The Political and Economic Challenges of Energy in the Middle East and North Africa

Author: David Ramin Jalilvand,Kirsten Westphal

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351783483

Category: Political Science

Page: 302

View: 4999

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are in disarray, and shifts in the field of energy have the potential to drastically affect the course of political and economic developments in the region. Declining oil prices, skyrocketing domestic demand, the rise of unconventional oil and natural gas production in North America, as well as shifting patterns of global energy trade all put severe pressures on both producing and importing countries in the MENA region. Policy-makers are facing fundamental challenges in light of the duality of grand transformations in (geo)politics and energy. Changes in the field of energy require substantial political and economic reforms, affecting the very fabric of sociopolitical arrangements. At the same time, the MENA region’s geopolitical volatility makes any such reforms extremely risky. Including contributions by academics and analysts from both inside and outside the MENA region, this volume explores the changes in global and regional energy, the impact of changing international energy dynamics on politics and economies in the MENA region, and the challenges that will result. This is essential reading for researchers, postgraduates, and professionals in Middle Eastern and North African politics, global energy governance and regionalism.

Globalization and the Politics of Development in the Middle East

Author: Clement M. Henry,Robert Springborg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521626316

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 258

View: 3473

DOWNLOAD NOW »
At the beginning of the twenty-first century countries in the Middle East and North Africa contend with the threats and opportunities of economic globalization, the driving force of change in the contemporary world. As the authors confirm in their straightforward and, at times, irreverent analysis of the regions' response to these challenges, it is globalization which is the key to an understanding of economic reform. Through an investigation of the structures of state and civil society, including financial systems, they also demonstrate that there is a direct correlation between economic performance and democratization. In other words, the more liberal the polity, the more effective is its economy in responding to globalization. With its interesting and incisive approach to the politics and economics of the Middle East and North Africa, this will be an essential purchase for students and policy-makers and anyone trying to come to grips with economic globalization generally.

Governance in the Middle East and North Africa

A Handbook

Author: Abbas Kadhim

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136959661

Category: Political Science

Page: 502

View: 3370

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Governance in the Middle East is topic of interest to scholars, activists and policy makers. The currently proposed book is intended to present the first comprehensive framework of the question of governance in the Middle East in its various forms and manifestations: political, economic, and government performance. This study will supply the context that is missing in the existing literature on, perhaps, the last bastion of authoritarianism in the world. Proposed Contents This book will be structured into two parts: Part I (Chapters 1-11) provides some theoretical background and analyzes the patterns and challenges of governance in the Middle East, providing some global context; Part II (12-Conclusion) will examine specific cases in selected countries and regions in the Middle East. Part I: Theory and Context Chapter 1 will be an introduction describing the main aspects of the book and highlighting the main points made by the contributors. Chapter 2 will present the theoretical dimensions of governance and review the "state of the discipline" and the latest trends in the literature on governance. The author of this chapter will be an authority in the subject of governance, but does not have to be necessarily a Middle East scholar. Chapter 3 will examine the general political trends in the Middle East and provide a historical background: nation-state formation, colonial and postcolonial experiences in the Middle East and the nature of the Middle Eastern political environment at the present time. Chapter 4 will look into the economic aspects of governance in the Middle East and contextualize the economic challenges and deficiencies affecting the region. Chapter 5 will examine the areas of success and failure in government performance in the region and the aspects of human development. Chapter 6 will look into the role of religion in shaping the governance in the Middle East. After all, most Middle Eastern governments declare Islam as the State religion, while a few consider Islam the source of governance and legislation (e.g. Saudi Arabia and Iran). Chapter 7 will shed light on the sectarian division among Muslims (Shi‘a vs. Sunnis) and the significance of this division for the governance, particularly in countries where the ruling groups belong to a different sect than the governed, such as Bahrain, Saudi, Kuwait and Lebanon. Chapter 8 will examine relation between the state of governance in the Middle East and the progress of human rights, or lack thereof. The Middle East remains one of the most troubling regions on human rights and the respect for human dignity. All of the region’s governments are heavily implicated in very serious violations of the most basic in human rights. Chapter 9 will focus on the status of women in the Middle East and the governmental performance in the region in relevance to women rights and status. The recent years have witnessed many positive changes in this regard, but there remains a lot of work to be done, which is going to be outlined in this chapter. Chapter 10 will look into the role of oil and other natural sources in shaping the economic and political performance of Middle Eastern governments. Also, it will shed light on the various ways these governments distribute the revenues (rents) from these resources and how they use them, or don’t, in the development of their countries or, in most cases, on the military and state oppressive machine. Chapter 11 will examine the role of international organizations and trade agreements on the performance of governments and whether or not such factors influence or shape governance in the region. It is well-known that Turkey has changed many of its laws and social policies in response to the demands of EU members and in hopes of being admitted into the EU. The chapter will elaborate on this and similar cases throughout the region. Part II: Case Studies Chapter 12 will examine the case of Iraq. The country is experiencing perhaps the most dramatic scenarios of governance in the region. This chapter will shed light on the unfolding political process and the struggle of Iraqis to forge a path toward democracy in a region determined to resist any political change within its boundaries. Key issues: Power-sharing, pluralism, federalism, ethnic and sectarian conflict, trust-building, corruption and political violence. Chapter 13 will examine the case of Iran. Thirty years after the Islamic Revolution, Iran is entering into a soul-searching phase in its history. The ongoing battle between the reformers and the hardliners is only a sign on the larger problem of governance. A majority of Iranians have no personal recollection of the problems that led to the Revolution. It is vitally important that the government changes its claims to legitimacy from being the force that toppled the Shah to being the provider of prosperity and development of the country and its young population. Key issues: Political reform, human rights, reconciliation with the West, allocation of resources and services. Chapter 14 will examine the case of Egypt. The country is facing an unknown future with President Mubarak reaching advanced age. The debate over his succession is dividing the country in a dramatic way. Egypt is also a country with depleted infrastructure and an ever-shrinking middle class. If the country falls into a violent cycle after the looming departure of Mubarak, the entire region could fall into the abyss. Key issues: Succession of Mubarak, economic performance, services, religious extremism (Muslim Brotherhood) and Nationalism. Chapter 15 will examine the case of Israel. While politically different from its neighbors, Israel is sinking fast into the same problems that plague the Middle East. The country suffers political corruption and many leadership crises. The government is trying to redefine the identity of the state, which is going to create a showdown with the fast-growing non-Jewish Israeli population, and there is the problem of the government’s inability to conclude peace with Israel’s neighbors. Key issues: corruption, violence and security. Chapter 16 will examine the case of Saudi Arabia. The country is perhaps the most authoritarian regime in the world. The lack of individual liberties and abuses of human rights are the main problems. The government’s treatment of its Shia subjects (approx. 12% of the population) as second-class residents is extremely troubling. The country does not have a meaningful public participation and the Royals who run the government have no accountability to anyone. Key issues: human rights, religious freedom, political reform, public participation. Chapter 17 will examine the case of Bahrain. This small country in the Persian Gulf is facing many challenges. Like Iraq before 2003, it is a country with a clear Shia majority ruled by a small Sunni minority. The Shia are excluded from the government (they were allowed to run for the parliament in the last election for the first time), the military and many other important arenas. The government uses the naturalization of Sunnis as a political tool to change the demographic balance in the country. Key issues: political reform, popular participation, naturalization, human rights. Chapter 18 will examine the case of Yemen. The current struggle over government performance and fairness toward the South has given rise to the calls for separation of the two parts of Yemen. Also, there is the issue of religious freedom, which cases the ongoing war with the Houthi faction that accuses the government of making alliance with the Saudi government and the Sunni extremists in the country to form an existential threat to Shi’ism. Yemen is also a country with many ungoverned spaces and the governance in the "governed" areas is abysmal. Key issues: political violence, human and religious rights, terrorism, tribalism and poverty. Chapter 19 will examine the case of Turkey and its impressive rise as a model for a strong Muslim nation which tries to reconcile Islam and democracy. Turkey’s longstanding problems with social rights, especially of its 12 million Kurds, have always been a formidable challenge to the image of the nation. However, the country’s bid to join the EU has forced many changes that inadvertently helped the government’s international standing. Chapter 20 will examine the case of Syria and the influence of the Arab nationalist ideology on keeping the country as one of the most oppressive regimes in the region. Also examined will be the affect of Syrian-Israeli conflict on the country’s governance. Chapter 21 examines the case of Lebanon. This country which witnessed more governance challenges than any other in the region makes a very interesting case study. The country’s sectarian politics and the client-patron relations and loyalties among the various Muslim and Christian elements of society have undermined the country’s potential to become a fully democratic state. Chapter 22 will focus on the case of Sudan. This country has been in the center of world attention because of the internal conflict and the accusations of serious violations of human rights and the rise of separatist movements that receive much foreign sympathy and support. The country has missed many opportunities to attain social and political reconciliation, but it should not be considered a lost cause. There is a lot of potential in the country, especially when we consider the vibrant politics of government and opposition. Chapter 23 will examine the case of Jordan and the role of the uniqueness of the regime in creating relative social and political stability. Unlike the most of the governments in the region, the Jordanian Monarchy keeps the government as a convenient buffer between the Royals and the people. When popular sentiments turn very negative, the King, acting as the good cop, dismisses the government and orders the formation of a new one. Also, Jordan has achieved some good success in absorbing the Islamist groups into the political system, but not without challenges. The chapter will also focus on the Palestinian factor – Palestinians make more than half of the Jordanian population. Chapters 24, 25 & 26 will examine the Maghreb states (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). These states face many challenges in their governance: separatism, terrorism and the government oppressive history in Morocco; the Islamism challenge, internal war in the tribal areas and ethnic conflict in Algeria; and the stifling of personal freedom and liberties in Tunisia in the name of secularism and the war on extremism are all challenges that need to be highlighted in a chapter about each country. Chapter 27 will focus on governance in Libya. Having ruled the country for forty-seven years, the Libyan president is the dean of Middle Eastern dictators. He has taken his country though all kinds of political adventures. The rule through popular committees is a unique system that gives Col. Mu‘ammar Qadhafi the opportunity to oppress through popular participation and acquiescence. Chapter 28 will focus on the governance in the United Arab Emirates. This confederation of seven emirates has witnessed some excellent success in the economic and infrastructural development, especially in Dubai, which competes with the richest cities in the world, thanks to the energy and vision of its Emir, Muhammad b. Rashid. While it is generally considered much better than its fellow Gulf States, the UAE has its own challenges, especially in light of the absence of unified system of governance, because each emirate has the autonomy to shape its internal affairs. Chapter 29 will examine the governance and, in certain cases, lack thereof in the countries that form the Horn of Africa, i.e. Somalia, Eritrea and Djibouti. These countries face some tremendous challenges in the areas of refugees, resources, stability and ethnic & conflict. The failure of these states, as seen in the case of Somalia, can make the problems of security in the whole region much worse than it is now. Famine and anarchy have already led to wars, piracy and the flood of refugees, not to say much about the humanitarian catastrophes in the region. This chapter will highlight the problems of governance in these often forgotten countries. Chapter 30 will be a conclusion and final remarks on the general framework of the regional governance and the way forward. This book is aimed at a wide variety of audience. Policy makers, policy analysts, as well as journalists will benefit from the history and analysis that will be presented in the book. Also, academics will find in the book important materials for research and class work. Professors teaching courses on US Foreign policy, Middle East, International Relations, Comparative Politics and many related fields will find the book a very suitable choice for their students to read. Given the media and general public’s interest in the Middle East and the Middle East, the book will also appeal to a wide range of educated readers in the United States, the United Kingdom and many other countries world-wide.

State, Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East

Author: Roger Owen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134432917

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

View: 1979

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Roger Owen has fully revised and updated his authoritative text to take into account the latest developments in the Middle East. This book continues to serve as an excellent introduction for newcomers to the modern history and politics of this fascinating region. This third edition continues to explore the emergence of individual Middle Eastern states since the fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War and the key themes that have characterized the region since then.

Competitiveness and Private Sector Development Renewable Energies in the Middle East and North Africa Policies to Support Private Investment

Policies to Support Private Investment

Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9264183701

Category:

Page: 132

View: 6709

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This report makes the case for a stronger deployment of renewables in the Middle East and North Africa and identifies the appropriate support policies required to stimulate the necessary private investment.

The Economic Development Process in the Middle East and North Africa

Author: Alessandro Romagnoli,Luisa Mengoni

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134447256

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 268

View: 8686

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Offering a comprehensive analysis of the development of economies in the Middle East and North Africa over the past half century, this book charts the progress of these countries through an examination of an Islamic model of economic development, reform processes, and economic integration. Far from being a simple process, economic development in the Middle East and North Africa is dependent on the interaction of a set of changing systems including; international relations, the political regime, economy, and society. By analysing these interdependent factors, The Economic Development Process in MENA seeks to provide answers to the most pressing issues facing the economies in this area. Providing an interpretation of regional development in light of dialectics between state and society, this book will be of value to students and scholars with an interest in the Middle East, Economics, and International Relations.

An Economic History of the Middle East and North Africa

Author: Charles Issawi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134560516

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 328

View: 1472

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The economic history of the Middle East and North Africa is quite extraordinary. This is an axiomatic statement, but the very nature of the economic changes that have stemmed directly from the effects of oil resources in these areas has tended to obscure longterm patterns of economic change and the fundamental transformation of Middle Eastern and North African economies and societies over the past two hundred years. In this study Professor Issawi examines and explains the development of these economies since 1800, focusing particularly on the challenge posed by the use and subsequent decline of Western economic and political domination and the Middle Eastern response to it. The book beg ins with an analysis of the effects of foreign intervention in the area: the expansion of trade, the development of transport networks, the influx of foreign capital and resulting integration into international commercial and financial networks. It goes on to examine the local response to these external forces: migration within, to and from the region, population growth, urbanization and changes in living standards, shifts in agricultural production and land tenure and the development of an industrial sector. Professor Issawi discusses the crucial effects of the growth of oil and oil-related industries in a separate chapter, and finally assesses the likely gains and losses in this long period for both the countries in the area and the Western powers. He has drawn on long experience and an immense amount of material in surveying the period, and provides a clear and penetrating survey of an extraordinarily complex area.

Energy Developments in the Middle East

Author: Anthony H. Cordesman

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275983987

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 308

View: 8036

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Offers a wealth of information on the current and future importance of Middle East and North African energy resources, detailing political, economic, demographic, and other pressures that could have significant impact on energy supply in the coming decades.

Globalization and the Politics of Development in the Middle East

Author: Clement Moore Henry,Robert Springborg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139490818

Category: Business & Economics

Page: N.A

View: 8888

DOWNLOAD NOW »
In this 2010 edition of their book on the economic development of the Middle East and North Africa, Clement Henry and Robert Springborg reflect on what has happened to the region's economy since 2001. How have the various countries in the Middle East responded to the challenges of globalization and to the rise of political Islam, and what changes, for better or for worse, have occurred? Utilizing the country categories they applied in the previous book and further elaborating the significance of the structural power of capital and Islamic finance, they demonstrate how over the past decade the monarchies (as exemplified by Jordan, Morocco and those of the Gulf Cooperation Council) and the conditional democracies (Israel, Turkey and Lebanon) continue to do better than the military dictatorships or 'bullies' (Egypt, Tunisia and now Iran) and 'the bunker states' (Algeria, Iraq, Libya, Sudan, Syria and Yemen).

Zwischen Konfrontation und Dialog

Der Islam als politische Größe

Author: Marwan Abou-Taam,Jost Esser,Naika Foroutan

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 353193001X

Category: Political Science

Page: 178

View: 3920

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Ein Leben für den Dialog zwischen den Zivilisationen, aber immer auch der klaren Worte: Bassam Tibi – Wissenschaftler, Aufklärer, Publizist – hat bereits vor Jahrzehnten zu einer differenzierten und kontrovers diskutierten Sicht der islamischen Welt beigetragen und ihre wechselhafte Interaktion mit Europa gleichermaßen brillant wie kritisch analysiert. Aus Anlass seiner Emeritierung versammelt sich in dieser Festschrift ein illustrer Kreis akademischer Wegbegleiter, der mit seinen Beiträgen die Stationen im Werk des Begründers der Islamologie nachzeichnet, würdigt und kommentiert. Das Ergebnis ist nicht nur eine Verbeugung vor der Arbeit eines großen Gelehrten, sondern zugleich ein selten breiter Querschnitt der Diskussion über die Rolle des Islam als politische Variable. Hierbei wird das Spannungsfeld zwischen der Wirkungsmacht und der Deutungsmacht des politischem Islam ausgeleuchtet. Führende Experten analysieren dieses Verhältnis in Geschichte und Gegenwart.

China and India

The Quest for Energy Resources in the 21st Century

Author: Hong Zhao

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136447156

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 6910

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The book sheds understanding on the relations between development and global energy security by looking at China and India. It addresses the following issues: what is the new definition of energy security, how does it affect global politics and international relations? What are the energy security concerns of China and India, and what policies and approaches have they taken to deal with energy security issues? Since China and India are searching for oil and gas in the Middle East, Africa, and Southeast Asia, will their acquisition efforts conflict with the interests of other energy giants such as the U.S., Japan, and will their growing overseas activities challenge U.S. policy in those energy-rich regions? The book provides insight into what the new global energy order may be and how the growth models and energy structures may shape the economic growth and energy. It analyzes both the state-centered approach and market-oriented approach in the global quest for energy resources. It also examines how China and India can adopt a cooperative approach for beneficial relations. The book will be of interest to anyone who is keen to learn how the World especially U.S.A. can accomodate and adapt to the new global energy dynamics; China and India as new players in global energy markets.

Clash or Cooperation of Civilizations?

Overlapping Integration and Identities

Author: Dr Wolfgang Zank

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409498913

Category: Political Science

Page: 242

View: 570

DOWNLOAD NOW »
For decades North Africa and the Middle East have experienced overlapping identities and integration processes. With the exception of Morocco, the countries of North Africa have supported the re-launch of pan-Africanism in the form of the African Union and its growing institutionalization; but they also share an Arab identity and are members of the Arab League. Islamism commands wide support among the regions of North Africa and the Middle East, and the impact of European integration can increasingly be seen in varying forms. This comprehensive volume focuses on overlapping identities and integration processes in the Mediterranean basin and queries to what extent these various identities and integration processes are compatible or in conflict. Incorporating both theoretical and empirical material, it unites contributions from a variety of countries, thus exploring these issues from different perspectives.

Future Trends in East Asian International Relations

Security, Politics, and Economics in the 21st Century

Author: Quansheng Zhao

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135315426

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 2998

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The world has undergone significant change since the end of the Cold War. One such development is that the Asia-Pacific has become increasingly prominent in international affairs. This comprehensive study provides a detailed understanding of key issues, actors and future trends in the region.

State Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East

Author: A J Meyer Professor of Middle East History Emeritus Roger Owen,Roger Owen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134643551

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 8320

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book continues to serve as an excellent introduction for new-comers to the modern history and politics of a region that is usually portrayed as mysterious, unpredictable and violent.

Morocco

Challenges to Tradition and Modernity

Author: James N. Sater

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135189153

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 192

View: 1272

DOWNLOAD NOW »
For many contemporary observers and analysts, Morocco remains a mystery. So close to Europe, Morocco simultaneously represents a similarly open political culture and its complete antithesis: Human rights associations openly challenge authoritarian rule, while an emphasis on Moroccan singularity and authenticity prevents the establishment of a real democracy. Widespread poverty and illiteracy co-exist with a flourishing entrepreneurial class and the display of conspicuous wealth in its cities; electoral institutions and political parties pay allegiance to a traditional monarch; disgruntled youth and inhabitants of shantytowns are receptive to the rhetoric of Islamic inspired violence and terror. This book provides an introductory overview of contemporary politics and international relations in Morocco, and gives an up to date assessment of the economy and recent history. Drawing on key academic texts, the author provides a detailed analysis of Morocco, focusing on issues such as: Morocco’s role within the region trade policies with Europe Morocco’s Western Sahara policy ways of dealing with Political Islam the extent to which European influence has affected Moroccan society. Easily accessible to non-specialists, practitioners, and upper level undergraduate students, the book will be essential reading for those working in the fields of Comparative Politics, International Relations and Middle East Studies.

The Obligation of Empire

United States' Grand Strategy for a New Century

Author: James J. Hentz

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813156637

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 6627

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Some of the nation's most respected scholars of international affairs examine the debates over U.S. grand strategy in light of U.S. security policies and interests in tactical regions around the world. The contributors begin by describing the four grand strategies currently competing for dominance of U.S. foreign policy: neo-isolationism argues that the United States should not become involved in conflicts outside specifically defined national interests selective engagement proposes that the United States, despite its position as the world's only remaining superpower, should limit its involvement in foreign affairs cooperative security advocates that the United States is not and should not act as an imperial country primacy asserts that the United States is an empire and therefore it should conduct an expansive foreign policy. Focusing on regions that present new challenges to U.S. grand strategy, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America, the contributors offer the most current examinations of U.S. policies and assess the effectiveness of competing strategies in each region. The Obligation of Empire offers an innovative set of foreign policy initiatives that explore the tensions between global agendas and regionalist approaches. Contributors: Andrew J. Bacevich, Doug Bandow, Dale Davis, Thomas Donnelly, James J. Hentz, Clifford Kiracofe, Charles Kupchan, Jeffrey Stark, S. Frederick Starr, and Brantley Womack. James J. Hentz, associate professor of international studies at the Virginia Military Institute, is the coeditor of New and Critical Security and Regionalism: Beyond the Nation State.

The New Politics of Strategic Resources

Energy and Food Security Challenges in the 21st Century

Author: David Steven,Emily O'Brien,Bruce D. Jones

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815725345

Category: Political Science

Page: 365

View: 9155

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Since 2008, energy and food markets—those most fundamental to human existence—have remained in turmoil. Resource scarcity has had a much bigger global impact in recent years than has been predicted, with ongoing volatility a sign that the world is only part-way through navigating a treacherous transition in the way it uses resources. Scarcity, and perceptions of scarcity, increase political risks, while geopolitical turmoil exacerbates shortages and complicates the search for solutions. The New Politics of Strategic Resources examines the political dimensions of strategic resource challenges at the domestic and international levels. For better or worse, energy and food markets are shaped by perceptions of national interest and do not behave as traditional market goods. So while markets are an essential part of any response to tighter resource supplies, governments also will play a key role. David Steven, Emily O'Brien, Bruce Jones, and their colleagues discuss what those roles are and what they should be. The architecture for coordinating multilateral responses to these dynamics has fallen short, raising questions about the effective international management of these issues. Politics impede here too, as the major powers must negotiate political and security trade-offs to cooperate on the design of more robust international regimes and mechanisms for resource security and the provision of global public goods. This timely volume includes chapters on major powers (United States, India, China) and key suppliers (Russia, Saudi Arabia). The contributors also address thematic topics, such as the interaction between oil and state fragility; the changing political dynamics of climate change; and the politics of resource subsidies.