The Origin of Mass

Elementary Particles and Fundamental Symmetries

Author: John Iliopoulos

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192527541

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 4617

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The discovery of a new elementary particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in 2012 made headlines in world media. Since we already know of a large number of elementary particles, why did this latest discovery generate so much excitement? This small book reveals that this particle provides the key to understanding one of the most extraordinary phenomena which occurred in the early Universe. It introduces the mechanism that made possible, within tiny fractions of a second after the Big Bang, the generation of massive particles. The Origin of Mass is a guided tour of cosmic evolution, from the Big Bang to the elementary particles we study in our accelerators today. The guiding principle of this book is a concept of symmetry which, in a profound and fascinating way, seems to determine the structure of the Universe.

Elementary Particle Physics

Concepts and Phenomena

Author: Otto Nachtmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642612814

Category: Science

Page: 559

View: 8824

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This book grew-how could it be otherwise?-out of a series oflectures which the author held at the University of Heidelberg. The purpose ofthese lectures was to give an introduction to the phenomenology of elementary particles for students both of theoretical and experimental orientation. With the present book the author has set himself the same aim. The reader is assumed to be familiar with ordinary nonrelativistic quantum mechanics as presented, e.g., in the following books: Quantum Mechanics, by L.1. Schiff (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955); Quantum Mechanics, Vol. I, by K. Gottfried (W.A. Benjamin, Reading, Ma., 1966). The setup of the present book is as follows. In the first part we present some basic general principles and concepts which are used in elementary particle physics. The reader is supposed to learn here the "language" of particle physics. An introductory chapter deals with special relativity, of such funda mental importance for particle physics, which most ofthe time is high energy, i.e., highly relativistic physics. Further chapters of this first part deal with the Dirac equation, with the theory of quantized fields, and with the general definitions of the scattering and transition matrices and the cross-sections.

Masses of Fundamental Particles

Cargèse 1996

Author: Maurice Lévy,Jean Liopoulos,Raymond Gastmans,Jean-Marc Gérard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306456947

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 5278

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Proceedings of a NATO ASI held in Cargèse, France, August 5-17, 1996

Nuclear and Particle Physics

An Introduction

Author: Brian R. Martin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111996511X

Category: Science

Page: 454

View: 1799

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An accessible introduction to nuclear and particle physics with equal coverage of both topics, this text covers all the standard topics in particle and nuclear physics thoroughly and provides a few extras, including chapters on experimental methods; applications of nuclear physics including fission, fusion and biomedical applications; and unsolved problems for the future. It includes basic concepts and theory combined with current and future applications. An excellent resource for physics and astronomy undergraduates in higher-level courses, this text also serves well as a general reference for graduate studies.

Prime Symmetry and Particle Physics

Author: George Brewer

Publisher: Troubador Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 178803645X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 176

View: 1745

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Is it possible to take a set of particle masses and then work backwards to find a hidden symmetry? Does the Higgs Boson have a partner particle and might that particle solve the mystery of dark matter? Can the tiny masses of neutrinos be predicted? Prime Symmetry and Particle Physics begins with the understanding that the constant π does not have to be measured in spacetime: it can be calculated from a set of real numbers. Former PhD student, George Brewer explores the idea that if this is true of π, why not of other constants? A standard model of physics predicts interactions between quantum fields when particles scatter, but 26 numbers, dimensionless constants for force strengths and the masses of elementary particles, still need to be put into that model. Brewer proposes that many of those constants can actually be calculated from a single equation and a set of integer parameters – a theory that he calls the prime symmetry model. Comparing a set of measured constants against their calculated counterparts provides good evidence for the model's validity. Brewer opens the door for readers to join a select group with information that theorists and experimentalists at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are yet to consider, offering them the opportunity to verify the model’s deceptively simple mathematics for themselves, simply by using an online scientific calculator. Inspired by Albert Einstein, Stephen Hawking and Sean Carroll, Prime Symmetry and Particle Physics is an essential read for all particle physics enthusiasts. The book will also appeal to readers interested in the Higgs boson events at the LHC.

Mass and Motion in General Relativity

Author: Luc Blanchet,Alessandro Spallicci,Bernard Whiting

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048130153

Category: Science

Page: 626

View: 6834

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From the infinitesimal scale of particle physics to the cosmic scale of the universe, research is concerned with the nature of mass. While there have been spectacular advances in physics during the past century, mass still remains a mysterious entity at the forefront of current research. Our current perspective on gravitation has arisen over millennia, through the contemplation of falling apples, lift thought experiments and notions of stars spiraling into black holes. In this volume, the world’s leading scientists offer a multifaceted approach to mass by giving a concise and introductory presentation based on insights from their respective fields of research on gravity. The main theme is mass and its motion within general relativity and other theories of gravity, particularly for compact bodies. Within this framework, all articles are tied together coherently, covering post-Newtonian and related methods as well as the self-force approach to the analysis of motion in curved space-time, closing with an overview of the historical development and a snapshot on the actual state of the art. All contributions reflect the fundamental role of mass in physics, from issues related to Newton’s laws, to the effect of self-force and radiation reaction within theories of gravitation, to the role of the Higgs boson in modern physics. High-precision measurements are described in detail, modified theories of gravity reproducing experimental data are investigated as alternatives to dark matter, and the fundamental problem of reconciling any theory of gravity with the physics of quantum fields is addressed. Auxiliary chapters set the framework for theoretical contributions within the broader context of experimental physics. The book is based upon the lectures of the CNRS School on Mass held in Orléans, France, in June 2008. All contributions have been anonymously refereed and, with the cooperation of the authors, revised by the editors to ensure overall consistency.

Jenseits der Nanowelt

Leptonen, Quarks und Eichbosonen

Author: Hans Günter Dosch

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540266739

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 7169

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Dies ist eine hervorragende Einführung in die Teilchenphysik und ebenso ein Repetitorium für Studenten im Prüfungssemester und für Lehrer an Gymnasien. Der Autor, der als Forscher wesentliche Entwicklungen der Teilchenphysik begleitet hat und der als herausragender Lehrer gilt, wählt die Geschichte der Teilchenphysik als roten Faden. Die Begriffe und die Theorien werden in großer Klarheit präsentiert, und die Experimente werden herangezogen, um Erfolg und Misserfolg auf dem Weg zum Standardmodell zu illustrieren. Der mathematische Apparat wird klein gehalten, so dass das Buch auch den interessierten Laien in seinen Bann ziehen wird.

Symmetrien der Natur

Ein Handbuch zur Natur- und Wissenschaftsphilosophie

Author: Klaus Mainzer

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110853655

Category: Philosophy

Page: 750

View: 5046

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Cairo International Conference on High Energy Physics (CICHEP II)

Author: Shaaban Khalil

Publisher: American Inst. of Physics

ISBN: 9780735403826

Category: Science

Page: 286

View: 1829

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The Second Cairo International Conference on High Energy Physics (CICHEP II) was held at the German University in Cairo, Egypt from 14-17 January 2006. The purpose of the conference was to bring together specialized scientists in the field of High Energy Physics from universities and research institutes from all around the world to discuss current developments and new trends, results, and perspectives in this field.

The Scientific Legacy of Poincaré

Author: Éric Charpentier,Etienne Ghys,Annick Lesne

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 082184718X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 391

View: 9476

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Henri Poincare (1854-1912) was one of the greatest scientists of his time, perhaps the last one to have mastered and expanded almost all areas in mathematics and theoretical physics. He created new mathematical branches, such as algebraic topology, dynamical systems, and automorphic functions, and he opened the way to complex analysis with several variables and to the modern approach to asymptotic expansions. He revolutionized celestial mechanics, discovering deterministic chaos. In physics, he is one of the fathers of special relativity, and his work in the philosophy of sciences is illuminating. For this book, about twenty world experts were asked to present one part of Poincare's extraordinary work. Each chapter treats one theme, presenting Poincare's approach, and achievements, along with examples of recent applications and some current prospects. Their contributions emphasize the power and modernity of the work of Poincare, an inexhaustible source of inspiration for researchers, as illustrated by the Fields Medal awarded in 2006 to Grigori Perelman for his proof of the Poincare conjecture stated a century before. This book can be read by anyone with a master's (even a bachelor's) degree in mathematics, or physics, or more generally by anyone who likes mathematical and physical ideas. Rather than presenting detailed proofs, the main ideas are explained, and a bibliography is provided for those who wish to understand the technical details.

Murray Gell-Mann

Selected Papers

Author: Murray Gell-Mann,Harald Fritzsch

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812836845

Category: Science

Page: 449

View: 9155

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Murray Gell-Mann is one of the leading physicists in the world. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1969 for his work on the SU(3) symmetry. His list of publications, albeit relatively short, is highly impressive — he has written mainly papers, which have become landmarks in physics. In 1953, Gell-Mann introduced the strangeness quantum number. In 1954, he proposed, together with F Low, the idea of the renormalization group. In 1958, Gell-Mann wrote, together with R Feynman, an important paper on the V-A theory of weak interactions. In 1961, Gell-Mann published his ideas on the SU(3) symmetry. In 1964, he proposed the quark model for hadrons. In 1971, Gell-Mann, together with H Fritzsch, proposed the color quantum number; and in 1972, the theory of QCD. These major publications of Gell-Mann are collected in this volume, thus providing physicists with easy access to the important publications of Gell-Mann.

RF Superconductivity

Volume II: Science, Technology and Applications

Author: Hasan Padamsee

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527405720

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 448

View: 7133

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This is the second book to RF Superconducting, written by one of the leading experts. The book provides fast and up-to-date access to the latest advances in the key technology for future accelerators. Experts as well as newcomers to the field will benefit from the discussion of progress in the basic science, technology as well as recent and forthcoming applications. Researchers in accelerator physics will also find much that is relevant to their discipline.

Die Welt der Elementarteilchen

Author: Kenneth W. Ford

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642949606

Category: Science

Page: 242

View: 7170

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Dieses Buch handelt von Ideen, nicht von experimentellen oder theoretischen Methoden. Es ist ein Versuch zu zeigen, wie sich, nach den Entdeckungen dieses Jahrhunderts insbesondere im Bereich des sehr Kleinen, die Welt in den Augen des modernen Physikers darstellt. Natürlich werden einige wichtige Experimente beschrieben, aber im großen und ganzen wird darauf verzichtet, die komplizierten Metho den zu erörtern, die heute zur Untersuchung des Subatomaren ange wandt werden, um dafür um so ausführlicher auf die Struktur der Theorien und auf die Vorstellungen eingehen zu können, die die Grundlage unseres Verständnisses der Vorgänge bilden, die gegenwärtig die Front der physikalischen Forschung darstellen. Es bedürfte eines eigenen Buches, um den komplizierten und großartigen Geräten gerecht zu werden, die die Natur zwingen, unsere Fragen über die Welt der Elementarteilchen zu beantworten - ein Buch, das geschrieben werden sollte. Ich bitte den Leser dieses Buches zweierlei im Auge zu behalten . . Erstens, die Physik ist eine experimentelle Wissenschaft. Jede Theorie, jeder Begriff und jede Vorstellung über die Natur beruht letzten Endes auf experimentellen Tatbeständen, darauf, was in der Natur geschieht. Alle Abstraktionen und gedanklichen Konstruktionen haben kein ande res Ziel, als experimentelle Fakten in einfacher und übersichtlicher Weise zu beschreiben.

Dynamical Stabilization of the Fermi Scale

Towards a Composite Universe

Author: Francesco Sannino

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642333419

Category: Science

Page: 124

View: 8036

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Strong dynamics constitutes one of the pillars of the standard model of particle interactions, and it accounts for the bulk of the visible matter in the universe made by ordinary protons and neutrons. It is therefore a well posed question to ask if the rest of the universe can be described in terms of new highly natural four-dimensional strongly coupled theories. The main goal of this lecture-based primer is to provide a coherent overview of how new strong dynamics can be employed to address the relevant challenges in particle physics and cosmology from composite Higgs dynamics to dark matter and inflation. We will first introduce the topic of dynamical breaking of the electroweak symmetry also known as technicolor. The knowledge of the phase diagram of strongly coupled theories plays a fundamental role when trying to construct viable extensions of the standard model. Therefore we present the state-of-the-art of the phase diagram for gauge theories as function of the number of colors, flavors, matter representation and gauge group. Recent extensions of the standard model featuring minimal technicolor theories are then introduced as relevant examples. We finally show how technicolor or in general new strongly coupled theories can lead to natural candidates of composite dark matter and inflation.

Higgs

The invention and discovery of the 'God Particle'

Author: Jim Baggott

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019165003X

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 8569

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The hunt for the Higgs particle has involved the biggest, most expensive experiment ever. So exactly what is this particle? Why does it matter so much? What does it tell us about the Universe? Did the discovery announced on 4 July 2012 finish the search? And was finding it really worth all the effort? The short answer is yes. The Higgs field is proposed as the way in which particles gain mass - a fundamental property of matter. It's the strongest indicator yet that the Standard Model of physics really does reflect the basic building blocks of our Universe. Little wonder the hunt and discovery of this new particle produced such intense media interest. Here, Jim Baggott explains the science behind the discovery, looking at how the concept of a Higgs field was invented, how the vast experiment was carried out, and its implications on our understanding of all mass in the Universe.

Quantum Gravity

From Theory to Experimental Search

Author: Domenico J. W. Giulini,Claus Kiefer,Claus Lämmerzahl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540408109

Category: Science

Page: 402

View: 5962

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The relation between quantum theory and the theory of gravitation remains one of the most outstanding unresolved issues of modern physics. According to general expectation, general relativity as well as quantum (field) theory in a fixed background spacetime cannot be fundamentally correct. Hence there should exist a broader theory comprising both in appropriate limits, i.e., quantum gravity. This book gives readers a comprehensive introduction accessible to interested non-experts to the main issues surrounding the search for quantum gravity. These issues relate to fundamental questions concerning the various formalisms of quantization; specific questions concerning concrete processes, like gravitational collapse or black-hole evaporation; and the all important question concerning the possibility of experimental tests of quantum-gravity effects.