The Foundations of Mathematics

Author: Ian Stewart,Professor of Math and Gresham Professor of Geometry Ian Stewart,David Tall,David Orme Tall

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198531654

Category: Fiction

Page: 263

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"There are many textbooks available for a so-called transition course from calculus to abstract mathematics. I have taught this course several times and always find it problematic. The Foundations of Mathematics (Stewart and Tall) is a horse of a different color. The writing is excellent and there is actually some useful mathematics. I definitely like this book."--The Bulletin of Mathematics Books

The Foundations of Mathematics

Author: Kenneth Kunen

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781904987147

Category: Mathematics

Page: 251

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Mathematical logic grew out of philosophical questions regarding the foundations of mathematics, but logic has now outgrown its philosophical roots, and has become an integral part of mathematics in general. This book is designed for students who plan to specialize in logic, as well as for those who are interested in the applications of logic to other areas of mathematics. Used as a text, it could form the basis of a beginning graduate-level course. There are three main chapters: Set Theory, Model Theory, and Recursion Theory. The Set Theory chapter describes the set-theoretic foundations of all of mathematics, based on the ZFC axioms. It also covers technical results about the Axiom of Choice, well-orderings, and the theory of uncountable cardinals. The Model Theory chapter discusses predicate logic and formal proofs, and covers the Completeness, Compactness, and Lowenheim-Skolem Theorems, elementary submodels, model completeness, and applications to algebra. This chapter also continues the foundational issues begun in the set theory chapter. Mathematics can now be viewed as formal proofs from ZFC. Also, model theory leads to models of set theory. This includes a discussion of absoluteness, and an analysis of models such as H( ) and R( ). The Recursion Theory chapter develops some basic facts about computable functions, and uses them to prove a number of results of foundational importance; in particular, Church's theorem on the undecidability of logical consequence, the incompleteness theorems of Godel, and Tarski's theorem on the non-definability of truth.

Introduction to the Foundations of Mathematics

Second Edition

Author: Raymond L. Wilder

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486276201

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

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Classic undergraduate text acquaints students with fundamental concepts and methods of mathematics. Topics include axiomatic method, set theory, infinite sets, groups, intuitionism, formal systems, mathematical logic, and much more. 1965 second edition.

Harvey Friedman's Research on the Foundations of Mathematics

Author: L.A. Harrington,M.D. Morley,A. Šcedrov,S.G. Simpson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080960401

Category: Mathematics

Page: 407

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This volume discusses various aspects of Harvey Friedman's research in the foundations of mathematics over the past fifteen years. It should appeal to a wide audience of mathematicians, computer scientists, and mathematically oriented philosophers.

Kurt Gödel and the Foundations of Mathematics

Horizons of Truth

Author: Matthias Baaz,Christos H. Papadimitriou,Hilary W. Putnam,Dana S. Scott,Charles L. Harper, Jr

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139498436

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

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This volume commemorates the life, work and foundational views of Kurt Gödel (1906–78), most famous for his hallmark works on the completeness of first-order logic, the incompleteness of number theory, and the consistency - with the other widely accepted axioms of set theory - of the axiom of choice and of the generalized continuum hypothesis. It explores current research, advances and ideas for future directions not only in the foundations of mathematics and logic, but also in the fields of computer science, artificial intelligence, physics, cosmology, philosophy, theology and the history of science. The discussion is supplemented by personal reflections from several scholars who knew Gödel personally, providing some interesting insights into his life. By putting his ideas and life's work into the context of current thinking and perceptions, this book will extend the impact of Gödel's fundamental work in mathematics, logic, philosophy and other disciplines for future generations of researchers.

Essays on the Foundations of Mathematics by Moritz Pasch

Author: Stephen Pollard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048194162

Category: Mathematics

Page: 248

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Moritz Pasch (1843-1930) is justly celebrated as a key figure in the history of axiomatic geometry. Less well known are his contributions to other areas of foundational research. This volume features English translations of 14 papers Pasch published in the decade 1917-1926. In them, Pasch argues that geometry and, more surprisingly, number theory are branches of empirical science; he provides axioms for the combinatorial reasoning essential to Hilbert’s program of consistency proofs; he explores "implicit definition" (a generalization of definition by abstraction) and indicates how this technique yields an "empiricist" reconstruction of set theory; he argues that we cannot fully understand the logical structure of mathematics without clearly distinguishing between decidable and undecidable properties; he offers a rare glimpse into the mind of a master of axiomatics, surveying in detail the thought experiments he employed as he struggled to identify fundamental mathematical principles; and much more. This volume will: Give English speakers access to an important body of work from a turbulent and pivotal period in the history of mathematics, help us look beyond the familiar triad of formalism, intuitionism, and logicism, show how deeply we can see with the help of a guide determined to present fundamental mathematical ideas in ways that match our human capacities, will be of interest to graduate students and researchers in logic and the foundations of mathematics.

Mathematical Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics

An Introductory Survey

Author: G. T. Kneebone

Publisher: Dover Publications

ISBN: 9780486417127

Category: Mathematics

Page: 435

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Ideal for students intending to specialize in the topic. Part I discusses traditional and symbolic logic. Part II explores the foundations of mathematics. Part III focuses on the philosophy of mathematics.

The Foundations of Mathematics

Author: Thomas Q. Sibley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470085010

Category: Mathematics

Page: 392

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Finally there's an easy-to-follow book that will help readers succeed in the art of proving theorems. Sibley not only conveys the spirit of mathematics but also uncovers the skills required to succeed. Key definitions are introduced while readers are encouraged to develop an intuition about these concepts and practice using them in problems. With this approach, they'll gain a strong understanding of the mathematical language as they discover how to apply it in order to find proofs.

Foundations and Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics

Author: Howard Eves

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 048613220X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 368

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Third edition of popular undergraduate-level text offers historic overview, readable treatment of mathematics before Euclid, Euclid's Elements, non-Euclidean geometry, algebraic structure, formal axiomatics, sets, more. Problems, some with solutions. Bibliography.

The Foundations of Mathematics

1800 to 1900

Author: Michael John Bradley

Publisher: Infobase Publishing

ISBN: 0791097218

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: N.A

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During the 16th and 17th centuries, mathematicians developed a wealth of new ideas but had not carefully employed accurate definitions, proofs, or procedures to document and implement them. However, in the early 19th century, mathematicians began to recognize the need to precisely define their terms, to logically prove even obvious principles, and to use rigorous methods of manipulation. The Foundations of Mathematics presents the lives and accomplishments of 10 mathematicians who lived between CE 1800 and 1900 and contributed to one or more of the four major initiatives that characterized the rapid growth of mathematics during the 19th century: the introduction of rigor, the investigation of the structure of mathematical systems, the development of new branches of mathematics, and the spread of mathematical activity throughout Europe. This readable new volume communicates the importance and impact of the work of the pioneers who redefined this area of study.

Wittgenstein's Lectures on the Foundations of Mathematics, Cambridge, 1939

Author: Ludwig Wittgenstein

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022630860X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 300

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For several terms at Cambridge in 1939, Ludwig Wittgenstein lectured on the philosophical foundations of mathematics. A lecture class taught by Wittgenstein, however, hardly resembled a lecture. He sat on a chair in the middle of the room, with some of the class sitting in chairs, some on the floor. He never used notes. He paused frequently, sometimes for several minutes, while he puzzled out a problem. He often asked his listeners questions and reacted to their replies. Many meetings were largely conversation. These lectures were attended by, among others, D. A. T. Gasking, J. N. Findlay, Stephen Toulmin, Alan Turing, G. H. von Wright, R. G. Bosanquet, Norman Malcolm, Rush Rhees, and Yorick Smythies. Notes taken by these last four are the basis for the thirty-one lectures in this book. The lectures covered such topics as the nature of mathematics, the distinctions between mathematical and everyday languages, the truth of mathematical propositions, consistency and contradiction in formal systems, the logicism of Frege and Russell, Platonism, identity, negation, and necessary truth. The mathematical examples used are nearly always elementary.

Was ist Mathematik?

Author: Richard Courant,Herbert Robbins

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662000539

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

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47 brauchen nur den Nenner n so groß zu wählen, daß das Intervall [0, IJn] kleiner wird als das fragliche Intervall [A, B], dann muß mindestens einer der Brüche m/n innerhalb des Intervalls liegen. Also kann es kein noch so kleines Intervall auf der Achse geben, das von rationalen Punkten frei wäre. Es folgt weiterhin, daß es in jedem Intervall unendlich viele rationale Punkte geben muß; denn wenn es nur eine endliche Anzahl gäbe, so könnte das Intervall zwischen zwei beliebigen benachbarten Punkten keine rationalen Punkte enthalten, was, wie wir eben sahen, unmöglich ist. § 2. Inkommensurable Strecken, irrationale Zahlen und der Grenzwertbegriff 1. Einleitung Vergleicht man zwei Strecken a und b hinsichtlich ihrer Größe, so kann es vor kommen, daß a in b genau r-mal enthalten ist, wobei r eine ganze Zahl darstellt. In diesem Fall können wir das Maß der Strecke b durch das von a ausdrücken, indem wir sagen, daß die Länge von b das r-fache der Länge von a ist.

Professor Stewarts mathematische Schätze

Author: Ian Stewart

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644017115

Category: Mathematics

Page: 432

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Was war noch mal die Catalan’sche Vermutung? Und woher kommt eigentlich das Wurzelsymbol? Was hat die Zahl Pi mit dem Sternenhimmel zu tun? Wer erfand das Gleichheitszeichen? Der britische Matheguru Ian Stewart breitet in diesem Band Schätze aus, die er in Jahrzehnten gesammelt hat: über 180 interessante Matherätsel, Lösungen, Spiele, Tricks, Geschichten, Anekdoten und Logeleien. Zudem ist Stewarts Schatztruhe mit interessanten historischen Exkursen angereichert, zum Beispiel einer kurzen Einführung in das Rechnen der Maya und der alten Ägypter und auch in die Vergangenheit unseres eigenen Rechnens: Wer erfand das Gleichheitszeichen – und warum? Ein Buch zum Blättern und Stöbern, zum Spaßhaben und Dazulernen, für Laien und für Fortgeschrittene.

Remarks on the Foundation of Mathematics [Bemerkungen Uber Die Grundlagen Der Mathematik]

Author: Ludwig Wittgenstein

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781614276500

Category: Mathematics

Page: 438

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2014 Reprint of 1956 Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. Published in English and German with each text presented on opposing pages. "Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics" are Wittgenstein's notes on the philosophy of mathematics. It has been translated from German to English by G.E.M. Anscombe, edited by G.H. von Wright and Rush Rhees, and published first in 1956. The text has been produced from passages in various sources by selection and editing. The notes have been written during the years 1937-1944 and a few passages are incorporated in the "Philosophical Investigations" which were composed later. Wittgenstein's philosophy of mathematics is exposed chiefly by simple examples on which further skeptical comments are made. The text offers an extended analysis of the concept of mathematical proof and an exploration of Wittgenstein's contention that philosophical considerations introduce false problems in mathematics. Wittgenstein in the "Remarks" adopts an attitude of doubt in opposition to much orthodoxy in the philosophy of mathematics. Wittgenstein's influence has been felt in nearly every field of the humanities and the social sciences, though many of his views remain controversial. Wittgenstein's work remains, undeniably, now, that of one of those few philosophers who will be read by all future generations. It is by far the richest twentieth-century source of philosophical ideas, which it will take us more decades yet properly to apprehend and to absorb; despite the difficulty with which his work presents the reader, there is nothing that is likely to be more rewarding. The philosophy of mathematics was one of his earliest and most persistent preoccupations.... The present edition is a selection from seven distinct pieces of writing by Wittgenstein prior to his death in 1951.

The Foundations of Mathematics

Author: Paul Carus

Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.

ISBN: 1596050063

Category: Mathematics

Page: 148

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In this brief treatise, Carus traces the roots of his belief in the philosophical basis for mathematics and analyzes that basis after a historical overview of Euclid and his successors. He then examines his base argument and proceeds to a study of different geometrical systems, all pulled together in his epilogue, which examines matter, mathematics, and, ultimately, the nature of God.

From Brouwer to Hilbert

The Debate on the Foundations of Mathematics in the 1920s

Author: Paolo Mancosu

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195096323

Category: Mathematics

Page: 337

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Most contemporary work in the foundations of mathematics takes its start from the groundbreaking contributions of, among others, Hilbert, Brouwer, Bernays, and Weyl. This book offers an introduction to the debate on the foundations of mathematics during the 1920s and presents the English reader with a selection of twenty five articles central to the debate which have not been previously translated. It is an ideal text for undergraduate and graduate courses in the philosophy of mathematics.