural psychology. Bridging psychological, sociological, and anthropological perspectives, one will find in this handbook: - A concise history of psychology that includes valuable resources for innovation in psychology in general and cultural psychology in particular - Interdisciplinary chapters including insights into cultural anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, culture and conceptions of the self, and semiotics and cultural connections - Close, conceptual links with contemporary biological sciences, especially developmental biology, and with other social sciences - A section detailing potential methodological innovations for cultural psychology By comparing cultures and the (often differing) human psychological functions occuring within them, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the ideal resource for making sense of complex and varied human phenomena.

Dynamical Systems in Social Psychology

Author: Robin R. Vallacher,Andrzej Nowak

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780127099903

Category: Medical

Page: 305

View: 5188

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A dynamical system refers to a set of elements that interact in complex, often nonlinear ways to form coherent patterns. Because of the complexity of these interactions, the system as a whole may evolve over time in seemingly unpredictable ways as new patterns of behavior emerge. This metatheory has proven useful in understanding diverse phenomena in meteorology, population biology, statistical mechanics, economics, and cosmology. The book demonstrates how the dynamical systems perspective can be applied to theory construction and research in social psychology, and in doing so, provides fresh insight into such complex phenomena as interpersonal behavior, social relations, attitudes, and social cognition.