Die Gabe

Form und Funktion des Austauschs in archaischen Gesellschaften

Author: Marcel Mauss

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783518283431

Category: Segmentierte Gesellschaft - Geschenk

Page: 208

View: 9122

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Afrika/Europa - Siedlung - Handel/Verkehr - Wirtschaftsgeschichte.

The Gift

Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies

Author: Marcel Mauss,W. D. Halls

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393320435

Category: Social Science

Page: 130

View: 5785

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A brilliant French sociologist and anthropologist, Marcel Mauss (1872?) used case studies of Melanesia, Polynesia, and northwestern North America to demonstrate that gift exchange is a total system at the center of society.

Essai Sur Le Don

Author: Marcel Mauss

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415267496

Category: Social Science

Page: 199

View: 3604

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When first published, The Giftserved as nothing less than an onslaught on contemporary political theory. This edition confirms the continuing relevance of Mauss's highly original perspective.

Returning the Gift

Modernism and the Thought of Exchange

Author: Rebecca Colesworthy

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198778589

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 288

View: 693

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From debates about reparations to the rise of the welfare state, the decades following World War I saw a widespread turn across disciplines to questions about the nature and role of gifts: What is a gift? What do gifts mean and do? Which individuals and institutions have the authority to give? Marshalling wide-ranging interdisciplinary research, Returning the Gift argues that these questions centrally shaped literary modernism. The book begins by revisiting the locus classicus of twentieth-century gift theorythe French sociologist Marcel Mauss's 1925 essay, The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies. His title notwithstanding, the gift Mauss envisions is not primitive or pre-capitalist, but rather a distinctively modern phenomenon. Subsequent chapters offer sustained, nuanced readings of novels and nonfiction by Virginia Woolf, Jean Rhys, Gertrude Stein, and H.D. from the 1920s to 1940s, underscoring the ways their writing is illuminated by contemporaneous developments in the social sciences, economics, and politics, while also making a case for their unique contributions to broader debates about gifts. Not only do these writers insist that literature is a special kind of gift, but they also pose challenges to the gift's feminization in the work of both their Victorian forebears and contemporary male theorists. Each of these writers uses tropes and narratives of givingof hospitality, sympathy, reciprocity, charity, genius, and kinshipto imagine more egalitarian social possibilities under the conditions of the capitalist present. The language of the gift is not, as we might expect, a mark of hostility to the market so much as a means of giving form to the 'society' in market society-of representing everyday experiences of exchange that the myth of the free market works, even now, to render unthinkable.

Politics of Deconstruction

A New Introduction to Jacques Derrida

Author: Susanne Lüdemann

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804793026

Category: Philosophy

Page: 176

View: 7723

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The book offers a new introduction to Jacques Derrida and to Deconstruction as an important strand of Continental Philosophy. From his early writings on phenomenology and linguistics to his later meditations on war, terrorism, and justice, Jacques Derrida (1930–2004) achieved prominence on an international scale by addressing as many different audiences as he did topics. Yet despite widespread acclamation, his work has never been considered easy. Rendering accessible debates that marked more than four decades of engagement and inquiry, Susanne Lüdemann traces connections between the philosopher's own texts and those of his many interlocutors, past and present. Unlike conventional introductions, Politics of Deconstruction offers a number of personal approaches to reading Derrida and invites readers to find their own. Emphasizing the relationship between philosophy and politics, it shows that, with Deconstruction, there is much more at stake than an "academic" discussion, for Derrida's work deals with all the burning political and intellectual challenges of our time. The author's own professional experience in both the United States and in Europe, which particularly inform her chapter on Derrida's reception in the United States, opens a unique perspective on a unique thinker, one that rewards specialists and newcomers alike.

The Rule of the Clan

What an Ancient Form of Social Organization Reveals About the Future of Individual Freedom

Author: Mark S. Weiner

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN: 1466836385

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 9333

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A revealing look at the role kin-based societies have played throughout history and around the world A lively, wide-ranging meditation on human development that offers surprising lessons for the future of modern individualism, The Rule of the Clan examines the constitutional principles and cultural institutions of kin-based societies, from medieval Iceland to modern Pakistan. Mark S. Weiner, an expert in constitutional law and legal history, shows us that true individual freedom depends on the existence of a robust state dedicated to the public interest. In the absence of a healthy state, he explains, humans naturally tend to create legal structures centered not on individuals but rather on extended family groups. The modern liberal state makes individualism possible by keeping this powerful drive in check—and we ignore the continuing threat to liberal values and institutions at our peril. At the same time, for modern individualism to survive, liberals must also acknowledge the profound social and psychological benefits the rule of the clan provides and recognize the loss humanity sustains in its transition to modernity. Masterfully argued and filled with rich historical detail, Weiner's investigation speaks both to modern liberal societies and to developing nations riven by "clannism," including Muslim societies in the wake of the Arab Spring.

A Feast for the Eyes

Art, Performance, and the Late Medieval Banquet

Author: Christina Normore

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022624234X

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 3367

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To read accounts of late medieval banquets is to enter a fantastical world where live lions guard nude statues, gilded stags burst into song, and musicians play from within pies. We can almost hear the clock sound from within a glass castle, taste the fire-breathing roast boar, and smell the rose water cascading in a miniature fountain. Such vivid works of art and performance required collaboration among artists in many fields, as well as the participation of the audience. A Feast for the Eyes is the first book-length study of the court banquets of northwestern Europe in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Christina Normore draws on an array of artworks, archival documents, chroniclers’ accounts, and cookbooks to re-create these events and reassess the late medieval visual culture in which banquets were staged. Feast participants, she shows, developed sophisticated ways of appreciating artistic skill and attending to their own processes of perception, thereby forging a court culture that delighted in the exercise of fine aesthetic judgment. Challenging modern assumptions about the nature of artistic production and reception, A Feast for the Eyes yields fresh insight into the long history of multimedia work and the complex relationships between spectacle and spectators.

The Body Divided

Human Beings and Human 'Material' in Modern Medical History

Author: Dr Sarah Ferber,Ms Sally Wilde

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409482847

Category: Medical

Page: 264

View: 5585

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Bodies and body parts of the dead have long been considered valuable material for use in medical science. Over time and in different places, they have been dissected, autopsied, investigated, harvested for research and therapeutic purposes, collected to turn into museum and other specimens, and then displayed, disposed of, and exchanged. This book examines the history of such activities, from the early nineteenth century through to the present, as they took place in hospitals, universities, workhouses, asylums and museums in England, Australia and elsewhere. Through a series of case studies, the volume reveals the changing scientific, economic and emotional value of corpses and their contested place in medical science.

The Gift of Logos

Essays in Continental Philosophy

Author: David Jones,Jason M. Wirth,Michael Schwartz

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443818259

Category: Philosophy

Page: 205

View: 8036

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The Continental tradition has always placed great emphasis on the Logos. The Gift of Logos: Essays in Continental Philosophy celebrates and situates this emphasis in the genre of the gift and its giving. The process of receiving, or giving, of the gift overcomes the existential alienation and separation that is so present in the human condition. To ritualize giving and its gifting is to provide a syntax of solidarity that bespeaks our desire for cohesion and need for identities beyond our own. To give a gift is to befriend. The gift of logos is more than a gift from the gods and goddesses; it is an act of giving for those friends of wisdom—for those philosophers who give to each other and to their worlds and receive the blessings of logos from each other. The increasing objectification of human being has mobilized a regressive narcissism that shows the ego’s reassertion in the light of the meaningless quantifying forces from without. By not reflecting deeply enough upon its conditions of existence in the modern world and on its orginary moments, philosophy itself has not been immune from this besotted sense of self. Although not an invective against thinking nor against modern and contemporary philosophy’s genuine advances, The Gift of Logos portends to shed the delusion that theoretical re-description is somehow the same as transforming who we are. This transformation is our greatest gift to each other. To give it voice is the gift of Logos and what this collection of essays commemorates.

Becoming Present

An Inquiry Into the Christian Sense of the Presence of God

Author: Ingolf U. Dalferth

Publisher: Peeters Publishers

ISBN: 9789042917279

Category: Philosophy

Page: 291

View: 455

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Safeguarding the distinction between God and world has always been a basic interest of negative theology. But sometimes it has overemphasized divine transcendence in a way that made it difficult to account for the sense of God's present activity and experienced actuality. Deconstructivist criticisms of the Western metaphysics of presence have made this even more difficult to conceive. On the other hand, there has been a widespread attempt in recent years to base all theology on (religious) experience; the Christian church celebrates God's presence in its central sacraments of baptism and Eucharist; and recent process thought has re-conceptualised God's presence in panentheistic terms. This is the background against which this book outlines a theology of the Christian sense of the presence of God. The first chapter traces the rise and fall of rational religion in Modernity and argues that we should replace philosophical theism not by a unspecified religious sense of the whole but by a specific sense of the presence of God. The second chapter analyses the notion of divine presence and outlines different ways of understanding the real presence of God. The third chapter discusses the problem of whether and how God's presence can be discerned - given the fact that there is no presence of God that is not tinged by God's absence. Chapter four distinguishes various modes of divine presence with their corresponding modes of (human) apprehension. Chapter five takes up the charge that presence is an impossibility in a critical discussion of the debate between Derrida and Marion about the (im)possibility of gift. Chapter six asks how God's presence is conceived and communicated, looking in particular to music as a means of representing and communicating the awareness of God's presence. The final chapter outlines how the sense of the presence of God can be presented and defended in a world of many religions and cultures with their often conflicting religious convictions and representations.

Gifts and Interests

Author: Antoon Vandevelde

Publisher: Peeters Publishers

ISBN: 9789042908147

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 225

View: 9363

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According to a common understanding of economics, economists attempt to understand and explain societal reality in the light of individual self-interest. For them, a gift is no exception to this, except for the slight and misleading veil of altruism which covers a purely egoistic motivation. On the other hand, theologians, philosophers and ethicists use a more normative concept of man. Man realises his best potential through deeds of selfless sacrifice that remain unknown to everyone. In reality, however, people are either entirely egoistic nor altruistic. Marcel Mauss' model of the gift is interesting because it seems to escape the classical (or rather, modern) egoism/altruism dichotomy. Gifts are not primarily motivated by the well-being of myself or the other but rather by the desire to bring about or maintain a certain kind of social relation between giver and receiver. Altruistic as well as egoistic motivations are an integral part of that relation. The role of gifts in the constitution of social relations and social cohesion explains why most kinds of gifts are reciprocal and even obligatory. In this book anthropologists, sociologists and economists as well as philosophers focus on the question of the relevance of Mauss' work on the gift for the understanding of actual social phenomena.

Gift - Marcel Mauss' Kulturtheorie der Gabe

Author: Stephan Moebius,Christian Papilloud

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 9783531147314

Category: Social Science

Page: 359

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Stephan Moebius und Christian Papilloud bieten zusammen mit deutschen und französischen Autoren einen systematischen und transdisziplinären Überblick über die Thematisierungen und Einflüsse des Gabe-Denkens von Marcel Mauss. Im Vordergrund stehen dabei historische und theoretische Grundzüge eines sich bildenden internationalen Gabe-Diskurses, der das Werk von Marcel Mauss in seiner Relevanz für die gegenwärtige soziologische und kulturwissenschaftliche Forschung würdigt. Darüber hinaus kommt Mauss in zwei erstmals auf deutsch erscheinenden Beiträgen selbst zur Sprache.

The Languages of Gift in the Early Middle Ages

Author: Wendy Davies

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521515173

Category: History

Page: 305

View: 8080

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This book is a collection of original essays on gift in the early Middle Ages, from Anglo-Saxon England to the Islamic world. Focusing on the languages of gift, the essays reveal how early medieval people visualized and thought about gift, and how they distinguished between the giving of gifts and other forms of social, economic, political and religious exchange. The same team, largely, that produced the widely cited The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge University Press, 1986) has again collaborated in a collective effort that harnesses individual expertise in order to draw from the sources a deeper understanding of the early Middle Ages by looking at real cases, that is at real people, whether peasant or emperor. The culture of medieval gift has often been treated as archaic and exotic; in this book, by contrast, we see people going about their lives in individual, down-to-earth and sometimes familiar ways.

Desire, Gift, and Recognition

Christology and Postmodern Philosophy

Author: Jan-Olav Henriksen

Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing

ISBN: 080286371X

Category: Religion

Page: 379

View: 6057

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A major work in the philosophy of religion, this book interprets the Jesus story in terms of postmodern philosophy - particularly using Jacques Derrida?s categories of "desire," "gift," and "recognition." Author Jan-Olav Henriksen also attempts to reformulate Christology without resorting to such metaphysical concepts as substance, transcendence, etc. While not denying traditional doctrines, Henriksen explicates the meaning of Jesus' life and death in ways that engage contemporary philosophy and challenge contemporary (academic) Christians to rethink the basics of their faith; and he outlines the possibility of a "post-metaphysical Christology." / Henriksen s book is a clearly reasoned guide not only to the argument that Christology still has something to say to contemporary believers but also to ways in which theologians must learn to reconnect to everyday human experience.

Why Did Paul Go West?

Jewish Historical Narrative and Thought

Author: Doron Mendels

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 0567610373

Category: Religion

Page: 224

View: 8043

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In his new book Doron Mendels addresses the topic of the authority of texts and their transmission, as well as different strategies of narration in ancient texts. Mendels provides extensive treatment of issues such as linearity, emporality and simultaenity of texts, whilst working to examine four core themes. First, the narrator and his strategies in the historiography of the Hellenistic period. Secondly, Jewish Historical thought in the Hellenistic period and beyond. Thirdly, issues of Hellenization in Palestine - power, honour, gifting, etiquette and sovereignty and their presentation in the main narrative of the Hasmonean period. Finally Mendels gives attention to the 'split' in the Jewish diaspora between east and west, as exemplified from a Christian point of view, it is this that unites these themes into a sustained examination of Jewish historical narrative and thought.

The Cycle of the Gift

Family Wealth and Wisdom

Author: James E. Hughes, Jr.,Susan E. Massenzio,Keith Whitaker

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118488377

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 192

View: 1650

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A comprehensive guide to giving well to family members Giving is at the core of family life--and with current law allowing up to $5,120,000 in tax-free gifts, at least through December 2012, the ultra-affluent are faced with the task of giving at perhaps largest scale in history. Beyond the tax saving and wealth management implications, giving to family members opens up a slew of thorny questions, the biggest of which is, "How do I prepare recipients of such large gifts?" With that question and others in mind, Hughes, Massenzio, and Whitaker have written The Cycle of the Gift in three main parts: "The Who of Giving," "The How of Giving," and "The What and Why of Giving." The first part focuses on the people most deeply involved in family giving, especially the recipients and givers (parents, grandparents, spouses, trustees). The second part, "The How of Giving," addresses the delicate balance of givers who want to maintain some level of control and recipients who want some level of freedom in accepting and growing their gifts. The final part, "The What and Why of Giving" describes various types of gifts, from money to business interests to values and rituals. The authors also introduce their "family bank" concept as a model that combines loans, trusts, and outright gifts. It embodies a framework and set of practices for long-term family growth. Even families without great wealth--or those who have already made large gifts to their children and grandchilren--can benefit from the human wisdom and practical advice found in The Cycle of the Gift.

The Empty Seashell

Witchcraft and Doubt on an Indonesian Island

Author: Nils Bubandt

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801471966

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 9979

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The Empty Seashell explores what it is like to live in a world where cannibal witches are undeniably real, yet too ephemeral and contradictory to be an object of belief. In a book based on more than three years of fieldwork between 1991 and 2011, Nils Bubandt argues that cannibal witches for people in the coastal, and predominantly Christian, community of Buli in the Indonesian province of North Maluku are both corporeally real and fundamentally unknowable. Witches (known as gua in the Buli language or as suanggi in regional Malay) appear to be ordinary humans but sometimes, especially at night, they take other forms and attack people in order to kill them and eat their livers. They are seemingly everywhere and nowhere at the same time. The reality of gua, therefore, can never be pinned down. The title of the book comes from the empty nautilus shells that regularly drift ashore around Buli village. Convention has it that if you find a live nautilus, you are a gua. Like the empty shells, witchcraft always seems to recede from experience. Bubandt begins the book by recounting his own confusion and frustration in coming to terms with the contradictory and inaccessible nature of witchcraft realities in Buli. A detailed ethnography of the encompassing inaccessibility of Buli witchcraft leads him to the conclusion that much of the anthropological literature, which views witchcraft as a system of beliefs with genuine explanatory power, is off the mark. Witchcraft for the Buli people doesn't explain anything. In fact, it does the opposite: it confuses, obfuscates, and frustrates. Drawing upon Jacques Derrida’s concept of aporia—an interminable experience that remains continuously in doubt—Bubandt suggests the need to take seriously people’s experiential and epistemological doubts about witchcraft, and outlines, by extension, a novel way of thinking about witchcraft and its relation to modernity.

Giving Women

Alliance and Exchange in Victorian Culture

Author: Jill Rappoport

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 0199772606

Category: History

Page: 260

View: 5721

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Drawing on novels, poetry, periodicals, and political pamphlets, Giving Women examines the literary expression and cultural consequences of gift exchange among English women from the 1820s until the end of the First World War.

The Return of the Gift

European History of a Global Idea

Author: Harry Liebersohn

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139495496

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 2065

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This book is a history of European interpretations of the gift from the mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth century. Reciprocal gift exchange, pervasive in traditional European society, disappeared from the discourse of nineteenth-century social theory only to return as a major theme in twentieth-century anthropology, sociology, history, philosophy and literary studies. Modern anthropologists encountered gift exchange in Oceania and the Pacific Northwest and returned the idea to European social thought; Marcel Mauss synthesized their insights with his own readings from remote times and places in his famous 1925 essay on the gift, the starting-point for subsequent discussion. The Return of the Gift demonstrates how European intellectual history can gain fresh significance from global contexts.