The Historical Development of the Calculus

Author: C.H.Jr. Edwards

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461262305

Category: Mathematics

Page: 368

View: 3623

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The calculus has served for three centuries as the principal quantitative language of Western science. In the course of its genesis and evolution some of the most fundamental problems of mathematics were first con fronted and, through the persistent labors of successive generations, finally resolved. Therefore, the historical development of the calculus holds a special interest for anyone who appreciates the value of a historical perspective in teaching, learning, and enjoying mathematics and its ap plications. My goal in writing this book was to present an account of this development that is accessible, not solely to students of the history of mathematics, but to the wider mathematical community for which my exposition is more specifically intended, including those who study, teach, and use calculus. The scope of this account can be delineated partly by comparison with previous works in the same general area. M. E. Baron's The Origins of the Infinitesimal Calculus (1969) provides an informative and reliable treat ment of the precalculus period up to, but not including (in any detail), the time of Newton and Leibniz, just when the interest and pace of the story begin to quicken and intensify. C. B. Boyer's well-known book (1949, 1959 reprint) met well the goals its author set for it, but it was more ap propriately titled in its original edition-The Concepts of the Calculus than in its reprinting.

The Historical Development of the Calculus

Author: C.H.Jr. Edwards

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387943138

Category: Mathematics

Page: 368

View: 312

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This is a lucid account of the highlights in the historical development of the calculus from ancient to modern times - from the beginnings of geometry in antiquity to the nonstandard analysis of the twentieth century. It emphasizes the genesis and evolution of both fundamental concepts and computational techniques. The intended audience includes not only students of the history of mathematics, but also the wider mathematical community, specifically those who study, teach and use calculus. Among the distinctive features of this exposition are historically motivated exercises and carefully chosen illustrative examples. Numerous sections of the book are suitable for use in courses in introductory and advanced calculus as well as the general history of mathematics.

Calculus and Its Origins

Author: David Perkins

Publisher: MAA

ISBN: 0883855755

Category: Mathematics

Page: 165

View: 6130

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" ... Is primarily a collection of results that show how calculus came to be, beginning in ancient Greece and climaxing with the discovery of calculus. The book requires only a basic knowledge of high school geometry and algebra. Exercises introduce further historical figures and their results." -- Cover, p.[4].

Analysis by Its History

Author: Ernst Hairer,Gerhard Wanner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387770364

Category: Mathematics

Page: 379

View: 1997

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This book presents first-year calculus roughly in the order in which it was first discovered. The first two chapters show how the ancient calculations of practical problems led to infinite series, differential and integral calculus and to differential equations. The establishment of mathematical rigour for these subjects in the 19th century for one and several variables is treated in chapters III and IV. Many quotations are included to give the flavor of the history. The text is complemented by a large number of examples, calculations and mathematical pictures and will provide stimulating and enjoyable reading for students, teachers, as well as researchers.

The Origins of Infinitesimal Calculus

Author: Margaret E. Baron

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483280926

Category: Mathematics

Page: 312

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The Origins of Infinitesimal Calculus focuses on the evolution, development, and applications of infinitesimal calculus. The publication first ponders on Greek mathematics, transition to Western Europe, and some center of gravity determinations in the later 16th century. Discussions focus on the growth of kinematics in the West, latitude of forms, influence of Aristotle, axiomatization of Greek mathematics, theory of proportion and means, method of exhaustion, discovery method of Archimedes, and curves, normals, tangents, and curvature. The manuscript then examines infinitesimals and indivisibles in the early 17th century and further advances in France and Italy. Topics include the link between differential and integral processes, concept of tangent, first investigations of the cycloid, and arithmetization of integration methods. The book reviews the infinitesimal methods in England and Low Countries and rectification of arcs. The publication is a vital source of information for historians, mathematicians, and researchers interested in infinitesimal calculus.

A History of the Calculus of Variations from the 17th through the 19th Century

Author: H. H. Goldstine

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461381061

Category: Mathematics

Page: 410

View: 1324

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The calculus of variations is a subject whose beginning can be precisely dated. It might be said to begin at the moment that Euler coined the name calculus of variations but this is, of course, not the true moment of inception of the subject. It would not have been unreasonable if I had gone back to the set of isoperimetric problems considered by Greek mathemati cians such as Zenodorus (c. 200 B. C. ) and preserved by Pappus (c. 300 A. D. ). I have not done this since these problems were solved by geometric means. Instead I have arbitrarily chosen to begin with Fermat's elegant principle of least time. He used this principle in 1662 to show how a light ray was refracted at the interface between two optical media of different densities. This analysis of Fermat seems to me especially appropriate as a starting point: He used the methods of the calculus to minimize the time of passage cif a light ray through the two media, and his method was adapted by John Bernoulli to solve the brachystochrone problem. There have been several other histories of the subject, but they are now hopelessly archaic. One by Robert Woodhouse appeared in 1810 and another by Isaac Todhunter in 1861.

Mathematics and Its History

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144196052X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 662

View: 8311

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From a review of the second edition: "This book covers many interesting topics not usually covered in a present day undergraduate course, as well as certain basic topics such as the development of the calculus and the solution of polynomial equations. The fact that the topics are introduced in their historical contexts will enable students to better appreciate and understand the mathematical ideas involved...If one constructs a list of topics central to a history course, then they would closely resemble those chosen here." (David Parrott, Australian Mathematical Society) This book offers a collection of historical essays detailing a large variety of mathematical disciplines and issues; it’s accessible to a broad audience. This third edition includes new chapters on simple groups and new sections on alternating groups and the Poincare conjecture. Many more exercises have been added as well as commentary that helps place the exercises in context.

Elements of the History of Mathematics

Author: N. Bourbaki

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642616933

Category: Mathematics

Page: 301

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Each volume of Nicolas Bourbakis well-known work, The Elements of Mathematics, contains a section or chapter devoted to the history of the subject. This book collects together those historical segments with an emphasis on the emergence, development, and interaction of the leading ideas of the mathematical theories presented in the Elements. In particular, the book provides a highly readable account of the evolution of algebra, geometry, infinitesimal calculus, and of the concepts of number and structure, from the Babylonian era through to the 20th century.

Euclid—The Creation of Mathematics

Author: Benno Artmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461214122

Category: Mathematics

Page: 349

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Euclid presents the essential of mathematics in a manner which has set a high standard for more than 2000 years. This book, an explanation of the nature of mathematics from its most important early source, is for all lovers of mathematics with a solid background in high school geometry, whether they be students or university professors.

The Language of Physics

The Calculus and the Development of Theoretical Physics in Europe, 1750–1914

Author: Elizabeth Garber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461217660

Category: Science

Page: 399

View: 4281

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This work is the first explicit examination of the key role that mathematics has played in the development of theoretical physics and will undoubtedly challenge the more conventional accounts of its historical development. Although mathematics has long been regarded as the "language" of physics, the connections between these independent disciplines have been far more complex and intimate than previous narratives have shown. The author convincingly demonstrates that practices, methods, and language shaped the development of the field, and are a key to understanding the mergence of the modern academic discipline. Mathematicians and physicists, as well as historians of both disciplines, will find this provocative work of great interest.

The Arithmetic of Infinitesimals

Author: John Wallis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475743122

Category: Mathematics

Page: 192

View: 8566

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John Wallis (1616-1703) was the most influential English mathematician prior to Newton. He published his most famous work, Arithmetica Infinitorum, in Latin in 1656. This book studied the quadrature of curves and systematised the analysis of Descartes and Cavelieri. Upon publication, this text immediately became the standard book on the subject and was frequently referred to by subsequent writers. This will be the first English translation of this text ever to be published.

Elementary Analysis

The Theory of Calculus

Author: Kenneth A. Ross

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461462711

Category: Mathematics

Page: 412

View: 9625

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For over three decades, this best-selling classic has been used by thousands of students in the United States and abroad as a must-have textbook for a transitional course from calculus to analysis. It has proven to be very useful for mathematics majors who have no previous experience with rigorous proofs. Its friendly style unlocks the mystery of writing proofs, while carefully examining the theoretical basis for calculus. Proofs are given in full, and the large number of well-chosen examples and exercises range from routine to challenging. The second edition preserves the book’s clear and concise style, illuminating discussions, and simple, well-motivated proofs. New topics include material on the irrationality of pi, the Baire category theorem, Newton's method and the secant method, and continuous nowhere-differentiable functions.

Calculus: A Historical Approach

Author: W.M. Priestley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468493493

Category: Mathematics

Page: 441

View: 4252

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This book is for students being introduced to calculus, and it covers the usual topics, but its spirit is different from wh at might be expected. Though the approach is basically historical in nature, emphasis is put upon ideas and their place-not upon events and their dates. Its purpose is to have students to learn calculus first, and to learn incidentally something about the nature of mathematics. Somewhat to the surprise of its author, the book soon became animated by a spirit of opposition to the darkness that separates the sciences from the humanities. To fight the speil of that darkness anything at hand is used, even a few low tricks or bad jokes that seemed to offer a slight promise of success. To lighten the darkness, to illuminate some of the common ground shared by the two cultures, is a goal that justifies almost any means. It is possible that this approach may make calculus more fun as weil. Whereas the close ties of mathematics to the sciences are weil known, the ties binding mathematics to the humanities are rarely noticed. The result is a distorted view of mathematics, placing it outside the mainstream of liberal arts studies. This book tries to suggest gently, from time to time, where a kinship between mathematics and the humanities may be found.

Worlds Out of Nothing

A Course in the History of Geometry in the 19th Century

Author: Jeremy Gray

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780857290601

Category: Mathematics

Page: 384

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Based on the latest historical research, Worlds Out of Nothing is the first book to provide a course on the history of geometry in the 19th century. Topics covered in the first part of the book are projective geometry, especially the concept of duality, and non-Euclidean geometry. The book then moves on to the study of the singular points of algebraic curves (Plücker’s equations) and their role in resolving a paradox in the theory of duality; to Riemann’s work on differential geometry; and to Beltrami’s role in successfully establishing non-Euclidean geometry as a rigorous mathematical subject. The final part of the book considers how projective geometry rose to prominence, and looks at Poincaré’s ideas about non-Euclidean geometry and their physical and philosophical significance. Three chapters are devoted to writing and assessing work in the history of mathematics, with examples of sample questions in the subject, advice on how to write essays, and comments on what instructors should be looking for.

Writing the History of Mathematics: Its Historical Development

Author: Joseph W. Dauben,Christoph J. Scriba

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764361679

Category: Mathematics

Page: 689

View: 8329

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As an historiographic monograph, this book offers a detailed survey of the professional evolution and significance of an entire discipline devoted to the history of science. It provides both an intellectual and a social history of the development of the subject from the first such effort written by the ancient Greek author Eudemus in the Fourth Century BC, to the founding of the international journal, Historia Mathematica, by Kenneth O. May in the early 1970s.

The Prehistory of the Theory of Distributions

Author: J. Lützen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461394724

Category: Mathematics

Page: 232

View: 1721

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I first learned the theory of distributions from Professor Ebbe Thue Poulsen in an undergraduate course at Aarhus University. Both his lectures and the textbook, Topological Vector Spaces, Distributions and Kernels by F. Treves, used in the course, opened my eyes to the beauty and abstract simplicity of the theory. However my incomplete study of many branches of classical analysis left me with the question: Why is the theory of distributions important? In my continued studies this question was gradually answered, but my growing interest in the history of mathematics caused me to alter my question to other questions such as: For what purpose, if any, was the theory of distributions originally created? Who invented distributions and when? I quickly found answers to the last two questions: distributions were invented by S. Sobolev and L. Schwartz around 1936 and 1950, respectively. Knowing this answer, however, only created a new question: Did Sobolev and Schwartz construct distributions from scratch or were there earlier trends and, if so, what were they? It is this question, concerning the pre history of the theory of distributions, which I attempt to answer in this book. Most of my research took place at the History of Science Department of Aarhus University. I wish to thank this department for its financial and intellectual support. I am especially grateful to Lektors Kirsti Andersen from the History of Science Department and Lars Mejlbo from the Mathematics Department, for their kindness, constructive criticism, and encouragement.

The Real and the Complex: A History of Analysis in the 19th Century

Author: Jeremy Gray

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319237152

Category: Mathematics

Page: 350

View: 9234

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This book contains a history of real and complex analysis in the nineteenth century, from the work of Lagrange and Fourier to the origins of set theory and the modern foundations of analysis. It studies the works of many contributors including Gauss, Cauchy, Riemann, and Weierstrass. This book is unique owing to the treatment of real and complex analysis as overlapping, inter-related subjects, in keeping with how they were seen at the time. It is suitable as a course in the history of mathematics for students who have studied an introductory course in analysis, and will enrich any course in undergraduate real or complex analysis.

The Rise and Development of the Theory of Series up to the Early 1820s

Author: Giovanni Ferraro

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387734682

Category: Mathematics

Page: 392

View: 9123

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The manuscript gives a coherent and detailed account of the theory of series in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. It provides in one place an account of many results that are generally to be found - if at all - scattered throughout the historical and textbook literature. It presents the subject from the viewpoint of the mathematicians of the period, and is careful to distinguish earlier conceptions from ones that prevail today.

Calculus: A Liberal Art

Author: W.M. Priestley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461216583

Category: Mathematics

Page: 404

View: 3519

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Presenting mathematics as forming a natural bridge between the humanities and the sciences, this book makes calculus accessible to those in the liberal arts. Much of the necessary geometry and algebra are exposed through historical development, and a section on the development of calculus offers insights into the place of mathematics in the history of thought.

Conics and Cubics

A Concrete Introduction to Algebraic Curves

Author: Robert Bix

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475729758

Category: Mathematics

Page: 292

View: 5339

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Algebraic curves are the graphs of polynomial equations in two vari 3 ables, such as y3 + 5xy2 = x + 2xy. By focusing on curves of degree at most 3-lines, conics, and cubics-this book aims to fill the gap between the familiar subject of analytic geometry and the general study of alge braic curves. This text is designed for a one-semester class that serves both as a a geometry course for mathematics majors in general and as a sequel to college geometry for teachers of secondary school mathe matics. The only prerequisite is first-year calculus. On the one hand, this book can serve as a text for an undergraduate geometry course for all mathematics majors. Algebraic geometry unites algebra, geometry, topology, and analysis, and it is one of the most exciting areas of modem mathematics. Unfortunately, the subject is not easily accessible, and most introductory courses require a prohibitive amount of mathematical machinery. We avoid this problem by focusing on curves of degree at most 3. This keeps the results tangible and the proofs natural. It lets us emphasize the power of two fundamental ideas, homogeneous coordinates and intersection multiplicities.