The Origin of Mass

Elementary Particles and Fundamental Symmetries

Author: John Iliopoulos

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192527541

Category: Science

Page: 176

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The discovery of a new elementary particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in 2012 made headlines in world media. Since we already know of a large number of elementary particles, why did this latest discovery generate so much excitement? This small book reveals that this particle provides the key to understanding one of the most extraordinary phenomena which occurred in the early Universe. It introduces the mechanism that made possible, within tiny fractions of a second after the Big Bang, the generation of massive particles. The Origin of Mass is a guided tour of cosmic evolution, from the Big Bang to the elementary particles we study in our accelerators today. The guiding principle of this book is a concept of symmetry which, in a profound and fascinating way, seems to determine the structure of the Universe.

Origin of Symmetries

Author: C. D. Froggatt,H. B. Nielsen

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789971966300

Category: Science

Page: 581

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The development in our understanding of symmetry principles is reviewed. Many symmetries, such as charge conjugation, parity and strangeness, are no longer considered as fundamental but as natural consequences of a gauge field theory of strong and electromagnetic interactions. Other symmetries arise naturally from physical models in some limiting situation, such as for low energy or low mass. Random dynamics and attempts to explain all symmetries ? even Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance ? without appealing to any fundamental invariance of the laws of nature are discussed. A selection of original papers is reprinted.

The God Particle

If the Universe is the Answer, what is the Question?

Author: Leon M. Lederman,Dick Teresi

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 9780618711680

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 632

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The world's foremost experimental physicist uses humor, metaphor, and storytelling to delve into the mysteries of matter, discussing the as-yet-to-be-discovered God particle.

Elementary Particle Physics

Concepts and Phenomena

Author: Otto Nachtmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642612814

Category: Science

Page: 559

View: 6077

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This book grew-how could it be otherwise?-out of a series oflectures which the author held at the University of Heidelberg. The purpose ofthese lectures was to give an introduction to the phenomenology of elementary particles for students both of theoretical and experimental orientation. With the present book the author has set himself the same aim. The reader is assumed to be familiar with ordinary nonrelativistic quantum mechanics as presented, e.g., in the following books: Quantum Mechanics, by L.1. Schiff (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955); Quantum Mechanics, Vol. I, by K. Gottfried (W.A. Benjamin, Reading, Ma., 1966). The setup of the present book is as follows. In the first part we present some basic general principles and concepts which are used in elementary particle physics. The reader is supposed to learn here the "language" of particle physics. An introductory chapter deals with special relativity, of such funda mental importance for particle physics, which most ofthe time is high energy, i.e., highly relativistic physics. Further chapters of this first part deal with the Dirac equation, with the theory of quantized fields, and with the general definitions of the scattering and transition matrices and the cross-sections.

A Brief History of String Theory

From Dual Models to M-Theory

Author: Dean Rickles

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642451284

Category: Science

Page: 251

View: 4086

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During its forty year lifespan, string theory has always had the power to divide, being called both a 'theory of everything' and a 'theory of nothing'. Critics have even questioned whether it qualifies as a scientific theory at all. This book adopts an objective stance, standing back from the question of the truth or falsity of string theory and instead focusing on how it came to be and how it came to occupy its present position in physics. An unexpectedly rich history is revealed, with deep connections to our most well-established physical theories. Fully self-contained and written in a lively fashion, the book will appeal to a wide variety of readers from novice to specialist.

Deep Down Things

The Breathtaking Beauty of Particle Physics

Author: Bruce A. Schumm

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 080189896X

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 7073

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Introducing readers to the world of particle physics, Deep Down Things opens new realms within which are many clues to unraveling the mysteries of the universe.

Higgs Force

The Symmetry-breaking Force that Makes the World an Interesting Place

Author: Nicholas Mee

Publisher: James Clarke & Co.

ISBN: 071889278X

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 3996

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Higgs Force tells the story of how physicists have unlocked the secrets of matter and the forces of nature to produce dramatic modern understandings of the cosmos. For centuries researchers have followed this quest and now there is just one component of the modern synthesis of particle physics whose existence is yet to be confirmed in the laboratory – the Higgs particle. It explains how a universe built on simple symmetrical principles engenders life and exhibits the diversity and complexity that we see all around us.

100 Years of Subatomic Physics

Author: Ernest M Henley,Stephen D Ellis

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814425826

Category: Science

Page: 560

View: 603

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By year 1911 radioactivity had been discovered for over a decade, but its origin remained a mystery. Rutherford's discovery of the nucleus and the subsequent discovery of the neutron by Chadwick started the field of subatomic physics — a quest for understanding the fundamental constituents of matter. This book reviews the important achievements in subatomic physics in the past century. The chapters are divided into two parts: nuclear physics and particle physics. Written by renowned authors who have made major developments in the field, this book provides the academics and researchers an essential overview of the present state of knowledge in nuclear and particle physics. Contents:Nuclear Physics:Particle Physics, From Rutherford to the LHC (S Weinberg)The Early Years and Beyond (E M Henley and A García)100 Years of Nuclear Mass Measurements and Models (G T Garvey)Symmetries and Dynamical Symmetries in Nuclei (I Talmi)Nuclear Fission (R Vogt and J Randrup)Parity- and Time-Reversal Tests in Nuclear Physics (D Hertzog and M J Ramsey-Musolf)High Energy Nuclear Physics: From Bear Mountain to the LHC (L McLerran)Chiral Symmetry in Subatomic Physics (U-G Meiβner)Exotic Nuclei Far From the Stability Line (K Hagino, I Tanihata and H Sagawa)Particle Physics:A Short History of Colliders (L Evans)4π-Detectors (C Tully)Large Underground Detectors for Proton Decay and Neutrino Physics (K Scholberg)Jets and QCD (S D Ellis and D E Soper)Diffractive Phenomena in High Energy Processes (L Frankfurt and M Strikman)Weak Interactions: From Current–Current to Standard Model and Beyond (R N Mohapatra)Neutrino Physics (L Wolfenstein)Introduction to Renormalization in Field Theory (L-F Li)Lattice Gauge Theory and the Origin of Mass (A S Kronfeld)String Theory and M-Theory (J H Schwarz) Readership: Students, researchers and academics interested in nuclear and particle physics. Keywords:Nuclear and Particle Physics;Symmetries;Conservation Laws;Quarks;Neutrinos;AstrophysicsReviews: “Each essay's overall breadth and understanding are impressive, and the separate chapters combine to make this work an unprecedented survey of sub-atomic physics research spanning the last 100 years, with insights into where it might head in the century to come.” Australian Physics

Nuclear and Particle Physics

An Introduction

Author: Brian R. Martin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111996511X

Category: Science

Page: 454

View: 3925

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An accessible introduction to nuclear and particle physics with equal coverage of both topics, this text covers all the standard topics in particle and nuclear physics thoroughly and provides a few extras, including chapters on experimental methods; applications of nuclear physics including fission, fusion and biomedical applications; and unsolved problems for the future. It includes basic concepts and theory combined with current and future applications. An excellent resource for physics and astronomy undergraduates in higher-level courses, this text also serves well as a general reference for graduate studies.

Unitary Symmetry and Elementary Particles

Author: D. B. Lichtenberg

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483266265

Category: Science

Page: 262

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Unitary Symmetry and Elementary Particles discusses the role of symmetry in elementary particle physics. The book reviews the theory of abstract groups and group representations including Eigenstates, cosets, conjugate classes, unitary vector spaces, unitary representations, multiplets, and conservation laws. The text also explains the concept of Young Diagrams or Young Tableaux to prove the basis functions of the unitary irreducible representations of the unitary group SU(n). The book defines Lie groups, Lie algebras, and gives some examples of these groups. The basis vectors of irreducible unitary representations of Lie groups constitute a multiplet, which according to Racah (1965) and Behrends et al. (1962) can have properties of weights. The text also explains the properties of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and the Wigner-Eckart theorem. SU(3) multiplets have members classified as hadrons (strongly interacting particles), of which one characteristic show that the mass differences of these members have some regular properties. The Gell-Mann and Ne-eman postulate also explains another characteristic peculiar to known multiplets. The book describes the quark model, as well as, the uses of the variants of the quark model. This collection is suitable for researchers and scientists in the field of applied mathematics, nuclear physics, and quantum mechanics.

Particle Or Wave

The Evolution of the Concept of Matter in Modern Physics

Author: Charis Anastopoulos

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691135120

Category: Science

Page: 410

View: 7063

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'Particle or Wave' explains the origins and development of modern physical concepts about matter and the controversies surrounding them.

Symmetries and Group Theory in Particle Physics

An Introduction to Space-Time and Internal Symmetries

Author: Giovanni Costa,Gianluigi Fogli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642154816

Category: Science

Page: 291

View: 2269

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Symmetries, coupled with the mathematical concept of group theory, are an essential conceptual backbone in the formulation of quantum field theories capable of describing the world of elementary particles. This primer is an introduction to and survey of the underlying concepts and structures needed in order to understand and handle these powerful tools. Specifically, in Part I of the book the symmetries and related group theoretical structures of the Minkowskian space-time manifold are analyzed, while Part II examines the internal symmetries and their related unitary groups, where the interactions between fundamental particles are encoded as we know them from the present standard model of particle physics. This book, based on several courses given by the authors, addresses advanced graduate students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter active research in the field, and having a working knowledge of classical field theory and relativistic quantum mechanics. Numerous end-of-chapter problems and their solutions will facilitate the use of this book as self-study guide or as course book for topical lectures.

Evolution of Particle Physics

A Volume Dedicated to Eduardo Amaldi in his Sixtieth Birthday

Author: M Conversi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323153739

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 8476

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Evolution of Particle Physics is concerned with the birth of particle physics and its maturation as a scientific field, with emphasis on advances in both theory and experiment. Topics covered include weak interactions and the breaking of hadron symmetries; the role of complexity in nature; symmetry principles in physics; and isobaric analog resonances in phenomenological nuclear spectroscopy. Adiabatic transformations as well as range and straggling of muons are also discussed. This book is comprised of 24 chapters and begins with a review of some of the most important discoveries in particle physics, along with the tools and techniques that made it possible. The reader is then introduced to symmetry breaking, paying particular attention to hadron symmetries and their connection to weak interactions. The following chapters explore channeling of ultrarelativistic charged particles in crystals; coherent scattering of high-energy hadrons by light nuclei; elementary particle physics and high-energy physics; and the design and use of large electron synchrotrons. This monograph will be of interest to particle physicists.

Modern Particle Physics

Author: Mark Thomson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107292549

Category: Science

Page: 570

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Unique in its coverage of all aspects of modern particle physics, this textbook provides a clear connection between the theory and recent experimental results, including the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN. It provides a comprehensive and self-contained description of the Standard Model of particle physics suitable for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying experimental particle physics. Physical theory is introduced in a straightforward manner with full mathematical derivations throughout. Fully-worked examples enable students to link the mathematical theory to results from modern particle physics experiments. End-of-chapter exercises, graded by difficulty, provide students with a deeper understanding of the subject. Online resources available at www.cambridge.org/MPP feature password-protected fully-worked solutions to problems for instructors, numerical solutions and hints to the problems for students and PowerPoint slides and JPEGs of figures from the book.

Introduction to Elementary Particles

Author: David Griffiths

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527618473

Category: Science

Page: 399

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This is the first quantitative treatment of elementary particle theory that is accessible to undergraduates. Using a lively, informal writing style, the author strikes a balance between quantitative rigor and intuitive understanding. The first chapter provides a detailed historical introduction to the subject. Subsequent chapters offer a consistent and modern presentation, covering the quark model, Feynman diagrams, quantum electrodynamics, and gauge theories. A clear introduction to the Feynman rules, using a simple model, helps readers learn the calculational techniques without the complications of spin. And an accessible treatment of QED shows how to evaluate tree-level diagrams. Contains an abundance of worked examples and many end-of-chapter problems.

Mass and Motion in General Relativity

Author: Luc Blanchet,Alessandro Spallicci,Bernard Whiting

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048130153

Category: Science

Page: 626

View: 9610

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From the infinitesimal scale of particle physics to the cosmic scale of the universe, research is concerned with the nature of mass. While there have been spectacular advances in physics during the past century, mass still remains a mysterious entity at the forefront of current research. Our current perspective on gravitation has arisen over millennia, through the contemplation of falling apples, lift thought experiments and notions of stars spiraling into black holes. In this volume, the world’s leading scientists offer a multifaceted approach to mass by giving a concise and introductory presentation based on insights from their respective fields of research on gravity. The main theme is mass and its motion within general relativity and other theories of gravity, particularly for compact bodies. Within this framework, all articles are tied together coherently, covering post-Newtonian and related methods as well as the self-force approach to the analysis of motion in curved space-time, closing with an overview of the historical development and a snapshot on the actual state of the art. All contributions reflect the fundamental role of mass in physics, from issues related to Newton’s laws, to the effect of self-force and radiation reaction within theories of gravitation, to the role of the Higgs boson in modern physics. High-precision measurements are described in detail, modified theories of gravity reproducing experimental data are investigated as alternatives to dark matter, and the fundamental problem of reconciling any theory of gravity with the physics of quantum fields is addressed. Auxiliary chapters set the framework for theoretical contributions within the broader context of experimental physics. The book is based upon the lectures of the CNRS School on Mass held in Orléans, France, in June 2008. All contributions have been anonymously refereed and, with the cooperation of the authors, revised by the editors to ensure overall consistency.

Basic Concepts in Physics

From the Cosmos to Quarks

Author: Masud Chaichian,Hugo Perez Rojas,Anca Tureanu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642195989

Category: Science

Page: 377

View: 9631

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"Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks" is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book’s fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear. The book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in physics and will also be appreciated by many professional physicists. It will likewise be of interest to students, researchers and teachers of other natural sciences, as well as to engineers, high-school teachers and the curious general reader, who will come to understand what physics is about and how it describes the different phenomena of Nature. Not only will readers of this book learn much about physics, they will also learn to love it.

The Particle at the End of the Universe

How the Hunt for the Higgs Boson Leads Us to the Edge of a New World

Author: Sean M. Carroll

Publisher: Dutton Adult

ISBN: 0142180300

Category: Science

Page: 353

View: 3930

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Examines the effort to discover the Higgs boson particle by tracing the development and use of the Large Hadron Collider and how its findings are dramatically shaping scientific understandings while enabling world-changing innovations.

Elementary Particles and Their Interactions

Concepts and Phenomena

Author: Quang Ho-Kim,Xuan-Yem Pham

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662037122

Category: Science

Page: 662

View: 2010

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The first part of this two-part work is intended as an introduction to the fundamentals, while the second part discusses applications from the point of view of the researcher. Lively illustrations and informative tables, an overview at the beginning of each chapter and exercises with solutions make this book a valuable resource.

An Introduction to Nuclear Physics

Author: W. N. Cottingham,D. A. Greenwood

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521657334

Category: Science

Page: 271

View: 6336

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This clear and concise introduction to nuclear physics provides an excellent basis for a core undergraduate course in this area. The book opens by setting nuclear physics in the context of elementary particle physics and then shows how simple models can provide an understanding of the properties of nuclei, both in their ground states and excited states, and also of the nature of nuclear reactions. The book also includes chapters on nuclear fission, its application in nuclear power reactors, the role of nuclear physics in energy production and nucleosynthesis in stars. This second edition contains several additional topics: muon-catalysed fusion, the nuclear and neutrino physics of supernovae, neutrino mass and neutrino oscillations, and the biological effects of radiation. A knowledge of basic quantum mechanics and special relativity is assumed. Appendices deal with other more specialized topics. Each chapter ends with a set of problems for which outline solutions are provided.