The New Cosmic Onion

Quarks and the Nature of the Universe

Author: Frank Close

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781584887997

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 2726

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Not since Newton’s apple has there been a physics phenomenon as deliciously appealing to the masses as Frank Close’s Cosmic Onion. Widely embraced by scientists and laypersons alike, the book quickly became an international bestseller. Translated into seven languages, it propelled the author to become a worldwide celebrity as well as an inspiration to a generation of scientists. The book’s title itself has entered popular usage as a metaphor for the layers that can be peeled away to understand the foundations of the physical world, from dimensions and galaxies, to atoms and quarks. “Close is a lucid, reliable, and enthusiastic guide to the strange and wonderful microcosmic world that dwells deep within reality” — Frank Wilczek, Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics, MIT, 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics NEW Material Explains the principles behind the Hadron Collider as well as the potential it presents Considers the recent development of the Electroweak Theory as a law of nature Explores the mysteries uncovered and the ones that may be in store with regard to top and bottom quarks Keeping still-pertinent contents from the original volume that caught the world’s attention in 1983, this fresh edition of the Cosmic Onion includes extensive new material to reflect new views of the universe. Providing explanations that explore the foundations of 21st Century science and future directions, this work offers ready access and unique perspectives to more typical topics such as the forces of nature, atoms, the nucleus, and nuclear particles. It also travels down paths that only a true pioneer and educator can venture, such as a discussion of what Professor Close refers to as the Eightfold Way including the findings, surprises, and new questions emerging from the latest work with accelerators.

Particle Physics: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Frank Close

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191577901

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 8404

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In this compelling introduction to the fundamental particles that make up the universe, Frank Close takes us on a journey into the atom to examine known particles such as quarks, electrons, and the ghostly neutrino. Along the way he provides fascinating insights into how discoveries in particle physics have actually been made, and discusses how our picture of the world has been radically revised in the light of these developments. He concludes by looking ahead to new ideas about the mystery of antimatter, the number of dimensions that there might be in the universe, and to what the next 50 years of research might reveal. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The Origin Of The Universe

Science Masters Series

Author: John D Barrow

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465066887

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 6147

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There is no more profound, enduring or fascinating question in all of science than that of how time, space, and matter began. Now John Barrow, who has been at the cutting edge of research in this area and has written extensively about it, guides us on a journey to the beginning of time, into a world of temperatures and densities so high that we cannot recreate them in a laboratory. With new insights, Barrow draws us into the latest speculative theories about the nature of time and the “inflationary universe,” explains “wormholes,” showing how they bear upon the fact of our own existence, and considers whether there was a “singularity” at the inception of the universe. Here is a treatment so up-to-date and intellectually rich, deaing with ideas and speculation at the farthest frontier of science, that neither novice nor expert will want to miss what Barrow has to say. The Origin of the Universe is ”In the Beginning” for beginners—the latest information from a first-rate scientist and science writer.

The Infinity Puzzle

The Personalities, Politics, and Extraordinary Science Behind the Higgs Boson

Author: Frank Close

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199673306

Category: Science

Page: 413

View: 6893

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Forty years ago, three physicists - Peter Higgs, Gerard 't Hooft, and James Bjorken - made the spectacular breakthroughs that led to the world's largest experiment, CERN's Large Hadron Collider. Against a backdrop of high politics and billion dollar budgets, this is the story of their work, the quest for the Higgs boson, and its eventual discovery.

Cracking the Quantum Code of the Universe

Author: John Moffat

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199915520

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 1001

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An insider's behind-the-scenes look at the arcane, fascinating world of theoretical and experimental particle physics leading up to the recent discovery of a new boson. If the new boson is indeed the Higgs particle, its discovery represents an important milestone in the history of particle physics. However, despite the pressure to award Nobel Prizes to physicists associated with the Higgs boson, John Moffat argues that there still remain important data analyses to be performed before uncorking the champagne. --Publisher's description.

The Particle Odyssey

A Journey to the Heart of Matter

Author: F. E. Close,Frank Close,Michael Marten,Christine Sutton

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198609438

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 6476

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1. The world of particle physics 2. Voyage into the atom 3. The structure of the atom 4. The extraterrestrials 5. The cosmic rain 6. The challenge of the big machines 7. The particle explosion 8. Colliders and image chambers 9. From charm to top 10. The 'whys' of particle physics 11. Futureclash 12. Particles at work Table of particles Further reading/acknowledgements Picture credits Index

Understanding the Universe

From Quarks to the Cosmos

Author: Don Lincoln

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814458058

Category: Science

Page: 596

View: 6737

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The Big Bang, the birth of the universe, was a singular event. All of the matter of the universe was concentrated at a single point, with temperatures so high that even the familiar protons and neutrons of atoms did not yet exist, but rather were replaced by a swirling maelstrom of energy, matter and antimatter. Exotic quarks and leptons flickered briefly into existence, before merging back into the energy sea. This book explains the fascinating world of quarks and leptons and the forces that govern their behavior. Told from an experimental physicist's perspective, it forgoes mathematical complexity, using instead particularly accessible figures and apt analogies. In addition to the story of quarks and leptons, which are regarded as well-accepted fact, the author (who is a leading researcher at one of the world's highest energy particle physics laboratories) also discusses mysteries at both the experimental and theoretical frontiers, before tying it all together with the exciting field of cosmology and indeed the birth of the universe itself. The text spans the tiny world of the quark to the depths of the universe with breathtaking clarity. The casual student of science will appreciate the careful distinction between what is known (quarks, leptons and antimatter), what is suspected (Higgs bosons, neutrino oscillations and the reason why the universe has so little antimatter) and what is merely dreamed (supersymmetry, superstrings and extra dimensions). Included is an unprecedented chapter explaining the accelerators and detectors of modern particle physics experiments. The chapter discussing the hunt for the Higgs boson — currently consuming the efforts of nearly 6000 physicists — reveals drama that only big-stakes science can give. Understanding the Universe leaves the reader with a deep appreciation of the fascinating particle realm and reverence for just how much it determines the rich beauty of our universe. Since the release of the first edition, the landscape has changed. The venerable Fermilab Tevatron has ceased operations after a quarter century of extraordinary performance, to be replaced by the CERN Large Hadron Collider, an accelerator with a design energy of seven times greater than the Tevatron and a collision rate of nearly a billion collisions per second. The next few years promise to be very exciting as scientists explore this new realm. This revised edition of Understanding the Universe will leave the reader with a deep appreciation of just why physicists are so excited. Contents:Early HistoryThe Path to Knowledge (History of Particle Physics)Quarks and LeptonsForces: What Holds It All TogetherHunting for the HiggsAccelerators and Detectors: Tools of the TradeNear Term MysteriesExotic Physics (The Next Frontier)Recreating the Universe 10,000,000 Times a SecondEpilogue: Why Do We Do It? Readership: Students, scientists and lay people. Keywords:Quarks;Leptons;Accelerators;UniverseReviews: “Lincoln has an infectious love for physics … (and) demonstrates a humorous writing style that successfully engages the reader.” Publishers Weekly “The author is well equipped to write a book on the topic … It is not light reading, but worth the effort … Lincoln is careful to distinguish between what is known versus what is merely dreamed.” Mensa Bulletin “A veteran of many popular talks on physics, (Lincoln) charmingly relates the tale of humankind's almost insatiable curiosity about the ultimate nature of nature and the quest to determine the basic particles of matter. His style is engaging and obviously directed to informed lay readers, but the more scientifically minded will find it equally appealing … If digested with the notion that this topic is presented in a broad swath, both historically and scientifically, and not meant to be definitive, the work offers readers an appreciation of the investigative procedure, the accumulated body of research, and the people who did the investigating.” Library Journal “Don Lincoln, an experimentalist on DZero at Fermilab, motivates his tale of the development of particle physics, from its origins to its current state, almost entirely by experiments, a refreshing alternative to the usual theoretical treatments. Rather than posing thought experiments, Lincoln describes real experiments that have led to deeper questions and the consequent progress of particle physics … With his light and easy-to-read style, Lincoln's humor and personal tales do much to convey the flavor of modern particle physics research — a picture that is not often painted so realistically in other popular physics books. The content is more complicated than in most similar books, but this is a virtue for its intended audience, as it allows for greater depth.” Symmetry “Knowledgeably written … ‘Understanding the Universe’ provides the nonspecialist general reader with a fascinating and informative introduction to the complex world of quarks, leptons, and the forces that govern particle physics. Written especially to introduce lay readers to subatomic mysteries, (the book) discusses the Big Bang, known and proven theories, suspected hypotheses that have yet to be firmly established, cutting-edge discussions of modern particle physics experiments, and much more. Black-and-white diagrams help illustrate the amazing ideas presented with a minimum of mathematics and a maximum of awe.” Midwest Book Review “Don Lincoln takes us on a rollicking tour of the universe: The reader finds out what we particle physicists understand about it, how we arrived at that understanding and where we think we're going next with our research … Lincoln enlivens the landscape with fresh details, irreverent (yet never unkind) remarks on the cast of characters, and explanations that are homey, humorous and often completely original … In his epilogue Lincoln addresses explicitly the question of why particle physicists ask why … the real reason we do research is simply this: It's tremendously fun to figure the universe out.” American Scientist “… Lincoln offers lay readers a complete tour of particle physics …(he) writes very well, using a mixture of humor, history and analogies as well basic scientific explanations … (and) does a particularly good job of covering the full gamut of particle physics.” Choice “This book is addressed to the curious layman, with only a murky recollection of school physics, who wants to know how far mankind has gone in understanding the world around us … It is an excellent reference for any scientist who is occasionally unsure how best to explain a particular physics concept to a non-specialist audience … his understanding and explanations of complex phenomena are excellent and the book strikes a balance between depth and accessibility.” CERN Courier “The author faces complex topics in a very simple and clever way without using mathematics but by simple (and suitable) analogies. The reading is intriguing and very flowing and, sometimes, very entertaining. The book is peppered with amusing anecdotes that make reading smoother and funny. This book is a masterpiece of scientific disclosure. I recommend its reading for those people who want to delve into the wonders of modern Physics.” Zentralblatt MATH

Quantum Principles and Particles

Author: Walter Wilcox

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 143983525X

Category: Science

Page: 546

View: 2052

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A Novel Pedagogical Approach to Quantum Mechanics "A physical understanding is a completely unmathematical, imprecise, and inexact thing, but absolutely necessary for a physicist." —R. Feynman The core of modern physics, quantum theory is counter-intuitive and challenging for those new to the field. Quantum Principles and Particles presents the fundamental quantum principles in a particularly visual manner and applies them to aspects of particle interactions. Inspired by the author’s work with Nobel laureate Julian Schwinger, it introduces the primary principles of the microscopic world through an analysis of the simplest possible quantum mechanical system—spin 1/2. A Visual Approach to Quantum Mechanics This two-semester introductory undergraduate textbook balances simplification and rigor to provide an accessible, solid foundation in quantum mechanics. Taking a unique pedagogical approach, the author uses hypothetical quantum devices—process diagrams—to orient and guide the reader. These process diagrams help readers visualize states and operators, and illustrate ways to compute amplitudes for quantum mechanical processes. From Small Steps in Quantum Mechanics to a Leap into Particle Physics The first part of the book presents the essential principles in the development of quantum mechanics, starting with spin state analysis and wave mechanics. Delving into quantum particles, the second part develops a consistent picture of particle descriptions and interactions in atomic, nuclear, and particle contexts. The text emphasizes applications and makes the connection to the Standard Model of particle physics. In each chapter, carefully designed problem sets reinforce key principles and stimulate original thought. Extensively illustrated, this classroom-tested text provides a clear and comprehensive introduction to quantum mechanics.

The Void

Author: Frank Close

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191607711

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 7059

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What is 'the void'? What remains when you take all the matter away? Can empty space - 'nothing' - exist? This little book explores the science and the history of the elusive void: from Aristotle who insisted that the vacuum was impossible, via the theories of Newton and Einstein, to our very latest discoveries and why they can tell us extraordinary things about the cosmos. Frank Close tells the story of how scientists have explored the elusive void, and the rich discoveries that they have made there. He takes the reader on a lively and accessible history through ancient ideas and cultural superstitions to the frontiers of current research. He describes how scientists discovered that the vacuum is filled with fields; how Newton, Mach, and Einstein grappled with the nature of space and time; and how the mysterious 'aether' that was long ago supposed to permeate the void may now be making a comeback with the latest research into the 'Higgs field'. We now know that the vacuum is far from being 'nothing' - it seethes with virtual particles and antiparticles that erupt spontaneously into being, and it also may contain hidden dimensions that we were previously unaware of. These new discoveries may provide answers to some of cosmology's most fundamental questions: what lies outside the universe, and, if there was once nothing, then how did the universe begin?

At the Root of Things

The Subatomic World

Author: Palash Baran Pal

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466591307

Category: Science

Page: 215

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At the Root of Things: The Subatomic World is a journey into the world of elementary particles—the basic constituents of all matter in the universe—and the nature of the interactions among them. The book begins with a summary of pre-quantum physics and later tackles quantum physics, which is essential for the study of elementary particles. The book discusses the emergence of quantum theory from studies in heat radiation and the photoelectric effect as well as developments that led to the concept of duality between particles and waves. Also discussed is how quantum theory helped to better understand the structure of atoms and the discovery of particles that were not constituents of atoms, such as the positron and the muon. Dozens of particles that were discovered experimentally in the 1950s and the 1960s are described along with fundamental particles—quarks and leptons. The book concludes with a discussion on fundamental interactions, the basic nature of quantum theories surrounding these interactions, and a discussion of how these interactions might be unified. At the Root of Things: The Subatomic World is written in non-technical language making it accessible to a broad audience. It helps outsiders understand the subject in a non-mathematical manner and inspires them to learn more about this interesting field.

Half Life

Author: Frank Close

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1780745826

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 320

View: 4256

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The memo landed on Kim Philby's desk in Washington, DC, in July 1950. Three months later, Bruno Pontecorvo, a physicist at Harwell, Britain's atomic energy lab, disappeared without a trace. When he re-surfaced six years later, he was on the other side of the Iron Curtain. One of the most brilliant scientists of his generation, Pontecorvo seemed to have been privy to many secrets: he had worked on the Anglo-Canadian arm of the Manhattan Project, and quietly discovered a way to find the uranium coveted by nuclear powers. Yet when he disappeared MI5 insisted he was not a threat. Now, based on unprecedented access to archives, letters and surviving family members and scientists, award-winning writer and physics professor Frank Close pieces together an answer to whether Pontecorvo's defection ended a life of spycraft – and exposes a life irrevocably marked by the advent of the atomic age and the Cold War.

Lucifer's Legacy

The Meaning of Asymmetry

Author: Frank Close

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486491676

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 3116

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Originally published: Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

We Need to Talk about Kelvin

What Everyday Things Tell Us about the Universe

Author: Marcus Chown

Publisher: Faber & Faber

ISBN: 9780571244027

Category: Cosmology

Page: 269

View: 8374

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An introduction to cosmology instructs readers on how to recognize cosmic qualities in the everyday world, from the paradoxical size of atoms versus light waves to the ways in which television static reflects the origins of the universe.

Quarks, Leptons and The Big Bang, Second Edition

Author: Jonathan Allday

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780585312354

Category: Science

Page: 426

View: 8818

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Quarks, Leptons and The Big Bang is a clear, readable and self-contained introduction to particle physics and related areas of cosmology. It bridges the gap between non-technical popular accounts and textbooks for advanced students. The book concentrates on presenting the subject from the modern perspective of quarks, leptons and the forces between them. This book will be of interest to students, teachers and general science readers interested in fundamental ideas of modern physics.

Elementary Cosmology

From Aristotle's Universe to the Big Bang and Beyond

Author: James J Kolata

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1681741644

Category: Nature

Page: 122

View: 6443

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Cosmology is the study of the origin, size, and evolution of the entire universe. Every culture has developed a cosmology, whether it be based on religious, philosophical, or scientific principles. In this book, the evolution of the scientific understanding of the Universe in Western tradition is traced from the early Greek philosophers to the most modern 21st century view. After a brief introduction to the concept of the scientific method, the first part of the book describes the way in which detailed observations of the Universe, first with the naked eye and later with increasingly complex modern instruments, ultimately led to the development of the "Big Bang" theory. The second part of the book traces the evolution of the Big Bang including the very recent observation that the expansion of the Universe is itself accelerating with time.

Symmetry and the Beautiful Universe

Author: Leon M. Lederman,Christopher T. Hill

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 1615920412

Category: Science

Page: 363

View: 6806

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When scientists peer through a telescope at the distant stars in outer space or use a particle-accelerator to analyze the smallest components of matter, they discover that the same laws of physics govern the whole universe at all times and all places. Physicists call the eternal, ubiquitous constancy of the laws of physics symmetry. Symmetry is the basic underlying principle that defines the laws of nature and hence controls the universe. This all-important insight is one of the great conceptual breakthroughs in modern physics and is the basis of contemporary efforts to discover a grand unified theory to explain all the laws of physics. Nobel Laureate Leon M. Lederman and physicist Christopher T. Hill explain the supremely elegant concept of symmetry and all its profound ramifications to life on Earth and the universe at large in this eloquent, accessible popular science book. They not only clearly describe concepts normally reserved only for physicists and mathematicians, but they also instill an appreciation for the profound beauty of the universe’s inherent design. Central to the story of symmetry is an obscure, unpretentious, but extremely gifted German mathematician named Emmy Noether. Though still little known to the world, she impressed no less a scientist than Albert Einstein, who praised her "penetrating mathematical thinking." In some of her earliest work she proved that the law of the conservation of energy was connected to the idea of symmetry and thus laid the mathematical groundwork for what may be the most important concept of modern physics. Lederman and Hill reveal concepts about the universe, based on Noether’s work, that are largely unknown to the public and have wide-reaching implications in connection with the Big Bang, Einstein’s theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, and many other areas of physics. Through ingenious analogies and illustrations, they bring these astounding notions to life. This book will open your eyes to a universe you never knew existed. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Why String Theory?

Author: Joseph Conlon

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 135198781X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 260

View: 4611

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An Entertaining and Enlightening Guide to the Who, What, and Why of String Theory During the last 50 years, numerous physicists have tried to unravel the secrets of string theory. Yet why do these scientists work on a theory lacking experimental confirmation? Why String Theory? provides the answer, offering a highly readable and accessible panorama of the who, what, and why of this large aspect of modern theoretical physics. The author, a theoretical physics professor at the University of Oxford and a leading string theorist, explains what string theory is and where it originated. He describes how string theory fits into physics and why so many physicists and mathematicians find it appealing when working on topics from M-theory to monsters and from cosmology to superconductors.

The Science of Shakespeare

A New Look at the Playwright's Universe

Author: Dan Falk

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 1250008786

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 1641

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William Shakespeare lived at a remarkable time—a period we now recognize as the first phase of the Scientific Revolution. New ideas were transforming Western thought, the medieval was giving way to the modern, and the work of a few key figures hinted at the brave new world to come: the methodical and rational Galileo, the skeptical Montaigne, and—as Falk convincingly argues—Shakespeare, who observed human nature just as intently as the astronomers who studied the night sky. In The Science of Shakespeare, we meet a colorful cast of Renaissance thinkers, including Thomas Digges, who published the first English account of the "new astronomy" and lived in the same neighborhood as Shakespeare; Thomas Harriot—"England's Galileo"—who aimed a telescope at the night sky months ahead of his Italian counterpart; and Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, whose observatory-castle stood within sight of Elsinore, chosen by Shakespeare as the setting for Hamlet—and whose family crest happened to include the names "Rosencrans" and "Guildensteren." And then there's Galileo himself: As Falk shows, his telescopic observations may have influenced one of Shakespeare's final works. Dan Falk's The Science of Shakespeare explores the connections between the famous playwright and the beginnings of the Scientific Revolution—and how, together, they changed the world forever.

Introduction to Particle and Astroparticle Physics

Multimessenger Astronomy and its Particle Physics Foundations

Author: Alessandro De Angelis,Mário Pimenta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319781812

Category: Science

Page: 733

View: 4852

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This book introduces particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Starting from an experimental perspective, it provides a unified view of these fields that reflects the very rapid advances being made. This new edition has a number of improvements and has been updated to describe the recent discovery of gravitational waves and astrophysical neutrinos, which started the new era of multimessenger astrophysics; it also includes new results on the Higgs particle. Astroparticle and particle physics share a common problem: we still don’t have a description of the main ingredients of the Universe from the point of view of its energy budget. Addressing these fascinating issues, and offering a balanced introduction to particle and astroparticle physics that requires only a basic understanding of quantum and classical physics, this book is a valuable resource, particularly for advanced undergraduate students and for those embarking on graduate courses. It includes exercises that offer readers practical insights. It can be used equally well as a self-study book, a reference and a textbook.