The Prehistoric Exploration and Colonisation of the Pacific

Author: Geoffrey Irwin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521476515

Category: History

Page: 240

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The exploration and colonization of the Pacific is a remarkable episode in human prehistory. Early sea-going explorers had no knowledge of Pacific geography, no instruments for measuring time and none for exploration. Forty years of modern archaeology, experimental voyages in rafts, and computer simulations of voyages have produced an normous range of literature on this controversial subject. This book represents a major advance in knowledge of the settlement of the Pacific by suggesting that exploration was rapid, purposeful and undertaken systematically, and that navigation methods progressively improved.

The Colonization of Unfamiliar Landscapes

The Archaeology of Adaptation

Author: Marcy Rockman,James Steele

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113452014X

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 9286

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This innovative and important volume presents the archaeological and anthropological foundations of the landscape learning process. Contributions apply the related fields of ethnography, cognitive psychology, and historical archaeology to the issues of individual exploration, development of trail systems, folk knowledge, social identity, and the role of the frontier in the growth of the modern world. A series of case studies examines the archaeological evidence for and interpretations of landscape learning from the movement of the first pre-modern humans into Europe, peoplings of the Old and New World at the end of the Ice Age, and colonization of the Pacific, to the English colonists at Jamestown. The final chapters summarize the implications of the landscape learning idea for our understanding of human history and set out a framework for future research.

On the Road of the Winds

An Archaeological History of the Pacific Islands before European Contact

Author: Patrick Vinton Kirch

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520928961

Category: Social Science

Page: 446

View: 2852

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The Pacific Ocean covers one-third of the earth's surface and encompasses many thousands of islands, the home to numerous human societies and cultures. Among these indigenous Oceanic cultures are the intrepid Polynesian double-hulled canoe navigators, the atoll dwellers of Micronesia, the statue carvers of remote Easter Island, and the famed traders of Melanesia. Recent archaeological excavations, combined with allied research in historical linguistics, biological anthropology, and comparative ethnography, have begun to reveal much new information about the long-term history of these Pacific Island societies and cultures. On the Road of the Winds synthesizes the grand sweep of human history in the Pacific Islands, beginning with the movement of early people out from Asia more than 40,000 years ago, and tracing the development of myriad indigenous cultures up to the time of European contact in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. Questions that scholars have posed and puzzled over for two centuries or more are illuminated here: Where did the Pacific Islanders come from? How did they discover and settle the thousands of islands? Why did they build great monuments like Nan Madol on Pohnpei Island in Micronesia or the famous Easter Island statues? This book provides an up-to-date synthesis of archaeological and historical anthropological knowledge of these fascinating indigenous cultures. In particular, Kirch focuses on human ecology and island adaptations, the complexities of island trading and exchange systems, voyaging technology and skills, and the development of intensive economic systems linked to the growth of large populations. He also draws on his own original field research conducted on many islands, ranging from the Solomons to Hawai'i, as he takes us on an intellectual voyage into the Oceanic past.

Historical Dictionary of Polynesia

Author: Robert D. Craig

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0810867729

Category: History

Page: 440

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Features entries on political, historical, and social topics that have defined Polynesia's thirteen island states, in addition to significant figures, places, rituals, and organizations.

The Quest for Origins

Who First Discovered and Settled New Zealand the Pacific Islands?

Author: K. R. Howe

Publisher: University of Hawaii Press

ISBN: 9780824827502

Category: History

Page: 235

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Islanders' origins. 5.25x7.75". Annotation.

Nomads of the Wind

A Natural History of Polynesia

Author: Peter Crawford

Publisher: Bbc Publications

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 9127

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Accompanying a BBC2 series, this book tells the story of the Polynesians, a tenacious, voyaging people who sailed across the Pacific Ocean and discovered the paradise islands of the South Seas. Using the power of the wind and navigating by the stars, they crossed thousands of miles of open ocean in search of new lands such as Tahiti, Samao and New Zealand.

The Oxford Handbook of Prehistoric Oceania

Author: Ethan E. Cochrane,Terry L. Hunt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199925070

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 6333

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"The Oxford Handbook of Prehistoric Oceania presents the archaeology, linguistics, environment and human biology of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. First colonized 50,000 years ago, Oceania witnessed the independent invention of agriculture, the construction of Easter Island's statues, and the development of the word's last archaic states."--Provided by publisher.

Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration

Author: Felipe Fernández-Armesto

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393330915

Category: History

Page: 428

View: 3693

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A distinguished scholar traces the history of exploration from a global perspective, following the pathfinders and their expeditions over the course of five millennia to the farthest reaches of the world, from ancient Egypt, through the merchants and missionaries of the Silk Roads, to the discovery of the New World and the nineteenth-century expeditions to Africa, the Arctic, North America, and the South Pacific. Reprint.

Collapse

How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed: Revised Edition

Author: Jared Diamond

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101502006

Category: History

Page: 608

View: 3607

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In Jared Diamond’s follow-up to the Pulitzer-Prize winning Guns, Germs and Steel, the author explores how climate change, the population explosion and political discord create the conditions for the collapse of civilization Environmental damage, climate change, globalization, rapid population growth, and unwise political choices were all factors in the demise of societies around the world, but some found solutions and persisted. As in Guns, Germs, and Steel, Diamond traces the fundamental pattern of catastrophe, and weaves an all-encompassing global thesis through a series of fascinating historical-cultural narratives. Collapse moves from the Polynesian cultures on Easter Island to the flourishing American civilizations of the Anasazi and the Maya and finally to the doomed Viking colony on Greenland. Similar problems face us today and have already brought disaster to Rwanda and Haiti, even as China and Australia are trying to cope in innovative ways. Despite our own society’s apparently inexhaustible wealth and unrivaled political power, ominous warning signs have begun to emerge even in ecologically robust areas like Montana. Brilliant, illuminating, and immensely absorbing, Collapse is destined to take its place as one of the essential books of our time, raising the urgent question: How can our world best avoid committing ecological suicide? From the Trade Paperback edition.

Manifestos for History

Author: Sue Morgan,Keith Jenkins,Alun Munslow

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134183712

Category: History

Page: 256

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Written by some of the world’s leading historians and theorists of history, Manifestos for History draws together a series of manifestos that address the question of what kinds of histories we ought to be considering and making in and for the twenty-first century. With a foreword by Joanna Bourke and an afterword by Hayden White, these manifestos – critical, innovative, reflexive, inspirational – are absolutely essential reading, not just for those embarking on the study of history, but for all those who would think seriously about ‘the nature of history’ in its present and possible future forms. This collection establishes a benchmark for all future considerations upon the discourse of history.

Nature Across Cultures

Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-Western Cultures

Author: Helaine Selin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401701490

Category: Science

Page: 482

View: 1363

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Nature Across Cultures: Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-Western Cultures consists of about 25 essays dealing with the environmental knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside of the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Indian, Thai, and Andean views of nature and the environment, among others, the book includes essays on Environmentalism and Images of the Other, Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Worldviews and Ecology, Rethinking the Western/non-Western Divide, and Landscape, Nature, and Culture. The essays address the connections between nature and culture and relate the environmental practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both environmental history and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.

The Sea and Civilization

A Maritime History of the World

Author: Lincoln Paine

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307962253

Category: History

Page: 784

View: 6496

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A monumental retelling of world history through the lens of maritime enterprise, revealing in breathtaking depth how people first came into contact with one another by ocean and river, lake and stream, and how goods, languages, religions, and entire cultures spread across and along the world’s waterways, bringing together civilizations and defining what makes us most human. Lincoln Paine takes us back to the origins of long-distance migration by sea with our ancestors’ first forays from Africa and Eurasia to Australia and the Americas. He demonstrates the critical role of maritime trade to the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley. He reacquaints us with the great seafaring cultures of antiquity like those of the Phoenicians and Greeks, as well as those of India and Southeast and East Asia, who parlayed their navigational skills, shipbuilding techniques, and commercial acumen to establish thriving overseas colonies and trade routes in the centuries leading up to the age of European expansion. And finally, his narrative traces how commercial shipping and naval warfare brought about the enormous demographic, cultural, and political changes that have globalized the world throughout the post–Cold War era. This tremendously readable intellectual adventure shows us the world in a new light, in which the sea reigns supreme. We find out how a once-enslaved East African king brought Islam to his people, what the American “sail-around territories” were, and what the Song Dynasty did with twenty-wheel, human-powered paddleboats with twenty paddle wheels and up to three hundred crew. Above all, Paine makes clear how the rise and fall of civilizations can be linked to the sea. An accomplishment of both great sweep and illuminating detail, The Sea and Civilization is a stunning work of history.

Beyond the Blue Horizon

How the Earliest Mariners Unlocked the Secrets of the Oceans

Author: Brian Fagan

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1608193853

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 7590

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In Beyond the Blue Horizon, bestselling science historian Brian Fagan tackles his richest topic yet: the enduring mystery of the oceans, the planet's most forbidding terrain.This is not a tale of Columbus or Hudson, but of much earlier mariners. From the moment when ancient Polynesians first dared to sail beyond the horizon, Fagan vividly explains how our mastery of the oceans has changed history, even before history was written. Beyond the Blue Horizon delves into the very beginnings of humanity's long and intimate relationship with the sea. It willl enthrall readers who enjoyed Longitude, Simon Winchester's Atlantic, or in its scope and its insightful linking of technology and culture, Guns, Germs, and Steel. What drove humans to risk their lives on open water? How did early sailors unlock the secrets of winds, tides, and the stars they steered by? What were the earliest ocean crossings like? With compelling detail, Brian Fagan reveals how seafaring evolved so that the vast realms of the sea gods were transformed from barriers into highways that hummed with commerce. Indeed, for most of human history, oceans have been the most vital connectors of far-flung societies. From bamboo rafts in the Java Sea to the caravels of the Age of Discovery, from Easter Island to Crete, Brian Fagan crafts a captivating narrative of humanity's urge to seek out distant shores, of the daring men and women who did so, and of the mark they have left on civilization.

Oceanic Migration

Paths, Sequence, Timing and Range of Prehistoric Migration in the Pacific and Indian Oceans

Author: Charles E.M. Pearce,F. M. Pearce

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048138265

Category: Social Science

Page: 401

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Oceanic Migration studies the prehistoric peopling of the Pacific. It uses science and mathematics to expand the research base of Pacific prehistory and casts new light on this final human expansion. It explores the fundamental roles of oceanography and of global climate change in determining the paths, sequence, timing and range of Spice Island-based maritime migrations ranging across a quarter of the globe. The book is of interest to Pacific prehistorians, oceanographers and American anthropologists concerned with the diffusionist debate. For oceanographers it presents the new idea of the role of the West Pacific Warm Pool and of three of its four major currents in determining the evolution of voyaging in two oceans. For diffusionists it provides new chronological and technological contexts in which the issue of diffusionism needs to be reconsidered. For prehistorians it creates a paradigmatic shift by establishing a new time depth and mechanism for Polynesian exploration, offers a new view of voyaging and exploration strategies and of economic imperatives and adds a new dimension to the debate on Polynesian origins.

The Lapita Peoples

Ancestors of the Oceanic World

Author: Patrick Vinton Kirch

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9781577180364

Category: Social Science

Page: 376

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This is the first account of the Lapita peoples, the common ancestor of the Polynesians, Micronesians, and Austronesian-speaking Melanesians who over the last 4000 years colonized the islands of the Pacific, including New Zealand and territories as far afield as Fiji and Hawaii. Its purpose is to provide answers to some of the most puzzling archaeological and anthropological questions: who were the Lapita peoples? what was their history? how were they able to travel such great distances? and why did they do so? Recent discoveries (several by the author of this book) have begun at last to yield a coherent picture of these elusive peoples. Professor Kirch takes the reader back many thousands of years to the earliest evidence of the Lapita peoples. He describes the research itself and conveys the excitement of the first discoveries of Lapita settlements, tools and pottery. He then traces the remarkable cultural development and spread of the Lapita peoples across the unoccupied islands of Eastern Melanesia, Micronesia and Western Polynesia. He shows how they became the progenitors of the Polynesian and Austronesian-speaking Melanesian peoples. The author describes Lapita sites, communities and landscapes, the development of their decorated ceramics, and their shell-tool industry. He reveals the means by which they accomplished such prodigious voyages and explains why they undertook them. He illustrates his account with specially drawn maps and with a wide range of photographs, many published for the first time. Drawing on the latest research in archaeology, anthropology, biology and linguistics, and written in clear, non-specialized language, this is an outstanding book of great importance to the history of South-East Asia and the Pacific.

Human Dispersal and Species Movement

Author: Nicole Boivin,Michael Petraglia,Rémy Crassard

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107164141

Category: Social Science

Page: 572

View: 4879

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How have humans colonised the entire planet and reshaped its ecosystems in the process? This unique and groundbreaking collection of essays explores human movement through time, the impacts of these movements on landscapes and other species, and the ways in which species have co-evolved and transformed each other as a result. Exploring the spread of people, plants, animals, and diseases through processes of migration, colonisation, trade and travel, it assembles a broad array of case studies from the Pliocene to the present. The contributors from disciplines across the humanities and natural sciences are senior or established scholars in the fields of human evolution, archaeology, history, and geography.

The Pacific Islands

Environment & Society

Author: Moshe Rapaport

Publisher: Bess Press

ISBN: 9781573060837

Category: Nature

Page: 442

View: 415

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Forty-five contributors offer information on the physical environment, history, culture, population, economy, and living environment of the Pacific islands.

The Lost Colonies of Ancient America

A Comprehensive Guide to the Pre-Columbian Visitors Who Really Discovered America

Author: Frank Joseph

Publisher: Red Wheel/Weiser

ISBN: 1601635141

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 320

View: 1588

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Was America truly unknown to the outside world until Christopher Columbus "discovered" it in 1492? Could a people gifted enough to raise the Great Pyramid more than 4,000 years ago have lacked the skills necessary to build a ship capable of crossing the Atlantic? Did the Phoenicians, who circumnavigated the African continent in 600 bc, never consider sailing farther? Were the Vikings, the most fearless warriors and seafarers of all time, terrified at the prospect of a transoceanic voyage? If so, how are we to account for an Egyptian temple accidentally unearthed by Tennessee Valley Authority workers in 1935? What is a beautifully crafted metal plate with the image of a Phoenician woman doing in the Utah desert? And who can explain the discovery of Viking houses and wharves excavated outside of Boston? These enigmas are but a tiny fraction of the abundant physical proof for Old World visitors to our continent hundreds and thousands of years ago. In addition, Sumerians, Minoans, Romans, Celts, ancient Hebrews, Indonesians, Africans, Chinese, Japanese, Welsh, Irish, and the Knights Templar all made their indelible, if neglected, mark on our land.

Prehistoric Settlement of the Pacific

Author: Ward Hunt Goodenough

Publisher: American Philosophical Society

ISBN: 9780871698650

Category: History

Page: 169

View: 3095

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This book presents new understandings from recent research in archaeology, linguistics, & experimental ethnology regarding the prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Islands. It reviews evidence of a locally developed, food producing economy & maritime trade in western Melanesia of great antiquity. It discusses evidence of the coming of traders & colonizers from southern China & Taiwan who spoke Austronesian languages into the same area about 4,000 years ago & their subsequent spread into remoter Oceania about 3,500 years ago. It reviews what has been learned from experimental voyaging in replicas of ancient double-hulled sailing vessels without navigational instruments & about how eastern Polynesia could have been settled by deliberate exploration. It shows what historical linguistics reveals about proto-Austronesian society & culture & relates it to the archaeological record of southern China. Finally, it presents challenging hypotheses regarding the emergence & spread of neolithic rice cultivators throughout Southern China, a development that laid the foundation for the subsequent spread of Austronesian people into the outer Pacific.