The Methodologies of Positivism and Marxism

A Sociological Debate

Author: Norma R.A. Romm

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349121312

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

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Focusing on the methodological principles which underlie sociologists' study of social reality, this text offers clarification and outlines how the different approaches to study originate from various methodogical and philosophical traditions.

Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences

A Pluralist Perspective

Author: Donatella Della Porta,Michael Keating

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139474596

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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A revolutionary textbook introducing masters and doctoral students to the major research approaches and methodologies in the social sciences. Written by an outstanding set of scholars, and derived from successful course teaching, this volume will empower students to choose their own approach to research, to justify this approach, and to situate it within the discipline. It addresses questions of ontology, epistemology and philosophy of social science, and proceeds to issues of methodology and research design essential for producing a good research proposal. It also introduces researchers to the main issues of debate and contention in the methodology of social sciences, identifying commonalities, historic continuities and genuine differences.

Companion to Social Archaeology

Author: Lynn Meskell,Robert W. Preucel

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470692863

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 8080

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The Companion to Social Archaeology is the first scholarly work to explore the encounter of social theory and archaeology over the past two decades. Grouped into four sections - Knowledges, Identities, Places, and Politics - each of which is prefaced with a review essay that contextualizes the history and developments in social archaeology and related fields. Draws together newer trends that are challenging established ways of understanding the past. Includes contributions by leading scholars who instigated major theoretical trends.

Marx’ Critique of Science and Positivism

The Methodological Foundations of Political Economy

Author: George McCarthy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400929455

Category: Philosophy

Page: 226

View: 429

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political economy. With this in mind the reader will be taken through three meta-theoretical levels of Marx' method of analysis of the struc tures of capitalism: (1) the clarification of 'critique' and method from Kant's epistemology, Hegel's phenomenology, to Marx' political economy (Chapter One); (2) the analysis of 'critique' and time, that is, the temporal dimensions of the critical method as they evolve from Hegel's Logic to Marx' Capital and the difference between the use of the future in explanatory, positivist science and 'critique' (Chapter Two); (3) and finally, 'critique' and materialism, a study of the complexity of the category of materialism, the ambivalence and ambiguity of its use in Marx' critical method, and the ontological and logical dilemmas created by the Schelling-Feuerbach turn toward materialism in their critique of Hegel (Chapter Three). The critique of political economy is, therefore, examined at the levels of methodology, temporality, and ontology. To what do the categories of political economy really refer when the positivist interpretations of Marx have been shattered and 'critique' be comes the method of choice? What kind of knowledge do we have if it is no longer "scientific" in the traditional sense of both epistemology and methodology? And what kind of applicability will it have when its format is such as not to produce predictive, technical knowledge, but practical knowledge in the Greek sense of the word (Praxis)? What be comes of the criterion of truth when epistemology itself, like science, is

The Politics of Method in the Human Sciences

Positivism and Its Epistemological Others

Author: George Steinmetz

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822386887

Category: Social Science

Page: 633

View: 1047

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The Politics of Method in the Human Sciences provides a remarkable comparative assessment of the variations of positivism and alternative epistemologies in the contemporary human sciences. Often declared obsolete, positivism is alive and well in a number of the fields; in others, its influence is significantly diminished. The essays in this collection investigate its mutations in form and degree across the social science disciplines. Looking at methodological assumptions field by field, individual essays address anthropology, area studies, economics, history, the philosophy of science, political science and political theory, and sociology. Essayists trace disciplinary developments through the long twentieth century, focusing on the decades since World War II. Contributors explore and contrast some of the major alternatives to positivist epistemologies, including Marxism, psychoanalysis, poststructuralism, narrative theory, and actor-network theory. Almost all the essays are written by well-known practitioners of the fields discussed. Some essayists approach positivism and anti-positivism via close readings of texts influential in their respective disciplines. Some engage in ethnographies of the present-day human sciences; others are more historical in method. All of them critique contemporary social scientific practice. Together, they trace a trajectory of thought and method running from the past through the present and pointing toward possible futures. Contributors. Andrew Abbott, Daniel Breslau, Michael Burawoy, Andrew Collier , Michael Dutton, Geoff Eley, Anthony Elliott, Stephen Engelmann, Sandra Harding, Emily Hauptmann, Webb Keane, Tony Lawson, Sophia Mihic, Philip Mirowski, Timothy Mitchell, William H. Sewell Jr., Margaret R. Somers, George Steinmetz, Elizabeth Wingrove

Handbook of Sports Studies

Author: Jay Coakley,Eric Dunning

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761949497

Category: Social Science

Page: 570

View: 702

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This vital new handbook marks the development of sports studies as a major new discipline within the social sciences. Edited by the leading sociologist of sport, Eric Dunning, and author of the best selling textbook on sport in the USA, Jay Coakley, it both reflects and richly endorses this new found status. Key aspects of the Handbook include: an inventory of the principal achievements in the field; a guide to the chief conflicts and difficulties in the theory and research process; a rallying point for researchers who are established or new to the field, which sets the agenda for future developments; a resource book for teachers who wish to establish new curricula and develop courses and programmes in the area of sports s

Critical Theory

Selected Essays

Author: Max Horkheimer

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 0826400833

Category: Philosophy

Page: 290

View: 418

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These essays, written in the 1930s and 1940s, represent a first selection in English from the major work of the founder of the famous Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt. Horkheimer's writings are essential to an understanding of the intellectual background of the New Left and the to much current social-philosophical thought, including the work of Herbert Marcuse. Apart from their historical significance and even from their scholarly eminence, these essays contain an immediate relevance only now becoming fully recognized.

Approaches to Human Geography

Philosophies, Theories, People and Practices

Author: Stuart C. Aitken,Gill Valentine

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 147390742X

Category: Social Science

Page: 456

View: 5491

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"The book covers some of the (traditionally) most obtuse and difficult-to-grasp philosophical ideas that have influenced geographers/geography. The fact that these are presented in an inclusive and accessible manner is a key strength. Many students have commented that the chapters they have read have encouraged them to read more in this field, which is fantastic from a lecturer's perspective." - Richard White, Sheffield Hallam University A new edition of the classic Approaches text for students, organised in three sections, which overviews and explains the history and philosophy of Human Geographies in all its applications by those who practise it: Section One – Philosophies: Positivist Geography / Humanism / Feminist Geographies / Marxisms / Structuration Theory / Human Animal / Realism / Postmodern Geographies/ Poststructuralist Theories / Actor-Network Theory, / Postcolonialism / Geohumanities / Technologies Section Two – People: Institutions and Cultures / Places and Contexts / Memories and Desires / Understanding Place / Personal and Political / Becoming a Geographer / Movement and Encounter / Spaces and Flows / Places as Thoughts Section Three – Practices: Mapping and Geovisualization / Quantification, Evidence, and Positivism / Geographic Information Systems / Humanism / Activism / Feminist Geographies / Poststructuralist Theories / Psychoanalysis / Environmental Inquiry / Contested Geographies and Culture Wars Fully updated throughout and with eight brand new chapters - this is the core text for modules on history, theory, and practice in Human Geography.

Social Research

Issues, Methods and Process

Author: Tim May

Publisher: Open University Press

ISBN: 9780335206124

Category: Social Science

Page: 258

View: 1954

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"a welcome third edition of an already well-known and widely used text... truly 'user-friendly' " Network "The third edition of this tried and tested book works very well and should be extremely successful...its strength is that it covers all the principal areas of research in an accessible and lively style, treating each approach in relation to the philosophical and methodological debates that underpin them. It is logically organised and each chapter is well-structured...complex topics are clearly explained for the inexperienced reader, at the same time it contains enough of substance and food for thought for more advanced students." - John Scott, University of Essex Praise for the previous edition: "This is the finest introduction to social research I have ever read...Methods are meticulously worked through from official statistics to comparative research via surveys, interviews, observation and documentary analysis...The writing is clear, concise and scholarly with the bibliography a delightful A to Z compendium of the best in sociology." - British Sociological Association Network The fully revised and updated third edition of this hugely popular text incorporates the latest developments in the interdisciplinary field of social research, while retaining the style and structure that appealed to so many in the first two editions. Tim May successfully bridges the gap between theory and methods in social research, clearly illuminating these essential components for understanding the dynamics of social relations. The book is divided into two parts, with Part I examining the issues and perspectives in social research and Part II setting out the methods and processes. Revisions and additions have been made to Part I to take account of new ways of thinking about the relationship between theory and research, and values and ethics in the research process. These take on board advances in post-empiricist thinking, as well as the relations between values, objectivity and data collection. Where necessary, recommended readings and references to studies that form the bases of discussions throughout the book have been updated. In Part II, additions have been made to the chapter on questionnaires, and elsewhere new discussions have been introduced, for example, on research on the internet, narratives, case studies and new technologies. The reader will detect many other changes, the intention of which is to aid understanding by staying up-to-date with the latest innovations in social research. The chapters follow a common structure to enable a clear appreciation of the place, process and analysis of each method, and to allow the comparison of their strengths and weaknesses in the context of discussions in Part I. The clear writing style, chapter summaries, questions for reflection and signposts to further readings continue to make this book the ideal companion to social research for students across the social sciences. In addition, it will be recognised as an invaluable source of reference for those practising and teaching social research who wish to keep abreast of key developments in the field.

Revitalizing Marxist Theory for Today's Capitalism

Author: Paul Zarembka,Radhika Desai

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 178052255X

Category: Political Science

Page: 300

View: 8277

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Amidst a capitalist crisis that has upturned mainstream orthodoxies, this title underscores the importance of historical and materialist understandings of capitalist economies. It exposes the limitations of neoclassical economics' endogenous growth theory and how it, in fact, gropes for understandings well established within Marxism.

Marx’ Critique of Science and Positivism

The Methodological Foundations of Political Economy

Author: George McCarthy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400929455

Category: Philosophy

Page: 226

View: 563

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political economy. With this in mind the reader will be taken through three meta-theoretical levels of Marx' method of analysis of the struc tures of capitalism: (1) the clarification of 'critique' and method from Kant's epistemology, Hegel's phenomenology, to Marx' political economy (Chapter One); (2) the analysis of 'critique' and time, that is, the temporal dimensions of the critical method as they evolve from Hegel's Logic to Marx' Capital and the difference between the use of the future in explanatory, positivist science and 'critique' (Chapter Two); (3) and finally, 'critique' and materialism, a study of the complexity of the category of materialism, the ambivalence and ambiguity of its use in Marx' critical method, and the ontological and logical dilemmas created by the Schelling-Feuerbach turn toward materialism in their critique of Hegel (Chapter Three). The critique of political economy is, therefore, examined at the levels of methodology, temporality, and ontology. To what do the categories of political economy really refer when the positivist interpretations of Marx have been shattered and 'critique' be comes the method of choice? What kind of knowledge do we have if it is no longer "scientific" in the traditional sense of both epistemology and methodology? And what kind of applicability will it have when its format is such as not to produce predictive, technical knowledge, but practical knowledge in the Greek sense of the word (Praxis)? What be comes of the criterion of truth when epistemology itself, like science, is

Fact and Method

Explanation, Confirmation and Reality in the Natural and the Social Sciences

Author: Richard W. Miller

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691020457

Category: Philosophy

Page: 611

View: 2502

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In this bold work of broad scope and rich erudition, Richard W. Miller sets out to reorient the philosophy of science. By questioning both positivism and its leading critics, he develops new solutions to the most urgent problems about justification, explanation and truth. Using a wealth of examples from the the natural and the social sciences, "Fact and Method" applies the new account of scientific reason to specific questions of method in virtually every field of inquiry including biology, physics, history, sociology, anthropology, economics, psychology and literary theory. For the past quarter-century, the philosophy of science has been in a crisis brought on by the failure of the positivist project of resolving all basic methodological questions by applying absolutely general rules, valid for all fields at all times. "Fact and Method" presents a new view of science in which what counts as an explanation, a cause, a confirming test or a compelling case for the existence of an unobservable is determined by frameworks of specific substantive principles, rationally adopted in light of the actual history of inquiry. Although the history of science has usually been the material for relativism, Professor Miller uses arguments of Darwin, Newton, Einstein, Galileo and others both to undermine positivist conceptions of rationality and to support the positivists' optimism that important theoretical findings are often justifiable from all reasonable perspectives. "Fact and Method" includes new accounts of causation, explanatory adequacy, approximate truth and confirmation, together with a defense of scientific realism freed from the positivist assumptions that Professor Miller locates on both sides of the realism controversy. Throughout, the new philosophical ideas are applied to specific topics confronting social scientists or natural scientists, for example: value-freedom, methodological individualism, functional explanation, the nature of evolutionary theory, and the scope of statistical inference. In a long final chapter, Miller uses the new notions of causation, confirmation and meaning to defend a realist, yet radically anti-classical, interpretation of quantum physics. The explicit and up-to-date analysis of the leading alternative views, the clear explanations of technical and historical issues, and the wealth of examples makes "Fact and Method" an ideal introduction to the philosophy of science, as well as a powerful attempt to change the field. Like the works of Hempel, Reichenbach, and Nagel in an earlier generation, "Fact and Method" will challenge, instruct, and help anyone with an interest in science and its limits.

Marx and Wittgenstein

Social Praxis and Social Explanation

Author: D. Rubinstein

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317831349

Category: Philosophy

Page: 248

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First published in 2005. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Social Theory as Science (Routledge Revivals)

Author: Russell Keat,John Urry

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136839240

Category: Social Science

Page: 316

View: 2999

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This book, written by a philosopher interested in the problems of social science and scientific method, and a sociologist interested in the philosophy of science, presents a novel conception of how we should think about and carry out the scientific study of social life. This book combines an evaluation of different conceptions of the nature of science with an examination of important sociological theorists and frameworks. This second edition of the work was originally published in 1982.

Marxism and the Philosophy of Science

Author: Helena Sheehan

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 1786634279

Category: Philosophy

Page: 456

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A masterful survey of the history of Marxist philosophy of science. Now with a new afterword. Skillfully deploying a large cast of characters, Sheehan retraces the development of Marxist philosophy of science through detailed and highly readable accounts of the debates that have characterized it. Approaching Marxism from the perspective of the philosophy of science, Sheehan shows how Marx's and Engel's ideas on the development and structure of natural science had a crucial impact on the work of early twentieth-century natural philosophers, historians of science, and natural scientists. From the ideas of Marx and Engels, those of the Marxist theoreticians of the Second International to the debates within Russian Marxism up to World War II, Sheehan masterfully surveys the history of marxist philosophy of science, concluding with a close analysis of the development of the debate among non-Soviet Marxists, placing particular emphasis on the contributions of leading British Marxists in the 1930s.

The Sociology of Virtue

The Political & Social Theories of George Sorel

Author: John Stanley

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520037908

Category: Social Science

Page: 387

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Studie over het werk van de Franse socioloof en anarcho-syndicalistische activist Georges Sorel (1847-1922).

The Social Science Jargon Buster

The Key Terms You Need to Know

Author: Zina O'Leary

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1849203431

Category: Education

Page: 344

View: 5267

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- Are you confused by academic jargon? - Do you know your `discourse' from your `dialectic'? - Can you tell the difference between `anomie' and `alienation'? The Social Science Jargon Buster tackles the most confusing concepts in the social sciences, breaking each down and bringing impressive clarity and insight to even the most complex terms. `This book successfully addresses the central task for any teacher of social theory - how to make the material accessible without making it simplistic and banal. The overall effect is a most effective text that hard-pressed students and lecturers will grab with both hands' - Dave Harris, Senior Lecturer in Social Science This practical, down-to-earth dictionary will help students new to social science discourse gain a thorough understanding of the key terms. Each entry includes a concise core definition, a more detailed explanation and an introduction to the associated debates and controversies. In addition, students will find a useful outline of the practical application of each term, as well as a list of key figures and recommendations for futher reading. This dictionary brings a refreshing clarity to social science discourse, making it essential reading for all students on undergraduate social science courses.

Hayek's Challenge

An Intellectual Biography of F.A. Hayek

Author: Bruce Caldwell

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226091929

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 500

View: 631

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Friedrich A. Hayek is regarded as one of the preeminent economic theorists of the twentieth century, as much for his work outside of economics as for his work within it. During a career spanning several decades, he made contributions in fields as diverse as psychology, political philosophy, the history of ideas, and the methodology of the social sciences. Bruce Caldwell—editor of The Collected Works of F. A. Hayek—understands Hayek's thought like few others, and with this book he offers us the first full intellectual biography of this pivotal social theorist. Caldwell begins by providing the necessary background for understanding Hayek's thought, tracing the emergence, in fin-de-siècle Vienna, of the Austrian school of economics—a distinctive analysis forged in the midst of contending schools of thought. In the second part of the book, Caldwell follows the path by which Hayek, beginning from the standard Austrian assumptions, gradually developed his unique perspective on not only economics but a broad range of social phenomena. In the third part, Caldwell offers both an assessment of Hayek's arguments and, in an epilogue, an insightful estimation of how Hayek's insights can help us to clarify and reexamine changes in the field of economics during the twentieth century. As Hayek's ideas matured, he became increasingly critical of developments within mainstream economics: his works grew increasingly contrarian and evolved in striking—and sometimes seemingly contradictory—ways. Caldwell is ideally suited to explain the complex evolution of Hayek's thought, and his analysis here is nothing short of brilliant, impressively situating Hayek in a broader intellectual context, unpacking the often difficult turns in his thinking, and showing how his economic ideas came to inform his ideas on the other social sciences. Hayek's Challenge will be received as one of the most important works published on this thinker in recent decades.

Antipositivist Theories of the Sciences

Critical Rationalism, Critical Theory and Scientific Realism

Author: N. Stockman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401576785

Category: Science

Page: 284

View: 4403

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The sciences are too important to be left exclusively to scientists, and indeed they have not been. The structure of scientific knowledge, the role of the sciences in society, the appropriate social contexts for the pursuit of scientific inquiry, have long been matters for reflection and debate about the sciences carried on both within academe and outside it. Even within the universities this reflection has not been the property of any single discipline. Philosophy might have been first in the field, but history and the social sciences have also entered the fray. For the latter, new problems came to the fore, since reflection on the sciences is, in the case of the social sciences, necessarily also reflection on themselves as sciences. Reflection on the natural sciences and self-reflection by the social sciences came to be dominated in the 1960s by the term 'positivism'. At the time when this word had been invented, the sciences were flourishing; their social and material environment had become increasingly favourable to scientific progress, and the sciences were pointing the way to an optimistic future. In the later twentieth century, however, 'positivism' came to be a word used more frequently by those less sure of nineteenth century certainties. In both sociology and philosophy, 'positivism' was now something to be rejected, and, symbolizing the collapse of an earlier consensus, it became itself the shibboleth of a new dissensus, as different groups of reflective thinkers, in rejecting 'positivism', rejected something different, and often rejected each other.

Social Science

Author: Delanty, Gerard

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335217214

Category: Social Science

Page: 197

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What is social science? Does social scientific knowledge differ from other kinds of knowledge, such as the natural sciences and common sense? What is the relation between method and knowledge? This concise and accessible book provides a critical discussion and comprehensive overview of the major philosophical debates on the methodological foundations of the social sciences. From its origins in the sixteenth century when a new system of knowledge was created around the idea of modernity, the author shows how the philosophy of social science developed as a reflection on some of the central questions in modernity. Visions of modernity have been reflected in the self-understanding of the social sciences. From the positivist dispute on explanation vs. understanding to controversies about standpoint to debates about constructivism and realism, Delanty outlines the major shifts in the philosophy of social science. He argues that social science is an intellectual framework for the transformation of the social world. The new edition is updated and expanded throughout with the latest developments in the field, including a new chapter on feminist standpoint epistemology, and additional material on neo-positivism, pragmatism, and reflexivity. This is one of the most ambitious and wide-ranging texts in recent years on debates on method and the contemporary situation of social science. It is of interest to undergraduate students and postgraduates as well as to professional researchers with an interest in the philosophy of the social sciences and social theory.