The Origin of Mass

Elementary Particles and Fundamental Symmetries

Author: John Iliopoulos

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198805179

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 4848

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The discovery of a new elementary particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in 2012 made headlines in world media. Since we already know of a large number of elementary particles, why did this latest discovery generate so much excitement? This small book reveals that this particle provides the key to understanding one of the most extraordinary phenomena which occurred in the early Universe. It introduces the mechanism that made possible, within tiny fractions of a second after the Big Bang, the generation of massive particles. The Origin of Mass is a guided tour of cosmic evolution, from the Big Bang to the elementary particles we study in our accelerators today. The guiding principle of this book is a concept of symmetry which, in a profound and fascinating way, seems to determine the structure of the Universe.

The Origin of Mass

Elementary Particles and Fundamental Symmetries

Author: John Iliopoulos

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192527533

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 7262

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The discovery of a new elementary particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in 2012 made headlines in world media. Since we already know of a large number of elementary particles, why did this latest discovery generate so much excitement? This small book reveals that this particle provides the key to understanding one of the most extraordinary phenomena which occurred in the early Universe. It introduces the mechanism that made possible, within tiny fractions of a second after the Big Bang, the generation of massive particles. The Origin of Mass is a guided tour of cosmic evolution, from the Big Bang to the elementary particles we study in our accelerators today. The guiding principle of this book is a concept of symmetry which, in a profound and fascinating way, seems to determine the structure of the Universe.

The Origin of Mass

Elementary Particles and Fundamental Symmetries

Author: John Iliopoulos

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192527541

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 3774

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The discovery of a new elementary particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in 2012 made headlines in world media. Since we already know of a large number of elementary particles, why did this latest discovery generate so much excitement? This small book reveals that this particle provides the key to understanding one of the most extraordinary phenomena which occurred in the early Universe. It introduces the mechanism that made possible, within tiny fractions of a second after the Big Bang, the generation of massive particles. The Origin of Mass is a guided tour of cosmic evolution, from the Big Bang to the elementary particles we study in our accelerators today. The guiding principle of this book is a concept of symmetry which, in a profound and fascinating way, seems to determine the structure of the Universe.

Masses of Fundamental Particles

Cargèse 1996

Author: Maurice Lévy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306456947

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 5179

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Proceedings of a NATO ASI held in Cargèse, France, August 5-17, 1996

The God Particle

If the Universe is the Answer, what is the Question?

Author: Leon M. Lederman,Dick Teresi

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 9780618711680

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 2390

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The world's foremost experimental physicist uses humor, metaphor, and storytelling to delve into the mysteries of matter, discussing the as-yet-to-be-discovered God particle.

Deep Down Things

The Breathtaking Beauty of Particle Physics

Author: Bruce A. Schumm

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801879715

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 7044

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A useful scientific theory, claimed Einstein, must be explicable to any intelligent person. In Deep Down Things, experimental particle physicist Bruce Schumm has taken this dictum to heart, providing in clear, straightforward prose an elucidation of the Standard Model of particle physics -- a theory that stands as one of the crowning achievements of twentieth-century science. In this one-of-a-kind book, the work of many of the past century's most notable physicists, including Einstein, Schrodinger, Heisenberg, Dirac, Feynman, Gell-Mann, and Weinberg, is knit together in a thorough and accessible exposition of the revolutionary notions that underlie our current view of the fundamental nature of the physical world. Schumm, who has spent much of his life emmersed in the subatomic world, goes far beyond a mere presentation of the "building blocks" of matter, bringing to life the remarkable connection between the ivory tower world of the abstract mathematician and the day-to-day, life-enabling properties of the natural world. Schumm leaves us with an insight into the profound open questions of particle physics, setting the stage for understanding the progress the field is poised to make over the next decade or two. Introducing readers to the world of particle physics, Deep Down Things opens new realms within which are many clues to unraveling the mysteries of the universe.

The Large Hadron Collider

The Extraordinary Story of the Higgs Boson and Other Stuff That Will Blow Your Mind

Author: Don Lincoln

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421413515

Category: SCIENCE

Page: 240

View: 5559

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Details the history of the Large Hadron Collider and the scientific breakthroughs it helped to discover, including the Higgs boson.

Elementary Particle Physics

Concepts and Phenomena

Author: Otto Nachtmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642612814

Category: Science

Page: 559

View: 6783

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This book grew-how could it be otherwise?-out of a series oflectures which the author held at the University of Heidelberg. The purpose ofthese lectures was to give an introduction to the phenomenology of elementary particles for students both of theoretical and experimental orientation. With the present book the author has set himself the same aim. The reader is assumed to be familiar with ordinary nonrelativistic quantum mechanics as presented, e.g., in the following books: Quantum Mechanics, by L.1. Schiff (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955); Quantum Mechanics, Vol. I, by K. Gottfried (W.A. Benjamin, Reading, Ma., 1966). The setup of the present book is as follows. In the first part we present some basic general principles and concepts which are used in elementary particle physics. The reader is supposed to learn here the "language" of particle physics. An introductory chapter deals with special relativity, of such funda mental importance for particle physics, which most ofthe time is high energy, i.e., highly relativistic physics. Further chapters of this first part deal with the Dirac equation, with the theory of quantized fields, and with the general definitions of the scattering and transition matrices and the cross-sections.

Higgs Force

The Symmetry-breaking Force that Makes the World an Interesting Place

Author: Nicholas Mee

Publisher: James Clarke & Co.

ISBN: 071889278X

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 9789

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Higgs Force tells the story of how physicists have unlocked the secrets of matter and the forces of nature to produce dramatic modern understandings of the cosmos. For centuries researchers have followed this quest and now there is just one component of the modern synthesis of particle physics whose existence is yet to be confirmed in the laboratory – the Higgs particle. It explains how a universe built on simple symmetrical principles engenders life and exhibits the diversity and complexity that we see all around us.

Higgs

The invention and discovery of the 'God Particle'

Author: Jim Baggott

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019165003X

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 9584

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The hunt for the Higgs particle has involved the biggest, most expensive experiment ever. So exactly what is this particle? Why does it matter so much? What does it tell us about the Universe? Did the discovery announced on 4 July 2012 finish the search? And was finding it really worth all the effort? The short answer is yes. The Higgs field is proposed as the way in which particles gain mass - a fundamental property of matter. It's the strongest indicator yet that the Standard Model of physics really does reflect the basic building blocks of our Universe. Little wonder the hunt and discovery of this new particle produced such intense media interest. Here, Jim Baggott explains the science behind the discovery, looking at how the concept of a Higgs field was invented, how the vast experiment was carried out, and its implications on our understanding of all mass in the Universe.

Origin of Symmetries

Author: C. D. Froggatt,H. B. Nielsen

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789971966300

Category: Science

Page: 581

View: 7171

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The development in our understanding of symmetry principles is reviewed. Many symmetries, such as charge conjugation, parity and strangeness, are no longer considered as fundamental but as natural consequences of a gauge field theory of strong and electromagnetic interactions. Other symmetries arise naturally from physical models in some limiting situation, such as for low energy or low mass. Random dynamics and attempts to explain all symmetries ? even Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance ? without appealing to any fundamental invariance of the laws of nature are discussed. A selection of original papers is reprinted.

Prime Symmetry and Particle Physics

Author: George Brewer

Publisher: Troubador Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 178803645X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 176

View: 6590

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Is it possible to take a set of particle masses and then work backwards to find a hidden symmetry? Does the Higgs Boson have a partner particle and might that particle solve the mystery of dark matter? Can the tiny masses of neutrinos be predicted? Prime Symmetry and Particle Physics begins with the understanding that the constant π does not have to be measured in spacetime: it can be calculated from a set of real numbers. Former PhD student, George Brewer explores the idea that if this is true of π, why not of other constants? A standard model of physics predicts interactions between quantum fields when particles scatter, but 26 numbers, dimensionless constants for force strengths and the masses of elementary particles, still need to be put into that model. Brewer proposes that many of those constants can actually be calculated from a single equation and a set of integer parameters – a theory that he calls the prime symmetry model. Comparing a set of measured constants against their calculated counterparts provides good evidence for the model's validity. Brewer opens the door for readers to join a select group with information that theorists and experimentalists at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are yet to consider, offering them the opportunity to verify the model’s deceptively simple mathematics for themselves, simply by using an online scientific calculator. Inspired by Albert Einstein, Stephen Hawking and Sean Carroll, Prime Symmetry and Particle Physics is an essential read for all particle physics enthusiasts. The book will also appeal to readers interested in the Higgs boson events at the LHC.

Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics

Author: Alessandro Bettini

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107050405

Category: Science

Page: 474

View: 9949

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Provides fully updated coverage of undergraduate particle physics, including the Higgs boson discovery, with an emphasis on physics over mathematics.

100 Years of Subatomic Physics

Author: Ernest M Henley,Stephen D Ellis

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814425826

Category: Science

Page: 560

View: 4711

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By year 1911 radioactivity had been discovered for over a decade, but its origin remained a mystery. Rutherford's discovery of the nucleus and the subsequent discovery of the neutron by Chadwick started the field of subatomic physics — a quest for understanding the fundamental constituents of matter. This book reviews the important achievements in subatomic physics in the past century. The chapters are divided into two parts: nuclear physics and particle physics. Written by renowned authors who have made major developments in the field, this book provides the academics and researchers an essential overview of the present state of knowledge in nuclear and particle physics. Contents:Nuclear Physics:Particle Physics, From Rutherford to the LHC (S Weinberg)The Early Years and Beyond (E M Henley and A García)100 Years of Nuclear Mass Measurements and Models (G T Garvey)Symmetries and Dynamical Symmetries in Nuclei (I Talmi)Nuclear Fission (R Vogt and J Randrup)Parity- and Time-Reversal Tests in Nuclear Physics (D Hertzog and M J Ramsey-Musolf)High Energy Nuclear Physics: From Bear Mountain to the LHC (L McLerran)Chiral Symmetry in Subatomic Physics (U-G Meiβner)Exotic Nuclei Far From the Stability Line (K Hagino, I Tanihata and H Sagawa)Particle Physics:A Short History of Colliders (L Evans)4π-Detectors (C Tully)Large Underground Detectors for Proton Decay and Neutrino Physics (K Scholberg)Jets and QCD (S D Ellis and D E Soper)Diffractive Phenomena in High Energy Processes (L Frankfurt and M Strikman)Weak Interactions: From Current–Current to Standard Model and Beyond (R N Mohapatra)Neutrino Physics (L Wolfenstein)Introduction to Renormalization in Field Theory (L-F Li)Lattice Gauge Theory and the Origin of Mass (A S Kronfeld)String Theory and M-Theory (J H Schwarz) Readership: Students, researchers and academics interested in nuclear and particle physics. Keywords:Nuclear and Particle Physics;Symmetries;Conservation Laws;Quarks;Neutrinos;AstrophysicsReviews: “Each essay's overall breadth and understanding are impressive, and the separate chapters combine to make this work an unprecedented survey of sub-atomic physics research spanning the last 100 years, with insights into where it might head in the century to come.” Australian Physics

Particle Or Wave

The Evolution of the Concept of Matter in Modern Physics

Author: Charis Anastopoulos

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691135120

Category: Science

Page: 410

View: 1350

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'Particle or Wave' explains the origins and development of modern physical concepts about matter and the controversies surrounding them.

A Brief History of String Theory

From Dual Models to M-Theory

Author: Dean Rickles

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642451284

Category: Science

Page: 251

View: 5584

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During its forty year lifespan, string theory has always had the power to divide, being called both a 'theory of everything' and a 'theory of nothing'. Critics have even questioned whether it qualifies as a scientific theory at all. This book adopts an objective stance, standing back from the question of the truth or falsity of string theory and instead focusing on how it came to be and how it came to occupy its present position in physics. An unexpectedly rich history is revealed, with deep connections to our most well-established physical theories. Fully self-contained and written in a lively fashion, the book will appeal to a wide variety of readers from novice to specialist.

Basic Concepts in Physics

From the Cosmos to Quarks

Author: Masud Chaichian,Hugo Perez Rojas,Anca Tureanu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642195989

Category: Science

Page: 377

View: 4165

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"Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks" is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book’s fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear. The book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in physics and will also be appreciated by many professional physicists. It will likewise be of interest to students, researchers and teachers of other natural sciences, as well as to engineers, high-school teachers and the curious general reader, who will come to understand what physics is about and how it describes the different phenomena of Nature. Not only will readers of this book learn much about physics, they will also learn to love it.

Before Time Began

The Big Bang and the Emerging Universe

Author: Helmut Satz

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198792425

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 6760

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What is the origin of the universe? What was there before the universe appeared? We are currently witnessing a second Copernican revolution: neither our Earth and Sun, nor our galaxy, nor even our universe, are the end of all things. Beyond our world, in an endless multiverse, are innumerable other universes, coming and going, like ours or different. Fourteen billion years ago, one of the many bubbles constantly appearing and vanishing in the multiverse exploded to form our universe. The energy liberated in the explosion provided the basis for all the matter our universe now contains. But how could this hot, primordial plasma eventually produce the complex structure of our present world? Does not order eventually always lead to disorder, to an increase of entropy? Modern cosmology is beginning to find out how it all came about and where it all might lead. Before Time Began tells that story.

Elementary-Particle Physics

Revealing the Secrets of Energy and Matter

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Physics and Astronomy,Committee on Elementary-Particle Physics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309174169

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 3244

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Part of the Physics in a New Era series of assessments of the various branches of the field, Elementary-Particle Physics reviews progress in the field over the past 10 years and recommends actions needed to address the key questions that remain unanswered. It explains in simple terms the present picture of how matter is constructed. As physicists have probed ever deeper into the structure of matter, they have begun to explore one of the most fundamental questions that one can ask about the universe: What gives matter its mass? A new international accelerator to be built at the European laboratory CERN will begin to explore some of the mechanisms proposed to give matter its heft. The committee recommends full U.S. participation in this project as well as various other experiments and studies to be carried out now and in the longer term.

Symmetries and Group Theory in Particle Physics

An Introduction to Space-Time and Internal Symmetries

Author: Giovanni Costa,Gianluigi Fogli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642154816

Category: Science

Page: 291

View: 4562

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Symmetries, coupled with the mathematical concept of group theory, are an essential conceptual backbone in the formulation of quantum field theories capable of describing the world of elementary particles. This primer is an introduction to and survey of the underlying concepts and structures needed in order to understand and handle these powerful tools. Specifically, in Part I of the book the symmetries and related group theoretical structures of the Minkowskian space-time manifold are analyzed, while Part II examines the internal symmetries and their related unitary groups, where the interactions between fundamental particles are encoded as we know them from the present standard model of particle physics. This book, based on several courses given by the authors, addresses advanced graduate students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter active research in the field, and having a working knowledge of classical field theory and relativistic quantum mechanics. Numerous end-of-chapter problems and their solutions will facilitate the use of this book as self-study guide or as course book for topical lectures.