The Evolution of Memory Systems

Ancestors, Anatomy, and Adaptations

Author: Elisabeth A. Murray,Steven P. Wise,Kim S. Graham

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191509965

Category: Psychology

Page: 512

View: 4769

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Current theories about human memory have been shaped by clinical observations and animal experiments. This doctrine holds that the medial temporal lobe subserves one memory system for explicit or declarative memories, while the basal ganglia subserves a separate memory system for implicit or procedural memories, including habits. Cortical areas outside the medial temporal lobe are said to function in perception, motor control, attention, or other aspects of executive function, but not in memory. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' advances dramatically different ideas on all counts. It proposes that several memory systems arose during evolution and that they did so for the same general reason: to transcend problems and exploit opportunities encountered by specific ancestors at particular times and places in the distant past. Instead of classifying cortical areas in terms of mutually exclusive perception, executive, or memory functions, the authors show that all cortical areas contribute to memory and that they do so in their own ways-using specialized neural representations. The book also presents a proposal on the evolution of explicit memory. According to this idea, explicit (declarative) memory depends on interactions between a phylogenetically ancient navigation system and a representational system that evolved in humans to represent one's self and others. As a result, people embed representations of themselves into the events they experience and the facts they learn, which leads to the perception of participating in events and knowing facts. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' is an important new work for students and researchers in neuroscience, psychology, and biology.

From Conditioning to Conscious Recollection

Memory Systems of the Brain

Author: Howard Eichenbaum,Neal J. Cohen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198024705

Category: Medical

Page: 600

View: 3359

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This cutting-edge book offers a theoretical account of the evolution of multiple memory systems of the brain. The authors conceptualize these memory systems from both behavioral and neurobiological perspectives, guided by three related principles. First, that our understanding of a wide range of memory phenomena can be advanced by breaking down memory into multiple forms with different operating characteristics. Second, that different forms of memory representation are supported by distinct brain pathways with circuitry and neural coding properties. Third, that the contributions of different brain systems can be compared and contrasted by distinguishing between dedicated (or specific) and elaborate (or general) memory systems. A primary goal of this work is to relate the neurobiological properties of dedicated and elaborate systems to their neuropsychological counterparts, and in so doing, account for the phenomenology of memory, from conditioning to conscious recollection.

Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology

Author: Louise Barrett

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198568308

Category: Psychology

Page: 706

View: 8357

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With contributions from over 50 experts in the field, this book provides an overview of the latest developments in evolutionary psychology. In addition to well studied areas of investigation, it also includes chapters on the philosophical underpinnings of evolutionary psychology, comparative perspectives from other species, and more.

Talking to Our Selves

Reflection, Ignorance, and Agency

Author: John M. Doris

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191047325

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 3998

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John M. Doris presents a new account of agency and responsibility, which reconciles our understanding of ourselves as moral agents with psychological research on the unconscious mind. Much philosophical theorizing maintains that the exercise of morally responsible agency consists in judgment and behavior ordered by accurate reflection. On such theories, when human beings are able to direct their lives in the manner philosophers have dignified with the honorific 'agency', it's because they know what they're doing, and why they're doing it. This understanding is compromised by quantities of psychological research on unconscious processing, which suggests that accurate reflection is distressingly uncommon; very often behavior is ordered by surprisingly inaccurate self-awareness. Thus, if agency requires accurate reflection, people seldom exercise agency, and skepticism about agency threatens. To counter the skeptical threat, John M. Doris proposes an alternative theory that requires neither reflection nor accurate self-awareness: he identifies a dialogic form of agency where self-direction is facilitated by exchange of the rationalizations with which people explain and justify themselves to one another. The result is a stoutly interdisciplinary theory sensitive to both what human beings are like—creatures with opaque and unruly psychologies-and what they need: an account of agency sufficient to support a practice of moral responsibility.

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Author: Tim Bayne,Axel Cleeremans,Patrick Wilken

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191021032

Category: Psychology

Page: 670

View: 8288

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Consciousness is undoubtedly one of the last remaining scientific mysteries and hence one of the greatest contemporary scientific challenges. How does the brain's activity result in the rich phenomenology that characterizes our waking life? Are animals conscious? Why did consciousness evolve? How does science proceed to answer such questions? Can we define what consciousness is? Can we measure it? Can we use experimental results to further our understanding of disorders of consciousness, such as those seen in schizophrenia, delirium, or altered states of consciousness? These questions are at the heart of contemporary research in the domain. Answering them requires a fundamentally interdisciplinary approach that engages not only philosophers, but also neuroscientists and psychologists in a joint effort to develop novel approaches that reflect both the stunning recent advances in imaging methods as well as the continuing refinement of our concepts of consciousness. In this light, the Oxford Companion to Consciousness is the most complete authoritative survey of contemporary research on consciousness. Five years in the making and including over 250 concise entries written by leaders in the field, the volume covers both fundamental knowledge as well as more recent advances in this rapidly changing domain. Structured as an easy-to-use dictionary and extensively cross-referenced, the Companion offers contributions from philosophy of mind to neuroscience, from experimental psychology to clinical findings, so reflecting the profoundly interdisciplinary nature of the domain. Particular care has been taken to ensure that each of the entries is accessible to the general reader and that the overall volume represents a comprehensive snapshot of the contemporary study of consciousness. The result is a unique compendium that will prove indispensable to anyone interested in consciousness, from beginning students wishing to clarify a concept to professional consciousness researchers looking for the best characterization of a particular phenomenon.

Cultural Neuroscience: Cultural Influences on Brain Function

Author: Juan Y. Chiao

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080952216

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 4448

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This volume presents recent empirical advances using neuroscience techniques to investigate how culture influences neural processes underlying a wide range of human abilities, from perception and scene processing to memory and social cognition. It also highlights the theoretical and methodological issues with conducting cultural neuroscience research. Section I provides diverse theoretical perspectives on how culture and biology interact are represented. Sections II –VI is to demonstrate how cultural values, beliefs, practices and experience affect neural systems underlying a wide range of human behavior from perception and cognition to emotion, social cognition and decision-making. The final section presents arguments for integrating the study of culture and the human brain by providing an explicit articulation of how the study of culture can inform the study of the brain and vice versa.

Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour 6th Edition

Author: Richard Gross

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 1444164368

Category: Psychology

Page: 912

View: 4423

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500,000 students later Gross continues to set the standard for Psychology textbooks. This thoroughly updated edition is colourful, engaging, and packed with features that help students to understand and evaluate classic and contemporary Psychology. Gross is the 'bible' for students of Psychology and anyone in related fields such as Counselling, Nursing and Social Work who needs a reliable, catch-all text. All the major domains of Psychology are covered in detail across 50 manageable chapters that will help you get to grips with anything from the nervous system to memory, from attachment to personality, and everything in-between. A final section on issues and debates allows students to cast a critical eye on the research process, to explore the nature of Psychology as an evolving science, and understand some of the ethical issues faced by Psychologists. - Brings contemporary Psychology alive with brand new double-page features which showcase contributions from Psychology's leading figures - Packed with features: Introductions and Summaries, Ask Yourself Questions, Key Studies, Critical and Cross-Cultural material - Improved coverage throughout of work from neuroscience, neuropsychology and evolutionary psychology - Covers everything you need to know, in the depth in which you need to know it - Explicitly links different areas of Psychology to help more able students get better grades. New for this edition, Gross is supported by an extensive and interactive Dynamic Learning resource package. Just as Gross the book 'does everything', this comprehensive online resources package will help students to learn, and course leaders to deliver that learning. A free Dynamic Learning resources website supports students in revision, essay writing, and matching the book content to their course. A separately available set of multimedia-rich online resources can be tailored to the varied needs of course leaders.

theories of the Evolution of Knowing

the T.c. Schneirla Conferences Series

Author: Gary Greenberg,Ethel Tobach

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1134759851

Category: Psychology

Page: 176

View: 850

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This volume presents current thought and criticism on evolutionary epistemology -- the evolution of knowledge and knowing. As the theme of the fourth T.C. Schneirla Conference held at Wichita State University, evolutionary epistemology was examined from several diverse areas of study including comparative, developmental, physiological, and cultural psychology as well as philosophy. Theories of the Evolution of Knowing addresses alternatives to the genetic determinism inherent in Donald Campbell's concept of genetic epistemology. The concept of integrative levels is shown to offer a parsimonious, non- reductionist approach to the development of "knowing" as a human capacity.

The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology

Author: Todd D. Little

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199934878

Category: Medical

Page: 480

View: 388

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The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology provides an accessible and comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-science and a one-stop source for learning and reviewing current best-practices in a quantitative methods across the social, behavioral, and educational sciences.

Cognitive Ecology II

Author: Reuven Dukas,John M. Ratcliffe

Publisher: University Of Chicago Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 5724

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Merging evolutionary ecology and cognitive science, cognitive ecology investigates how animal interactions with natural habitats shape cognitive systems, and how constraints on nervous systems limit or bias animal behavior. Research in cognitive ecology has expanded rapidly in the past decade, and this second volume builds on the foundations laid out in the first, published in 1998. Cognitive Ecology II integrates numerous scientific disciplines to analyze the ecology and evolution of animal cognition. The contributors cover the mechanisms, ecology, and evolution of learning and memory, including detailed analyses of bee neurobiology, bird song, and spatial learning. They also explore decision making, with mechanistic analyses of reproductive behavior in voles, escape hatching by frog embryos, and predation in the auditory domain of bats and eared insects. Finally, they consider social cognition, focusing on alarm calls and the factors determining social learning strategies of corvids, fish, and mammals. With cognitive ecology ascending to its rightful place in behavioral and evolutionary research, this volume captures the promise that has been realized in the past decade and looks forward to new research prospects.

Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences

Author: David Sander,Klaus Scherer

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191021016

Category: Psychology

Page: 520

View: 1681

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Few areas have witnessed the type of growth we have seen in the affective sciences in the past decades. Across psychology, philosophy, economics, and neuroscience, there has been an explosion of interest in the topic of emotion and affect. Comprehensive, authoritative, up-to-date, and easy-to-use, the new Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences is an indispensable resource for all who wish to find out about theories, concepts, methods, and research findings in this rapidly growing interdisciplinary field - one that brings together, amongst others, psychologists, neuroscientists, social scientists, philosophers, and historians. Organized by alphabetical entries, and presenting brief definitions, concise overviews, and encyclopaedic articles (all with extensive references to relevant publications), this Companion lends itself to casual browsing by non-specialists interested in the fascinating phenomena of emotions, moods, affect disorders, and personality as well as to focused search for pertinent information by students and established scholars in the field. Not only does the book provide entries on affective phenomena, but also on their neural underpinnings, their cognitive antecedents and the associated responses in physiological systems, facial, vocal, and bodily expressions, and action tendencies. Numerous entries also consider the role of emotion in society and social behavior, as well as in cognitive processes such as those critical for perception, attention, memory, judgement and decision-making. The volume has been edited by a group of internationally leading authorities in the respective disciplines consisting of two editors (David Sander and Klaus Scherer) as well as group of 11 associate editors (John T. Cacioppo, Tim Dalgleish, Robert Dantzer, Richard J. Davidson, Ronald B. de Sousa, Phoebe C. Ellsworth, Nico Frijda, George Loewenstein, Paula M. Niedenthal, Peter Salovey, and Richard A. Shweder). The members of the editorial board have commissioned and reviewed contributions from major experts on specific topics. In addition to comprehensive coverage of technical terms and fundamental issues, the volume also highlights current debates that inform the ongoing research process. In addition, the Companion contains a wealth of material on the role of emotion in applied domains such as economic behaviour, music and arts, work and organizational behaviour, family interactions and group dynamics, religion, law and justice, and societal change. Highly accessible and wide-ranging, this book is a vital resource for scientists, students, and professionals eager to obtain a rapid, conclusive overview on central terms and topics and anyone wanting to learn more about the mechanisms underlying the emotions dominating many aspects of our lives.

The Oxford Handbook of Emotion, Social Cognition, and Problem Solving in Adulthood

Author: Paul Verhaeghen,Christopher Hertzog

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199383073

Category: Psychology

Page: 480

View: 9276

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Over the last decade, the field of socio-emotional development and aging has rapidly expanded, with many new theories and empirical findings emerging. This trend is consistent with the broader movement in psychology to consider social, motivational, and emotional influences on cognition and behavior. The Oxford Handbook of Emotion, Social Cognition, and Problem Solving in Adulthood provides the first overview of a new field of adult development that has emerged out of conceptualizations and research at the intersections between socioemotional development, social cognition, emotion, coping, and everyday problem solving. This field roundly rejects a universal deficit model of aging, highlighting instead the dynamic nature of socio-emotional development and the differentiation of individual trajectories of development as a function of variation in contextual and experiential influences. It emphasizes the need for a cross-level examination (from biology and neuroscience to cognitive and social psychology) of the determinants of emotional and socio-emotional behavior. This volume also serves as a tribute to the late Fredda Blanchard-Fields, whose thinking and empirical research contributed extensively to a life-span developmental view of emotion, problem solving, and social cognition. Its chapters cover multiple aspects of adulthood and aging, presenting developmental perspectives on emotion; antecedents and consequences of emotion in context; everyday problem solving; social cognition; goals and goal-related behaviors; and wisdom. The landmark volume in this new field, The Oxford Handbook of Emotion, Social Cognition, and Problem Solving in Adulthood is an important resource for cognitive, developmental, and social psychologists, as well as researchers and graduate students in the field of aging, emotion studies, and social psychology.

The Neurobiology of the Prefrontal Cortex

Anatomy, Evolution, and the Origin of Insight

Author: Richard E. Passingham,Steven P. Wise

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199552916

Category: Medical

Page: 399

View: 941

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The prefrontal cortex makes up almost a quarter of the human brain. The Neurobiology of the Prefrontal Cortex presents a new theory about its fundamental function. Written by two leading brain scientists, it is an important contribution to our understanding of the evolution and functioning of the human brain.

Philosophy of Psychology

Author: Mario Bunge,Ruben Ardila

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461246962

Category: Psychology

Page: 327

View: 9102

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This book is about some topical philosophical and methodological prob lems that arise in the study of behavior and mind, as well as in the treatment of behavioral and mental disorders. It deals with such questions as 'What is behavior a manifestation of?', 'What is mind, and how is it related to matter?', 'Which are the positive legacies, if any, of the major psychological schools?', 'How can behavior and mind best be studied?', and 'Which are the most effective ways of modifying behavioral and mental processes?' These questions and their kin cannot be avoided in the long run because they fuel the daily search for better hypotheses, experimental designs, techniques, and treatments. They also occur in the critical examination of data and theories, as well as methods for the treatment of behavioral and mental disorders. All students of human or animal, normal or abnormal behavior and mind, whether their main concern is basic or applied, theoretical or em pirical, admit more or less tacitly to a large number of general philosophi cal and methodological principles.

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London

Biological sciences. Series B

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biological rhythms

Page: 175

View: 1507

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Each issue of Transactions B is devoted to a specific area of the biological sciences, including clinical science. All papers are peer reviewed and edited to the highest standards. Published on the 29th of each month, Transactions B is essential reading for all biologists.

Comparative Studies in History of Religions

Their Aim, Scope, and Validity

Author: Erik Reenberg Sand,Jørgen Podemann Sørensen

Publisher: Museum Tusculanum Press

ISBN: 9788772895338

Category: Philosophy

Page: 155

View: 2009

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This Symposium volume discusses comparative perspectives as constituents of History of Religion as an academic discipline and the validity of comparative studies in the field of religion. The papers deal with the origin of comparative studies in European scholarship, with the methods and the role of the phenomenology of religion, with comparative Indo-European mythology, and, on the whole, address a wide range of comparative issues.

The Oxford Handbook of Computer Music

Author: Roger T. Dean

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199887136

Category: Music

Page: 624

View: 9151

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The Oxford Handbook of Computer Music offers a state-of-the-art cross-section of the most field-defining topics and debates in computer music today. A unique contribution to the field, it situates computer music in the broad context of its creation and performance across the range of issues - from music cognition to pedagogy to sociocultural topics - that shape contemporary discourse in the field. Fifty years after musical tones were produced on a computer for the first time, developments in laptop computing have brought computer music within reach of all listeners and composers. Production and distribution of computer music have grown tremendously as a result, and the time is right for this survey of computer music in its cultural contexts. An impressive and international array of music creators and academics discuss computer music's history, present, and future with a wide perspective, including composition, improvisation, interactive performance, spatialization, sound synthesis, sonification, and modeling. Throughout, they merge practice with theory to offer a fascinating look into computer music's possibilities and enduring appeal.