The Invaders

Author: Pat Shipman

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674736761

Category: Science

Page: 266

View: 1079

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Humans domesticated dogs soon after Neanderthals began to disappear. This alliance between two predator species, Pat Shipman hypothesizes, made possible unprecedented success in hunting large Ice Age mammals—a distinct and ultimately decisive advantage for human invaders at a time when climate change made both humans and Neanderthals vulnerable.

The Invaders

Author: Pat Shipman

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674425405

Category: Science

Page: 282

View: 3660

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Humans domesticated dogs soon after Neanderthals began to disappear. This alliance between two predator species, Pat Shipman hypothesizes, made possible unprecedented success in hunting large Ice Age mammals—a distinct and ultimately decisive advantage for human invaders at a time when climate change made both humans and Neanderthals vulnerable.

The Invaders

How Humans and Their Dogs Drove Neanderthals to Extinction

Author: Pat Shipman

Publisher: Belknap Press

ISBN: 9780674975415

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 3031

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A Times Higher Education Book of the Week Approximately 200,000 years ago, as modern humans began to radiate out from their evolutionary birthplace in Africa, Neanderthals were already thriving in Europe-descendants of a much earlier migration of the African genus Homo. But when modern humans eventually made their way to Europe 45,000 years ago, Neanderthals suddenly vanished. Ever since the first Neanderthal bones were identified in 1856, scientists have been vexed by the question, why did modern humans survive while their closest known relatives went extinct? "Shipman admits that scientists have yet to find genetic evidence that would prove her theory. Time will tell if she's right. For now, read this book for an engagingly comprehensive overview of the rapidly evolving understanding of our own origins." -Toby Lester, Wall Street Journal "Are humans the ultimate invasive species? So contends anthropologist Pat Shipman-and Neanderthals, she opines, were among our first victims. The relationship between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis is laid out cleanly, along with genetic and other evidence. Shipman posits provocatively that the deciding factor in the triumph of our ancestors was the domestication of wolves." -Daniel Cressey, Nature

How the Dog Became the Dog

Author: Mark Derr

Publisher: Gerald Duckworth & Co

ISBN: 0715644181

Category: Nature

Page: 288

View: 1274

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That the dog evolved from the wolf is an accepted fact of evolution, but the question of how wolf became dog has remained a mystery, obscured by myth and legend. How the Dog Became the Dog presents the 'domestication' of the dog as a biological and cultural process that began with cooperation and has taken a number of radical turns since. At the end of the last Ice Age, the first dogs emerged with their humans from refuge against the cold. In the eighteenth century, humans began the drive to exercise full control of dog reproduction, life and death, to complete the domestication of the wolf that began so long ago.

The Animal Connection: A New Perspective on What Makes Us Human

Author: Pat Shipman

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393082227

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 6882

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A bold, illuminating new take on the love of animals that drove human evolution. Why do humans all over the world take in and nurture other animals? This behavior might seem maladaptive—after all, every mouthful given to another species is one that you cannot eat—but in this heartening new study, acclaimed anthropologist Pat Shipman reveals that our propensity to domesticate and care for other animals is in fact among our species' greatest strengths. For the last 2.6 million years, Shipman explains, humans who coexisted with animals enjoyed definite adaptive and cultural advantages. To illustrate this point, Shipman gives us a tour of the milestones in human civilization-from agriculture to art and even language—and describes how we reached each stage through our unique relationship with other animals. The Animal Connection reaffirms our love of animals as something both innate and distinctly human, revealing that the process of domestication not only changed animals but had a resounding impact on us as well.

A Dog in the Cave

The Wolves Who Made Us Human

Author: Kay Frydenborg

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 1328694909

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 256

View: 7382

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We know dogs are our best animal friends, but have you ever thought about what that might mean? Fossils show we’ve shared our work and homes with dogs for tens of thousands of years. Now there’s growing evidence that we influenced dogs’ evolution—and they, in turn, changed ours. Even more than our closest relatives, the apes, dogs are the species with whom we communicate best. Combining history, paleontology, biology, and cutting-edge medical science, Kay Frydenborg paints a picture of how two different species became deeply entwined—and how we coevolved into the species we are today.

The First Domestication

How Wolves and Humans Coevolved

Author: Raymond Pierotti,Brandy R. Fogg

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300231679

Category: Nature

Page: 344

View: 2483

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A riveting look at how dog and humans became best friends, and the first history of dog domestication to include insights from indigenous peoples In this fascinating book, Raymond Pierotti and Brandy Fogg change the narrative about how wolves became dogs and in turn, humanity’s best friend. Rather than describe how people mastered and tamed an aggressive, dangerous species, the authors describe coevolution and mutualism. Wolves, particularly ones shunned by their packs, most likely initiated the relationship with Paleolithic humans, forming bonds built on mutually recognized skills and emotional capacity. This interdisciplinary study draws on sources from evolutionary biology as well as tribal and indigenous histories to produce an intelligent, insightful, and often unexpected story of cooperative hunting, wolves protecting camps, and wolf-human companionship. This fascinating assessment is a must-read for anyone interested in human evolution, ecology, animal behavior, anthropology, and the history of canine domestication.

Evolution's Bite

A Story of Teeth, Diet, and Human Origins

Author: Peter S. Ungar

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400884756

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 6504

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What teeth can teach us about the evolution of the human species Whether we realize it or not, we carry in our mouths the legacy of our evolution. Our teeth are like living fossils that can be studied and compared to those of our ancestors to teach us how we became human. In Evolution's Bite, noted paleoanthropologist Peter Ungar brings together for the first time cutting-edge advances in understanding human evolution and climate change with new approaches to uncovering dietary clues from fossil teeth to present a remarkable investigation into the ways that teeth—their shape, chemistry, and wear—reveal how we came to be. Ungar describes how a tooth's "foodprints"—distinctive patterns of microscopic wear and tear—provide telltale details about what an animal actually ate in the past. These clues, combined with groundbreaking research in paleoclimatology, demonstrate how a changing climate altered the food options available to our ancestors, what Ungar calls the biospheric buffet. When diets change, species change, and Ungar traces how diet and an unpredictable climate determined who among our ancestors was winnowed out and who survived, as well as why we transitioned from the role of forager to farmer. By sifting through the evidence—and the scars on our teeth—Ungar makes the important case for what might or might not be the most natural diet for humans. Traveling the four corners of the globe and combining scientific breakthroughs with vivid narrative, Evolution's Bite presents a unique dental perspective on our astonishing human development.

Lone Survivors

How We Came to Be the Only Humans on Earth

Author: Chris Stringer

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 1429973447

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 3408

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A leading researcher on human evolution proposes a new and controversial theory of how our species came to be In this groundbreaking and engaging work of science, world-renowned paleoanthropologist Chris Stringer sets out a new theory of humanity's origin, challenging both the multiregionalists (who hold that modern humans developed from ancient ancestors in different parts of the world) and his own "out of Africa" theory, which maintains that humans emerged rapidly in one small part of Africa and then spread to replace all other humans within and outside the continent. Stringer's new theory, based on archeological and genetic evidence, holds that distinct humans coexisted and competed across the African continent—exchanging genes, tools, and behavioral strategies. Stringer draws on analyses of old and new fossils from around the world, DNA studies of Neanderthals (using the full genome map) and other species, and recent archeological digs to unveil his new theory. He shows how the most sensational recent fossil findings fit with his model, and he questions previous concepts (including his own) of modernity and how it evolved. Lone Survivors will be the definitive account of who and what we were, and will change perceptions about our origins and about what it means to be human.

Thin on the Ground

Neandertal Biology, Archeology and Ecology

Author: Steven E. Churchill

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118590872

Category: Social Science

Page: 472

View: 5368

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Thin on the Ground: Neandertal Biology, Archeology and Ecology synthesizes the current knowledge about our sister species the Neandertals, combining data from a variety of disciplines to reach a cohesive theory behind Neandertal low population densities and relatively low rate of technological innovation. The book highlights and contrasts the differences between Neandertals and early modern humans and explores the morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptive solutions which led to the extinction of the Neandertals and the population expansion of modern humans. Written by a world recognized expert in physical anthropology, Thin on the Ground: Neandertal Biology, Archaeology and Ecology will be a must have title for anyone interested in the rise and fall of the Neandertals.

Human Social Evolution

The Foundational Works of Richard D. Alexander

Author: Kyle Summers,Bernard Crespi

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199792003

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 4416

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Richard D. Alexander is an accomplished entomologist who turned his attention to solving some of the most perplexing problems associated with the evolution of human social systems. Using impeccable Darwinian logic and elaborating, extending and adding to the classic theoretical contributions of pioneers of behavioral and evolutionary ecology like George Williams, William Hamilton and Robert Trivers, Alexander developed the most detailed and comprehensive vision of human social evolution of his era. His ideas and hypotheses have inspired countless biologists, anthropologists, psychologists and other social scientists to explore the evolution of human social behavior in ever greater detail, and many of his seminal ideas have stood the test of time and come to be pillars of our understanding of human social evolution. This volume presents classic papers or chapters by Dr. Alexander, each focused on an important theme from his work. Introductions by Dr. Alexander's former students and colleagues highlight the importance of his work to the field, describe more recent work on the topic, and discuss current issues of contention and interest.

Learning from Dogs

Innate Wisdom from Man's Best Friend

Author: Paul Handover

Publisher: Paul Handover Publisher

ISBN: 9780996778206

Category: Pets

Page: 244

View: 8137

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The relationship between canids and humans goes back 40,000 years when dogs split away from wolves. With a blend of humor, story-telling, perception, compassion, and insight, the author shares his perspective; what he has learned through years of interaction with dogs, and why our animal friends will help us heal the challenges of the 21st century.

Evolution and Human Sexual Behavior

Author: Peter B. Gray

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674074394

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 8148

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A comprehensive survey of the evolutionary science of human sexual behavior, Evolution and Human Sexual Behavior invites us to imagine human sex from the vantage point of our primate cousins, in order to underscore the role of evolution in shaping all that happens, biologically and behaviorally, when romantic passions are aroused.

Taking Wing

Archaeopteryx and the Evolution of Bird Flight

Author: Pat Shipman

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0684849658

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 5855

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Examines the scientific implications and continuing controversy over Archaeopteryx, a bird-reptile fossil discovered 130 years ago that many scientists believe offers tangible proof of Darwin's theory of evolution

The Evolution of Racism

Human Differences and the Use and Abuse of Science

Author: Pat Shipman

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674008625

Category: Social Science

Page: 318

View: 3368

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Ever since Charles Darwin first wrote about the 'descent of man,' the differences between the human races have been the subject of the most enduring controversy over the 'origin of the species.' Evolutionary theory has been used and abused as a scientific justification or intellectual weapon by racists and anti-racists alike. Careers have been made and broken, lives dedicated or sacrificed, societies destroyed, and wars fought over what Darwin called the 'value of the differences' among humankind. 'The Evolution of Racism' is a history of both evolutionary theory and ideas about race and racism. In an intellectually engaging narrative that mixes science and history, theories and personalities, Pat Shipman explains the original controversy over evolution in Darwin's time; the corruption of evolutionary theory into eugenics; the conflict between laboratory research in genetics and field work in physical anthropology and biology, which gave rise to the "new synthesis" of modern evolutionary biology, which in turn cast new light on the age-old debate over nature verses nurture; and the continuing controversies over the heritability of intelligence, criminal behavior, and other traits. 'The Evolution of Racism' gives a fresh picture of familiar characters such as Darwin, Thomas Huxley, and Ashley Montagu, and introduces general readers to less well known but influential figures such as Ernst Haeckel, the scientific father of the eugenics movement, and Carleton Coon, the last of the great anthropologist/explorers, whose life-long work on racial differences became the center of a bitter academic feud that spilled over into public life. A sober and sobering examination of the most volatile questions about human differences, The Evolution of Racism is a scientific and intellectual history that will open the topic for much-needed discussion and open our minds along the way.

How to Tame a Fox (and Build a Dog)

Visionary Scientists and a Siberian Tale of Jump-Started Evolution

Author: Lee Alan Dugatkin,Lyudmila Trut

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022644418X

Category: History

Page: 236

View: 2220

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In 1959, biologists Dmitri Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut set out to speed up thousands of years of evolution into a few decades. They started with a few dozen silver foxes from fox farms in the USSR and attempting to recreate the evolution of wolves into dogs in real time in order to witness the process of domestication. Within a decade the experiments had resulted in puppy-like foxes with floppy ears, piebald spots, and curly tails. Along with these physical changes came genetic and behavioral changes, as well. Dugatkin and Trut examine the adventure, science, politics, and love behind it all.

Ivory Vikings: The Mystery of the Most Famous Chessmen in the World and the Woman Who Made Them

Author: Nancy Marie Brown

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1466879130

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 1020

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In the early 1800's, on a Hebridean beach in Scotland, the sea exposed an ancient treasure cache: 93 chessmen carved from walrus ivory. Norse netsuke, each face individual, each full of quirks, the Lewis Chessmen are probably the most famous chess pieces in the world. Harry played Wizard's Chess with them in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. Housed at the British Museum, they are among its most visited and beloved objects. Questions abounded: Who carved them? Where? Nancy Marie Brown's Ivory Vikings explores these mysteries by connecting medieval Icelandic sagas with modern archaeology, art history, forensics, and the history of board games. In the process, Ivory Vikings presents a vivid history of the 400 years when the Vikings ruled the North Atlantic, and the sea-road connected countries and islands we think of as far apart and culturally distinct: Norway and Scotland, Ireland and Iceland, and Greenland and North America. The story of the Lewis chessmen explains the economic lure behind the Viking voyages to the west in the 800s and 900s. And finally, it brings from the shadows an extraordinarily talented woman artist of the twelfth century: Margret the Adroit of Iceland.

Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

Author: Jared Diamond

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393609294

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 625

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"Fascinating.... Lays a foundation for understanding human history."—Bill Gates In this "artful, informative, and delightful" (William H. McNeill, New York Review of Books) book, Jared Diamond convincingly argues that geographical and environmental factors shaped the modern world. Societies that had had a head start in food production advanced beyond the hunter-gatherer stage, and then developed religion --as well as nasty germs and potent weapons of war --and adventured on sea and land to conquer and decimate preliterate cultures. A major advance in our understanding of human societies, Guns, Germs, and Steel chronicles the way that the modern world came to be and stunningly dismantles racially based theories of human history. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize, the Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science, the Rhone-Poulenc Prize, and the Commonwealth club of California's Gold Medal.

Neanderthal Man

In Search of Lost Genomes

Author: Svante PŠŠbo

Publisher: Basic Books (AZ)

ISBN: 0465020836

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 2085

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An influential geneticist traces his investigation into the genes of humanity's closest evolutionary relatives, explaining what his sequencing of the Neanderthal genome has revealed about their extinction and the origins of modern humans.

The Creation of Inequality

How Our Prehistoric Ancestors Set the Stage for Monarchy, Slavery, and Empire

Author: Kent Flannery

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674064976

Category: History

Page: 622

View: 1303

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Flannery and Marcus demonstrate that the rise of inequality was not simply the result of population increase, food surplus, or the accumulation of valuables but resulted from conscious manipulation of the unique social logic that lies at the core of every human group. Reversing the social logic can reverse inequality, they argue, without violence.