The Evolution of Memory Systems

Ancestors, Anatomy, and Adaptations

Author: Kim S. Graham

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199686432

Category:

Page: 512

View: 2002

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Current theories about human memory have been shaped by clinical observations and animal experiments. This doctrine holds that the medial temporal lobe subserves one memory system for explicit or declarative memories, while the basal ganglia subserves a separate memory system for implicit or procedural memories, including habits. Cortical areas outside the medial temporal lobe are said to function in perception, motor control, attention, or other aspects of executive function, but not in memory. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' advances dramatically different ideas on all counts. It proposes that several memory systems arose during evolution and that they did so for the same general reason: to transcend problems and exploit opportunities encountered by specific ancestors at particular times and places in the distant past. Instead of classifying cortical areas in terms of mutually exclusive perception, executive, or memory functions, the authors show that all cortical areas contribute to memory and that they do so in their own ways-using specialized neural representations. The book also presents a proposal on the evolution of explicit memory. According to this idea, explicit (declarative) memory depends on interactions between a phylogenetically ancient navigation system and a representational system that evolved in humans to represent one's self and others. As a result, people embed representations of themselves into the events they experience and the facts they learn, which leads to the perception of participating in events and knowing facts. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' is an important new work for students and researchers in neuroscience, psychology, and biology.

From Conditioning to Conscious Recollection

Memory Systems of the Brain

Author: Howard Eichenbaum,Neal J. Cohen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198024705

Category: Medical

Page: 600

View: 7528

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This cutting-edge book offers a theoretical account of the evolution of multiple memory systems of the brain. The authors conceptualize these memory systems from both behavioral and neurobiological perspectives, guided by three related principles. First, that our understanding of a wide range of memory phenomena can be advanced by breaking down memory into multiple forms with different operating characteristics. Second, that different forms of memory representation are supported by distinct brain pathways with circuitry and neural coding properties. Third, that the contributions of different brain systems can be compared and contrasted by distinguishing between dedicated (or specific) and elaborate (or general) memory systems. A primary goal of this work is to relate the neurobiological properties of dedicated and elaborate systems to their neuropsychological counterparts, and in so doing, account for the phenomenology of memory, from conditioning to conscious recollection.

From Conditioning to Conscious Recollection

Memory Systems of the Brain

Author: Howard Eichenbaum,Neal J. Cohen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190292326

Category: Medical

Page: 600

View: 4426

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This cutting-edge book offers a theoretical account of the evolution of multiple memory systems of the brain. The authors conceptualize these memory systems from both behavioral and neurobiological perspectives, guided by three related principles. First, that our understanding of a wide range of memory phenomena can be advanced by breaking down memory into multiple forms with different operating characteristics. Second, that different forms of memory representation are supported by distinct brain pathways with circuitry and neural coding properties. Third, that the contributions of different brain systems can be compared and contrasted by distinguishing between dedicated (or specific) and elaborate (or general) memory systems. A primary goal of this work is to relate the neurobiological properties of dedicated and elaborate systems to their neuropsychological counterparts, and in so doing, account for the phenomenology of memory, from conditioning to conscious recollection.

Handbook of Culture and Memory

Author: Brady Wagoner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190230819

Category: Psychology

Page: 360

View: 7438

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Concept and history of memory -- The evolutionary origins of human cultural memory / Merlin Donald -- From memory as archive to remembering as conversation / Jens Brockmeier -- Discerning the history inscribed within : significant sites of the narrative unconscious / Mark Freeman -- Cultural contexts of remembering -- The landscape of family memory / Bradd Shore and Sara Kauko -- Materiality of memory : the case of the remembrance poppy / Kyoko Murakami -- Approaches to testimony : two current views and beyond / Kotaro Takagi and Naohisa Mori -- Rethinking function, self and culture, in "difficult" autobiographical memories / Steve D. Brown and Paula Reavey -- Memory through the life course -- The cultural construction of memory in early childhood / Katherine Nelson -- Memory in life transitions / Constance de Saint Laurent and Tania Zittoun -- Memory in old age : a life-span perspective / Dieter Ferring -- Memory, history and identity -- National memory and where to find it / James Wertsch -- History, collective memories or national memories? how the representation of the past is framed by master narratives / Mario Carretero and Floor van Alphen -- Media and the dynamics of memory : from cultural paradigms to transcultural mediation / Astrid Erll

Memory

A History

Author: Dmitri Nikulin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190463546

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 416

View: 4743

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In recent decades, memory has become one of the major concepts and a dominant topic in philosophy, sociology, politics, history, science, cultural studies, literary theory, and the discussions of trauma and the Holocaust. In contemporary debates, the concept of memory is often used rather broadly and thus not always unambiguously. For this reason, the clarification of the range of the historical meaning of the concept of memory is a very important and urgent task. This volume shows how the concept of memory has been used and appropriated in different historical circumstances and how it has changed throughout the history of philosophy. In ancient philosophy, memory was considered a repository of sensible and mental impressions and was complemented by recollection-the process of recovering the content of past thoughts and perceptions. Such an understanding of memory led to the development both of mnemotechnics and the attempts to locate memory within the structure of cognitive faculties. In contemporary philosophical and historical debates, memory frequently substitutes for reason by becoming a predominant capacity to which one refers when one wants to explain not only the personal identity but also a historical, political, or social phenomenon. In contemporary interpretation, it is memory, and not reason, that acts in and through human actions and history, which is a critical reaction to the overly rationalized and simplified concept of reason in the Enlightenment. Moreover, in modernity memory has taken on one of the most distinctive features of reason: it is thought of as capable not only of recollecting past events and meanings, but also itself. In this respect, the volume can be also taken as a reflective philosophical attempt by memory to recall itself, its functioning and transformations throughout its own history.

Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology

Author: Louise Barrett

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198568308

Category: Psychology

Page: 706

View: 4718

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With contributions from over 50 experts in the field, this book provides an overview of the latest developments in evolutionary psychology. In addition to well studied areas of investigation, it also includes chapters on the philosophical underpinnings of evolutionary psychology, comparative perspectives from other species, and more.

Music, Evolution, and the Harmony of Souls

Author: Alan Harvey

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198786859

Category: Music

Page: 304

View: 2963

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Music is central to human cultural and intellectual experience. It is vitally important for the welfare of human society and - this book argues - should become more widely accepted in our community as a mainstream educational and therapeutic tool.This book explores the importance of music throughout human evolution, and its continued relevance to modern-day human society. Throughout, the emphasis is on the origin of music and how (and where) it is processed in our brains, exploring in detail the genetic and cultural evolution of modern, loquacious humans, how we may have evolved with unique neural and cognitive architecture, and why two complementary but distinct communication systems - language and music - remain a human universal.In addition the book explores, in some depth, the different theories that have been put forward to explain why musical communication was (and remains) advantageous to our species, with a particular emphasis on the role of music and dance in enhancing altruistic and prosocial behaviours. The author suggests that music, and the social harmonization it brings, was of vital importance in early humans as we became more and more individualized by the emergence of modern language and the modern mind, and the realization that we are mortal.Music, Evolution, and the Harmony of Souls demonstrates the evolutionary sociobiological importance of music as a driver of cooperative and interactive behaviour throughout human existence, and what this evolutionary imperative means to twenty-first century humanity and beyond, from social and medical/neurological perspectives.Key Features:The first book about music that discusses human evolution in detailOffers new perspectives on the biological and cultural history of our speciesDemonstrates the value of music in education and therapyLinks music with prosocial and altruistic behavioursAn up-to-date bibliography makes this volume a unique literature resource for academics, clinicians, therapists, educators, and teachers

The Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology

Author: Susan Hallam,Ian Cross,Michael Thaut

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191034452

Category: Psychology

Page: 960

View: 3676

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The 2nd edition of the Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology updates the original landmark text and provides a comprehensive review of the latest developments in this fast growing area of research. Covering both experimental and theoretical perspectives, each of the 11 sections is edited by an internationally recognised authority in the area. The first ten parts present chapters that focus on specific areas of music psychology: the origins and functions of music; music perception, responses to music; music and the brain; musical development; learning musical skills; musical performance; composition and improvisation; the role of music in everyday life; and music therapy. In each part authors critically review the literature, highlight current issues and explore possibilities for the future. The final part examines how, in recent years, the study of music psychology has broadened to include a range of other disciplines. It considers the way that research has developed in relation to technological advances, and points the direction for further development in the field. With contributions from internationally recognised experts across 55 chapters, it is an essential resource for students and researchers in psychology and musicology.

The Case for Mental Imagery

Author: Stephen M. Kosslyn,William L. Thompson,Giorgio Ganis

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195179080

Category: Psychology

Page: 248

View: 6264

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Mental imagery has been a controversial topic in psychology. The major problem has been the inherently private nature of mental images. This book summarises the arguments and positions, puts them in context, and shows how modern neuroscientific methods can illustrate the representational nature of mental imagery.

The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

Author: Irving B. Weiner,W. Edward Craighead

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470170271

Category: Psychology

Page: 480

View: 9035

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Psychologists, researchers, teachers, and students need complete and comprehensive information in the fields of psychology and behavioral science. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, Volume Three has been the reference of choice for almost three decades. This indispensable resource is updated and expanded to include much new material. It uniquely and effectively blends psychology and behavioral science. The Fourth Edition features over 1,200 entries; complete coverage of DSM disorders; and a bibliography of over 10,000 citations. Readers will benefit from up-to-date and authoritative coverage of every major area of psychology.

Applied Evolutionary Psychology

Author: S. Craig Roberts

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199586071

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 436

View: 6948

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This is the first book to overtly consider how basic evolutionary thinking is being applied to a wide range of special social, economic, and technical problems. It draws together a collection of renowned academics from a very disparate set of fields, whose common interest lies in using evolutionary thinking to inform their research.

Memory

Systems, Process, Or Function?

Author: Jonathan K. Foster,Marko Jelicic

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780198524076

Category: Psychology

Page: 297

View: 4590

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A fascinating and illuminating debate on the cognitive architecture of long term memory. Is memory best regarded as comprising multiple independent systems, as a processing framework, tapped via different levels of processing, or as a complex function which can be used in a flexible task-appropriate manner? Also, how do researchers and theoreticians explain why certain individuals have better memories for some types of information such as names, faces, auditory, and visual information, than other individuals? In Memory: Systems, Process, or Function? international researchers and theorists present stimulating, self-contained, and balanced summaries of the various theoretical and empirical positions that shape the most controversial and contested areas of psychology research today. Students and researchers alike in cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, and neuroanatomy will find this volume in The Oxford Debates in Psychology series and interesting and informative work. The book concludes with an integrated synopsis and appraisal of the different facets of this fascinating debate.

Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology

Author: Louise Barrett

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198568308

Category: Psychology

Page: 706

View: 8926

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With contributions from over 50 experts in the field, this book provides an overview of the latest developments in evolutionary psychology. In addition to well studied areas of investigation, it also includes chapters on the philosophical underpinnings of evolutionary psychology, comparative perspectives from other species, and more.

The Science of False Memory

Author: C. J. Brainerd,V. F. Reyna

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198035046

Category: Psychology

Page: 578

View: 7474

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Findings from research on false memory have major implications for a number of fields central to human welfare, such as medicine and law. Although many important conclusions have been reached after a decade or so of intensive research, the majority of them are not well known outside the immediate field. To make this research accessible to a much wider audience, The Science of False Memory has been written to require little or no background knowledge of the theory and techniques used in memory research. Brainerd and Reyna introduce the volume by considering the progenitors to the modern science of false memory, and noting the remarkable degree to which core themes of contemporary research were anticipated by historical figure such as Binet, Piaget, and Bartlett. They continue with an account of the varied methods that have been used to study false memory both inside and outside of the laboratory. The first part of the volume focuses on the basic science of false memory, revolving around three topics: old and new theoretical ideas that have been used to explain false memory and make predictions about it; research findings and predictions about false memory in normal adults; and research findings and predictions about age-related changes in false memory between early childhood and adulthood. Throughout Part I, Brainerd and Reyna emphasize how current opponent-processes conceptions of false memory act as a unifying influence by integrating predictions and data across disparate forms of false memory. The second part focuses on the applied science of false memory, revolving around four topics: the falsifiability of witnesses and suspects memories of crimes, including false confessions by suspects; the falsifiability of eyewitness identifications of suspects; false-memory reports in investigative interviews of child victims and witnesses, particularly in connection with sexual-abuse crimes; false memory in psychotherapy, including recovered memories of childhood abuse, multiple-personality disorders, and recovered memories of previous lives. Although Part II is concerned with applied research, Brainerd and Reyna continue to emphasize the unifying influence of opponent-processes conceptions of false memory. The third part focuses on emerging trends, revolving around three expanding areas of false-memory research: mathematical models, aging effects, and cognitive neuroscience. False Memory will be an invaluable resource for professional researchers, practitioners, and students in the many fields for which false-memory research has implications, including child-protective services, clinical psychology, law, criminal justice, elementary and secondary education, general medicine, journalism, and psychiatry.

Principles of Synthetic Intelligence

Psi: An Architecture of Motivated Cognition

Author: Joscha Bach

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199708109

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 6966

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From the Foreword: "In this book Joscha Bach introduces Dietrich Dörner's PSI architecture and Joscha's implementation of the MicroPSI architecture. These architectures and their implementation have several lessons for other architectures and models. Most notably, the PSI architecture includes drives and thus directly addresses questions of emotional behavior. An architecture including drives helps clarify how emotions could arise. It also changes the way that the architecture works on a fundamental level, providing an architecture more suited for behaving autonomously in a simulated world. PSI includes three types of drives, physiological (e.g., hunger), social (i.e., affiliation needs), and cognitive (i.e., reduction of uncertainty and expression of competency). These drives routinely influence goal formation and knowledge selection and application. The resulting architecture generates new kinds of behaviors, including context dependent memories, socially motivated behavior, and internally motivated task switching. This architecture illustrates how emotions and physical drives can be included in an embodied cognitive architecture. The PSI architecture, while including perceptual, motor, learning, and cognitive processing components, also includes several novel knowledge representations: temporal structures, spatial memories, and several new information processing mechanisms and behaviors, including progress through types of knowledge sources when problem solving (the Rasmussen ladder), and knowledge-based hierarchical active vision. These mechanisms and representations suggest ways for making other architectures more realistic, more accurate, and easier to use. The architecture is demonstrated in the Island simulated environment. While it may look like a simple game, it was carefully designed to allow multiple tasks to be pursued and provides ways to satisfy the multiple drives. It would be useful in its own right for developing other architectures interested in multi-tasking, long-term learning, social interaction, embodied architectures, and related aspects of behavior that arise in a complex but tractable real-time environment. The resulting models are not presented as validated cognitive models, but as theoretical explorations in the space of architectures for generating behavior. The sweep of the architecture can thus be larger-it presents a new cognitive architecture attempting to provide a unified theory of cognition. It attempts to cover perhaps the largest number of phenomena to date. This is not a typical cognitive modeling work, but one that I believe that we can learn much from." --Frank E. Ritter, Series Editor Although computational models of cognition have become very popular, these models are relatively limited in their coverage of cognition-- they usually only emphasize problem solving and reasoning, or treat perception and motivation as isolated modules. The first architecture to cover cognition more broadly is PSI theory, developed by Dietrich Dorner. By integrating motivation and emotion with perception and reasoning, and including grounded neuro-symbolic representations, PSI contributes significantly to an integrated understanding of the mind. It provides a conceptual framework that highlights the relationships between perception and memory, language and mental representation, reasoning and motivation, emotion and cognition, autonomy and social behavior. It is, however, unfortunate that PSI's origin in psychology, its methodology, and its lack of documentation have limited its impact. The proposed book adapts Psi theory to cognitive science and artificial intelligence, by elucidating both its theoretical and technical frameworks, and clarifying its contribution to how we have come to understand cognition.

The Origins of Meaning

Language in the Light of Evolution

Author: James R. Hurford

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199207852

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 388

View: 328

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"In this engagingly written and broadly interdisciplinary book, Jim Hurford integrates findings from ethology and neuroscience with concepts from philosophy and linguistics to make an explicit and convincing case that animals have rich concepts, and thus that meaning predated language. This is a work of broad scope and significance." W. Tecumesh Fitch, Lecturer in Psychology, University of St. Andrews,from the bookjacket.

Dreaming Souls

Sleep, Dreams and the Evolution of the Conscious Mind

Author: Owen Flanagan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019534958X

Category: Psychology

Page: 224

View: 6495

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What, if anything, do dreams tell us about ourselves? What is the relationship between types of sleep and types of dreams? Does dreaming serve any purpose? Or are dreams simply meaningless mental noise--"unmusical fingers wandering over the piano keys"? With expertise in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience, Owen Flanagan is uniquely qualified to answer these questions. And in Dreaming Souls he provides both an accessible survey of the latest research on sleep and dreams and a compelling new theory about the nature and function of dreaming. Flanagan argues that while sleep has a clear biological function and adaptive value, dreams are merely side effects, "free riders," irrelevant from an evolutionary point of view. But dreams are hardly unimportant. Indeed, Flanagan argues that dreams are self-expressive, the result of our need to find or to create meaning, even when we're sleeping. Rejecting Freud's theory of manifest and latent content--of repressed wishes appearing in disguised form--Flanagan shows how brainstem activity during sleep generates a jumbled profusion of memories, images, thoughts, emotions, and desires, which the cerebral cortex then attempts to shape into a more or less coherent story. Such dream-narratives range from the relatively mundane worries of non REM sleep to the fantastic confabulations of deep REM that resemble psychotic episodes in their strangeness. But however bizarre these narratives may be, they can shed light on our mental life, our well being, and our sense of self. Written with clarity, lively wit, and remarkable insight, Dreaming Souls offers a fascinating new way of apprehending one of the oldest mysteries of mental life.

The Politics of Consolation

Memory and the Meaning of September 11

Author: Christina Simko

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199381801

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 5557

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What meaning can be found in calamity and suffering? This question is in some sense perennial, reverberating through the canons of theology, philosophy, and literature. Today, The Politics of Consolation reveals, it is also a significant part of American political leadership. Faced with uncertainty, shock, or despair, Americans frequently look to political leaders for symbolic and existential guidance, for narratives that bring meaning to the confrontation with suffering, loss, and finitude. Politicians, in turn, increasingly recognize consolation as a cultural expectation, and they often work hard to fulfill it. The events of September 11, 2001 raised these questions of meaning powerfully. How were Americans to make sense of the violence that unfolded on that sunny Tuesday morning? This book examines how political leaders drew upon a long tradition of consolation discourse in their effort to interpret September 11, arguing that the day's events were mediated through memories of past suffering in decisive ways. It then traces how the struggle to define the meaning of September 11 has continued in foreign policy discourse, commemorative ceremonies, and the contentious redevelopment of the World Trade Center site in lower Manhattan.

Better with Age

The Psychology of Successful Aging

Author: Dr. Alan D. Castel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019028000X

Category: Psychology

Page: 256

View: 6367

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Age is an important number, but it can also be deceiving. After 40, most people say they feel younger than their years, some lie about their age, and many attempt to hide the signs of growing old. Better with Age addresses the many myths and paradoxes about the aging process. Although most people think of their later years in terms of decline, they can be one of the best times in life. This book presents the latest scientific research about the psychology of aging, coupled with insights from those who have succeeded in doing it well, such as Maya Angelou, Bob Newhart, Jared Diamond, John Glenn, and John Wooden. We are all aging, and many people are concerned about what to expect with advancing years. Retirement, happiness, and brain health are some of the many topics covered in this book. Better with Age shows what we can do now, at any stage in life, to make sure we enjoy old age.