The Limits of Free Will

Author: Paul Russell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190627603

Category: Philosophy

Page: 312

View: 9137

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The Limits of Free Will presents influential articles by Paul Russell concerning free will and moral responsibility. The problems arising in this field of philosophy, which are deeply rooted in the history of the subject, are also intimately related to a wide range of other fields, such as law and criminology, moral psychology, theology, and, more recently, neuroscience. These articles were written and published over a period of three decades, although most have appeared in the past decade. Among the topics covered: the challenge of skepticism; moral sentiment and moral capacity; necessity and the metaphysics of causation; practical reason; free will and art; fatalism and the limits of agency; moral luck, and our metaphysical attitudes of optimism and pessimism. Some essays are primarily critical in character, presenting critiques and commentary on major works or contributions in the contemporary scene. Others are mainly constructive, aiming to develop and articulate a distinctive account of compatibilism. The general theory advanced by Russell, which he describes as a form of "critical compatibilism", rejects any form of unqualified or radical skepticism; but it also insists that a plausible compatibilism has significant and substantive implications about the limits of agency and argues that this licenses a metaphysical attitude of (modest) pessimism on this topic. While each essay is self-standing, there is nevertheless a core set of themes and issues that unite and link them together. The collection is arranged and organized in a format that enables the reader to appreciate and recognize these links and core themes.

Die Grenzen des Wachstums

Bericht des Club of Rome zur Lage der Menschheit

Author: Dennis Meadows,Donella H. Meadows

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Economic history

Page: 183

View: 2184

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Human Nature and the Limits of Darwinism

Author: Whitley R.P. Kaufman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137592885

Category: Philosophy

Page: 222

View: 5127

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This book compares two competing theories of human nature: the more traditional theory espoused in different forms by centuries of western philosophy and the newer, Darwinian model. In the traditional view, the human being is a hybrid being, with a lower, animal nature and a higher, rational or “spiritual” component. The competing Darwinian account does away with the idea of a higher nature and attempts to provide a complete reduction of human nature to the evolutionary goals of survival and reproduction. Whitley Kaufman presents the case that the traditional conception, regardless of one's religious views or other beliefs, provides a superior account of human nature and culture. We are animals, but we are also rational animals. Kaufman explores the most fundamental philosophical questions as they relate to this debate over human nature—for example: Is free will an illusion? Is morality a product of evolution, with no objective basis? Is reason merely a tool for promoting reproductive success? Is art an adaptation for attracting mates? Is there any higher meaning or purpose to human life? Human Nature and the Limits of Darwinism aims to assess the competing views of human nature and present a clear account of the issues on this most pressing of questions. It engages in a close analysis of the numerous recent attempts to explain all human aims in terms of Darwinian processes and presents the arguments in support of the traditional conception of human nature.

Scham, Schuld und Notwendigkeit

Eine Wiederbelebung antiker Begriffe der Moral

Author: Bernard Williams

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3050077174

Category: Philosophy

Page: 232

View: 4063

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Wie aktuell ist die Antike? Können wir Modernen von Homer etwas lernen und können wir mit Hilfe der antiken Tragödien einige tiefsitzende Mißverständnisse unserer Zeit von uns abschütteln? Auf diese Fragen antwortet Bernard Williams in einer faszinierenden Studie, die als sein Hauptwerk gilt, indem er insbesondere die antike Literatur von einseitigen modernen Deutungen befreit. Die Antike ist uns nicht nur viel näher als wir glauben, sie verfügt auch über Begriffe, die unser moralisches Selbstverständnis und die damit verbundenen unausweichlichen Konflikte besser beschreiben als unsere eigenen Begriffe.

Jonathan Edwards and the Limits of Enlightenment Philosophy

Author: Leon Chai

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195353112

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 5786

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Jonathan Edwards has most often been considered in the context of the Puritanism of New England. In many ways, however, he was closer to the thinkers of the European Enlightenment. In this book. Leon Chai explores that connection, analyzing Edwards' thought in light of a number of the issues that preoccupied such Enlightenment figures as Locke, Descartes, Malebranche, and Leibniz. The book comprises three parts, each of which begins with a detailed analysis of a crucial passage from a classic Enlightenment text, and then turns to a major theological work of Jonathan Edwards' in which the same issue is explored.

The Hateful and the Obscene

Studies in the Limits of Free Expression

Author: L. W. Sumner

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 9780802080837

Category: Law

Page: 275

View: 4533

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In a series of landmark decisions since 1990, Canadian courts have shaped a distinctive approach to the regulation of obscenity, hate literature, and child pornography. Missing from the debate, however, has been any attempt to determine whether the legal status quo can be justified by reference to a framework of moral/political principles. The Hateful and the Obscene is intended to fill that gap. L.W. Sumner brings philosophical depth and theoretical rigour to some of the most important and difficult questions concerning free expression. Building on a framework set out by J.S. Mill - that a legal restriction of expression is justified only when the expression in question is harmful to others and when the benefits of the restriction will exceed its costs - Sumner shows how the Canadian courts have replicated Mill's framework in their interpretation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Hateful and the Obscene is a compelling interpretation of freedom of expression that combines serious philosophical thought with a focus on Canadian law, thus maintaining the breadth to deal with both obscenity and hate literature.

Augustine and the Limits of Virtue

Author: James Wetzel

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316582469

Category: Religion

Page: N.A

View: 4150

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Augustine's moral psychology was one of the richest in late antiquity, and in this book James Wetzel evaluates its development, indicating that the insights offered by Augustine on free-will have been prevented from receiving full appreciation as the result of an anachronistic distinction between theology and philosophy. He shows that it has been commonplace to divide Augustine's thought into earlier and later phases, the former being more philosophically informed than the latter. Wetzel's contention is that this division is less pronounced than it has been made out to be. The author shows that, while Augustine clearly acknowledges his differences with philosophy, he never loses his fascination with the Stoic concepts of happiness and virtue, and of the possibility of their attainment by human beings. This fascination is seen by Wetzel to extend to Augustine's writings on grace, where freedom and happiness are viewed as a recovery of virtue. The notorious dismissal of pagan virtue in 'The City of God' is part of Augustine's family quarrel with philosophers, not a rejection of philosophy per se. Augustine the theologian is thus seen to be a Platonist philosopher with a keen sense of the psychology of moral struggle.

Time, Will, and Mental Process

Author: Jason W. Brown

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0585346542

Category: Medical

Page: 257

View: 5582

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In this volume, distinguished neurologist Jason W. Brown extends the microgenetic theory of the mind by offering a new approach to the problem of time and free will. Brown bases his work on a unitary process model of brain and behavior. He examines the problem of subjective time and free will, the experiential present, the nature of intentionality, and the creative properties of physical growth and mental process.

Anleitung zum Müßiggang

Author: Tom Hodgkinson

Publisher: Kein & Aber AG

ISBN: 3954030403

Category: Psychology

Page: 382

View: 7359

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Tom Hodgkinson weiß, warum selbstvergessene Angler die größten Karpfen fangen. Er weiß, wie sich die Bürotoilette umfunktionieren läßt, um einen kurzen Mittagsschlaf zu ermöglichen. Und er weiß, dass René Descartes sein »cogito ergo sum« nicht am Schreibtisch, sondern im Bett erdacht hat. Hodgkinson ist nämlich Chefredakteur der Zeitschrift »The Idler« und damit Experte für alles, was mit dem Schlaraffenleben zu tun hat. »Anleitung zum Müßiggang« ist gleichzeitig eine liebevoll recherchierte Kulturgeschichte und eine praktische Anleitung zum Müßiggang. Und natürlich ist ein Buch, das zur Faulheit aufruft, unweigerlich politisch: Eine Gesellschaftskritik, die, obgleich amüsant und ironisch überspitzt, durchaus ernstgenommen werden will. Hodgkinson tritt für mehr Produktivität durch entspanntere Arbeit ein und plädiert für einen gelassenen Umgang mit der Arbeitslosigkeit. Er hat ein Herz für Streiks, für Träumer, Absinth und Walter Benjamin. Von Konsumkapitalismus, Weckern und protestantischer Pflichtethik á la Thomas Edison hingegen hält er nichts. Hodgkinsons Buch ist eine Fundgrube für kuriose Zitate und Anekdoten aus der Geistesgeschichte. Er führt Lessing und Dr. Johnson ebenso ins Feld wie vergessene viktorianische Humoristen und obskure Punkmusiker, und das alles, ohne je die chronologische Struktur des Buchs aus den Augen zu verlieren. Die folgt nämlich den Stunden des Tages, die, eine jede für sich, besondere Herausforderungen an den Faulenzer stellen: Das morgendliche Aufstehen (oder Nicht-Aufstehen), die Frühstückspause, das lange Mittagessen, das Pfeiferauchen, das Trinken - sogar Mond und Sternen ist ein eigenes Kapitel gewidmet, bis dann im Morgengrauen der letzten Kapitel wieder die Vögel zwitschern.

GRIT - Die neue Formel zum Erfolg

Mit Begeisterung und Ausdauer ans Ziel

Author: Angela Duckworth

Publisher: C. Bertelsmann Verlag

ISBN: 3641173558

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 480

View: 7920

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Die neue Formel zum Erfolg: Leidenschaft Ausdauer und Zuversicht Eine Mischung aus Ausdauer und Leidenschaft, nicht IQ, Startbedingungen oder Talent entscheidet über den Erfolg eines Menschen. Diese These hat die Neurowissenschaftlerin und Psychologin Angela Duckworth in dem Wort GRIT zusammengefasst, das im Englischen so viel wie Biss oder Mumm heißt, und hat damit weltweit Aufsehen erregt. Auf Basis ihrer eigenen Geschichte, von wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen und anhand ungewöhnlicher Leistungsbiografien ist sie dem Geheimnis von erfolgreichen Menschen auf den Grund gegangen, seien sie Sportler, Bankmanager oder Comiczeichner. Sie weist nach, dass nicht "Genie", sondern eine einzigartige Kombination aus Begeisterungsfähigkeit und langfristigem Durchhaltevermögen darüber entscheidet, ob man seine Ziele erreicht. Mit zahlreichen Beispielen, die jeder auf seine Situation anwenden kann, erläutert Angela Duckworth das Konzept der motivierten Beharrlichkeit. Und sie fordert dazu auf, im Wissen um GRIT Lernen und Bildung neu zu denken.

Willensfreiheit und Wissenschaft

Ein Dialog

Author: Alfred R. Mele

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518754564

Category: Philosophy

Page: 162

View: 3047

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Ist unser Denken und Handeln so frei, wie wir für gewöhnlich glauben? Diese alte Frage beschäftigt und verwirrt Philosophen wie Laien und seit einiger Zeit auch die Naturwissenschaft. Nun bringt uns der renommierte Philosoph Alfred R. Mele das Problem auf neue und unterhaltsame Art näher: in Form eines Gesprächs unter Studierenden. Nach und nach zeigt sich darin, was wir unter Willensfreiheit verstehen sollten und wie den Herausforderungen insbesondere von Hirnforschern und Psychologen wie Benjamin Libet oder Stanley Milgram begegnet werden kann. Eine perfekte Einführung in die Willensfreiheitsdebatte und die damit verbundenen Grundfragen der Philosophie.

The Sovereignty of God in Salvation

Biblical Essays

Author: E. Earle Ellis

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 0567606643

Category: Religion

Page: 142

View: 9702

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In his new work The Sovereignty of God in Salvation E. Earle Ellis sets out to explore God's sovereign purpose both in individual salvation and in the salvation history within which the Bible has been authored, transmitted, interpreted and communicated. In the process he touches on such themes as the nature of free will; the manifestation God's sovereignty in the life and ministry of the Apostle Paul; the presence of God's hand in the transmission and interpretation of the biblical texts; and new perspectives on both the modern inclination to emphasise Paul's use of Graeco-Roman rhetoric as well as the contemporary reception of the biblical message. The sovereignty of God forms an overarching theme throughout.

Judging and Understanding

Essays on Free Will, Narrative, Meaning and the Ethical Limits of Condemnation

Author: Pedro Alexis Tabensky

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351154788

Category: Philosophy

Page: 300

View: 8979

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This collection embodies a debate that explores what could be characterised as the tension between judging and understanding. It seems that after a particular threshold of understanding of the basic facts leading to a given moral transgression, the more we understand the context and motives leading to crime, the more likely we are to abstain from harsh retributive judgement. Martha Nussbaum?s essay ?Equity and Mercy?, included in this collection, is the philosophical starting point of this debate, and Bernhard Schlink?s novel The Reader - a novel exploring the tension between judging and understanding, among other things - is used as a case study by most contributors. Some contributors, situated at one end of the spectrum of views represented in this collection, argue for the wholesale elimination of our practices of retribution in the light of the tension between judging and understanding, while contributors on the other side of the spectrum argue that the tension does not actually exist. A whole array of intermediate positions, including Nussbaum?s, are represented. This anthology is comprised of nearly all specially commissioned essays bringing together work dealing with the moral, metaphysical, epistemological and phenomenological issues required for properly understanding whether in fact there is a tension between judging and understanding and what the moral and legal implications may be of accepting or rejecting this tension.

The Limits of Ancient Christianity

Essays on Late Antique Thought and Culture in Honor of R.A. Markus

Author: Robert Austin Markus,William E. Klingshirn,Mark Vessey

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472109975

Category: History

Page: 348

View: 9647

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Sixteen essays explore the end of ancient Christianity