The Role of Women in the History of Geology

Author: Cynthia V. Burek,Bettie Higgs

Publisher: Geological Society of London

ISBN: 9781862392274

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 4554

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Where were the women in Geology? This book is a first as it unravels the diverse roles women have played in the history and development of geology as a science predominantly in the UK, Ireland and Australia, and selectively in Germany, Russia and US. The volume covers the period from the late eighteenth century to the present day and shows how the roles that women have played changed with time. These included illustrators, museum collectors and curators, educationalists, researchers and geologists. Originally as wives, sisters or mothers many were assistants to their male relatives. This book looks at all these forgotten women and for the first time historians and scientists together explore the contribution they made to this male-dominated subject. There are individual profiles on remarkable women: Catherine Raisin, Dorothea Bate, Cuvier's daughters, Grace Prestwich, Annie Greenly, Nancy Kirk, Margaret Crosfield, Ethel Skeat, Maria Ogivlie Gordon, Marie Stopes, Anne Phillips, Muriel Arber and Etheldred Bennett. Pulling together this extensive research uncovered common issues and generated emergent themes. The Editors have brought this new research together under these themes and tried to answer the question Where were the women in Geology? They go on to discuss how these role models can be applicable to today's society.

Soundings

The Story of the Remarkable Woman Who Mapped the Ocean Floor

Author: Hali Felt

Publisher: Henry Holt and Company

ISBN: 1466847468

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 352

View: 5379

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Her maps of the ocean floor have been called "one of the most remarkable achievements in modern cartography", yet no one knows her name. Soundings is the story of the enigmatic, unknown woman behind one of the greatest achievements of the 20th century. Before Marie Tharp, geologist and gifted draftsperson, the whole world, including most of the scientific community, thought the ocean floor was a vast expanse of nothingness. In 1948, at age 28, Marie walked into the newly formed geophysical lab at Columbia University and practically demanded a job. The scientists at the lab were all male; the women who worked there were relegated to secretary or assistant. Through sheer willpower and obstinacy, Marie was given the job of interpreting the soundings (records of sonar pings measuring the ocean's depths) brought back from the ocean-going expeditions of her male colleagues. The marriage of artistry and science behind her analysis of this dry data gave birth to a major work: the first comprehensive map of the ocean floor, which laid the groundwork for proving the then-controversial theory of continental drift. When combined, Marie's scientific knowledge, her eye for detail and her skill as an artist revealed not a vast empty plane, but an entire world of mountains and volcanoes, ridges and rifts, and a gateway to the past that allowed scientists the means to imagine how the continents and the oceans had been created over time. Just as Marie dedicated more than twenty years of her professional life to what became the Lamont Geological Observatory, engaged in the task of mapping every ocean on Earth, she dedicated her personal life to her great friendship with her co-worker, Bruce Heezen. Partners in work and in many ways, partners in life, Marie and Bruce were devoted to one another as they rose to greater and greater prominence in the scientific community, only to be envied and finally dismissed by their beloved institute. They went on together, refining and perfecting their work and contributing not only to humanity's vision of the ocean floor, but to the way subsequent generations would view the Earth as a whole. With an imagination as intuitive as Marie's, brilliant young writer Hali Felt brings to vivid life the story of the pioneering scientist whose work became the basis for the work of others scientists for generations to come.

History of Geoscience

Celebrating 50 Years of INHIGEO

Author: W. Mayer,R.M. Clary,L.F. Azuela,T.S. Mota,S. Wołkowicz

Publisher: Geological Society of London

ISBN: 1786202697

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 2949

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The study of the Earth’s origin, its composition, the processes that changed and shaped it over time and the fossils preserved in rocks, have occupied enquiring minds from ancient times. The contributions in this volume trace the history of ideas and the research of scholars in a wide range of geological disciplines that have paved the way to our present-day understanding and knowledge of the physical nature of our planet and the diversity of life that inhabited it. To mark the 50th anniversary of the founding of the International Commission on the History of Geology (INHIGEO), the book features contributions that give insights into its establishment and progress. In other sections authors reflect on the value of studying the history of the geosciences and provide accounts of early investigations in fields as diverse as tectonics, volcanology, geomorphology, vertebrate palaeontology and petroleum geology. Other papers discuss the establishment of geological surveys, the contribution of women to geology and biographical sketches of noted scholars in various fields of geoscience.

Time's Arrow, Time's Cycle

Myth and Metaphor in the Discovery of Geological Time

Author: Stephen Jay Gould

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674891999

Category: Science

Page: 222

View: 3900

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Examines scientific theories pertaining to the measurement of earth's history

The Role of Female Seminaries on the Road to Social Justice for Women

Author: Kristen Welch,Abraham Ruelas

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1630877506

Category: History

Page: 194

View: 8008

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In the United States, female seminaries and their antecedents, the female academies, were crucial first institutions that played a vital role in liberating women from the "home sphere," a locus that was the primary domain of Euro-American women. The female seminaries founded by Native Americans and African Americans had different founding rationales but also played a key role in empowering women. On the whole, the initial intent of these schools was to prepare women for their proper role in American society as wives and mothers. An unintended effect, however, was to prepare women for the first socially accepted profession for women: teaching. Thus equipped, women played a crucial role in the development of American education at all levels while achieving varying degrees of social justice for themselves and other groups through engagement in the reform movements of their times--including women's suffrage, abolition, temperance, and mental health reform. By recapturing the role religion played in shaping education for women, Welch and Ruelas offer a refreshing take on history that draws on several primary texts and details more than one hundred female seminaries and academies opened in the United States.

Forgotten Civilization

The Role of Solar Outbursts in Our Past and Future

Author: Robert M. Schoch

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1594775125

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 384

View: 9297

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Scientific confirmation of advanced civilization at the end of the last ice age, the solar catastrophe that destroyed it, and what the evidence means for our future • Demonstrates, based on the 12,000-year-old megalithic complex of Göbekli Tepe, that advanced civilization extends thousands of years further back than generally acknowledged • Examines the catastrophic solar outbursts that ended the last ice age, wiping out antediluvian civilization and incinerating much of the evidence of that period • Reveals data that show solar outbursts powerful enough to devastate modern society could return in the future Building upon his revolutionary theory that the Sphinx dates back much further than 2500 BCE, geologist Robert Schoch reveals scientific evidence of advanced civilization predating ancient Egypt, Sumeria, and Greece, as well as the catastrophe that destroyed it nearly 12,000 years ago and what its legacy can teach us about our own future. Combining evidence from multiple scientific disciplines, Schoch shows how the last ice age ended abruptly in 9700 BCE due to coronal mass ejections from the Sun. These solar outbursts unleashed electrical/plasma discharges upon Earth and triggered volcanic activity, earthquakes, fires, and massive floods as glaciers melted and lightning strikes released torrential rains from the oceans. He explains how these events eradicated the civilization of the time and set humanity back thousands of years, only to reemerge around 3500 BCE with scattered memories and nascent abilities. He explores within this framework, how many megalithic monuments, underground cities, and ancient legends fall logically into place, as well as the reinterpreted Easter Island rongorongo texts and the intentional burial, 10,000 years ago, of the Göbekli Tepe complex in Turkey. Schoch reveals scientific evidence that shows how history could repeat itself with a coronal mass ejection powerful enough to devastate modern society. Weaving together a new view of the origins of civilization, the truths behind ancient wisdom, and the dynamics of the planet we live on, Schoch maintains we must heed the megalithic warning of the past and collectively prepare for future events.

The Pinecone

The Story of Sarah Losh, Forgotten Romantic Heroine--Antiquarian, Architect, and Visionary

Author: Jenny Uglow

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 0374232873

Category: Architecture

Page: 332

View: 8534

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"A biography: A thrilling portrait of Sarah Losh, a forgotten architectural genius of the nineteenth century"--

Has Feminism Changed Science?

Author: Londa Schiebinger

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674005440

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 9576

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"Has Feminism Changed Science?" is a history of women in science and a frank assessment of the role of gender in shaping scientific knowledge. Londa Schiebinger first considers the lives of women scientists, past and present: How many are there? What sciences do they choose--or have chosen for them? Is there something uniquely feminine about the science women do? Schiebinger debunks the myth that women scientists--because they are women--are somehow more holistic and integrative and create more cooperative scientific communities.

Stories in Stone

How Geology Influenced Connecticut History and Culture

Author: Jelle Zeilinga de Boer

Publisher: Wesleyan University Press

ISBN: 0819572470

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 3332

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In a series of entertaining essays, geoscientist Jelle Zeilinga de Boer describes how early settlers discovered and exploited Connecticut’s natural resources. Their successes as well as failures form the very basis of the state’s history: Chatham’s gold played a role in the acquisition of its Charter, and Middletown’s lead helped the colony gain its freedom during the Revolution. Fertile soils in the Central Valley fueled the state’s development into an agricultural power house, and iron ores discovered in the western highlands helped trigger its manufacturing eminence. The Statue of Liberty, a quintessential symbol of America, rests on Connecticut’s Stony Creek granite. Geology not only shaped the state’s physical landscape, but also provided an economic base and played a cultural role by inspiring folklore, paintings, and poems. Illuminated by 50 illustrations and 12 color plates, Stories in Stone describes the marvel of Connecticut’s geologic diversity and also recounts the impact of past climates, earthquakes, and meteorites on the lives of the people who made Connecticut their home.

National Parks and the Woman's Voice

A History

Author: Polly Welts Kaufman

Publisher: UNM Press

ISBN: 9780826339942

Category: Nature

Page: 312

View: 752

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In this updated study, Polly Kaufman discovers that staff are no longer able to fulfill the National Park Service mission without outside support.

Cataclysm!

Compelling Evidence of a Cosmic Catastrophe in 9500 B.C.

Author: D. S. Allan,J. B. Delair

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1591438144

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 7835

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Follow this multi-disciplinary, scientific study as it examines the evidence of a great global catastrophe that occurred only 11,500 years ago. Crustal shifting, the tilting of Earth's axis, mass extinctions, upthrusted mountain ranges, rising and shrinking land masses, and gigantic volcanic eruptions and earthquakes--all indicate that a fateful confrontation with a destructive cosmic visitor must have occurred. The abundant geological, biological, and climatological evidence from this dire event calls into question many geological theories and will awaken our memories to our true--and not-so-distant--past.

Women's Work

The First 20,000 Years : Women, Cloth, and Society in Early Times

Author: E. J. W. Barber

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393313482

Category: Social Science

Page: 334

View: 7860

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Drawing on the latest archaeological and technological research, this intriguing study of women's history explores the relationship between the development of the fiber arts and women's roles in society.

Earth's Oldest Rocks

Author: Martin J. van Kranendonk,Vickie Bennett,Hugh R.H. Smithies

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080552477

Category: Science

Page: 1330

View: 4256

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Earth’s Oldest Rocks provides a comprehensive overview of all aspects of early Earth, from planetary accretion through to development of protocratons with depleted lithospheric keels by c. 3.2 Ga, in a series of papers written by over 50 of the world's leading experts. The book is divided into two chapters on early Earth history, ten chapters on the geology of specific cratons, and two chapters on early Earth analogues and the tectonic framework of early Earth. Individual contributions address topics that range from planetary accretion, a review of Earth meteorites, significance and composition of Hadean protocrust, composition of Archaean mantle and deep crust, all aspects of the geology of Paleoarchean cratons, composition of Archean oceans and hydrothermal environments, evidence and geological settings of early life, early Earth analogues from Venus and New Zealand, and a tectonic framework for early Earth. * Contains comprehensive reviews of areas of ancient lithosphere on Earth, of planetary accretion processes, and of meteorites * Focuses on specific aspects of early Earth, including oldest putative life forms, evidence of the composition of the ancient atmosphere-hydrosphere, and the oldest evidence for subduction-accretion * Presents an overview of geological processes and model of the tectonic framework on early Earth

Profiles in the History of the U.S. Soil Survey

Author: Douglas Helms,Anne B. W. Effland,Patricia J. Durana

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470376732

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 331

View: 7763

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Profiles in the History of the U.S. Soil Survey offers a broad-ranging collection of essays chronicling the development of the U.S. Soil Survey and its influence on the history of soil survey as a scientific discipline that focuses on mapping, analysis, and description of soils. Appraises the influences of key individuals and institutions on the establishment of federal support for and coordination of U.S. soil surveys. Provides an account of life in the field, detailing experience shared by many soil scientists and survey processionals. Reviews the opening of careers in soil survey to women and African-Americans. Relates aspects of the utility of the soil survey to other federal services, to other fields of research, and to land-use planning. Discusses the future of the U.S. Soil Survey and the new directions both the survey and its uses will take. Soil scientists and other soil survey professionals will find this collection valuable both for the new research it provides and for the memories it preserves of life and work in the field and laboratory. Historians will increasingly turn their attention to this crucial earth science as the intriguing connections between soils, the environment, and human history become more apparent. Teachers, students, and agriculturalists will also appreciate this detailed account of the Soil Survey.

Speaking in the Past Tense

Canadian Novelists on Writing Historical Fiction

Author: Herb Wyile

Publisher: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press

ISBN: 1554588251

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 336

View: 5987

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“Speaking in the Past Tense participates in an expanding critical dialogue on the writing of historical fiction, providing a series of reflections on the process from the perspective of those souls intrepid enough to step onto what is, practically by definition, contested territory.” — Herb Wyile, from the Introduction The extermination of the Beothuk ... the exploration of the Arctic ... the experiences of soldiers in the trenches during World War I ... the foibles of Canada’s longest-serving prime minister ... the Ojibway sniper who is credited with 378 wartime kills—these are just some of the people and events discussed in these candid and wide-ranging interviews with eleven authors whose novels are based on events in Canadian history. These sometimes startling conversations take the reader behind the scenes of the novels and into the minds of their authors. Through them we explore the writers’ motives for writing, the challenges they faced in gathering information and presenting it in fictional form, the sometimes hostile reaction they faced after publication, and, perhaps most interestingly, the stories that didn’t make it into their novels. Speaking in the Past Tense provides fascinating insights into the construction of national historical narratives and myths, both those familiar to us and those that are still being written.

From Geoheritage to Geoparks

Case Studies from Africa and Beyond

Author: Ezzoura Errami,Margaret Brocx,Vic Semeniuk

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319107089

Category: Nature

Page: 269

View: 2484

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This unique book is dedicated to helping promote geoheritage, geoconservation, and geoparks in Africa and the Middle East. Local, regional, global and thematic case studies including a geoheritage toolkit are used to illustrate the scope and depth of geoheritage and highlight some current geoparks and aspiring candidates in Africa, the Middle East, China , Europe,and Australia. This special issue mainly consists of the proceedings of the First International Conference on Geoparks in Africa and Middle East (FICGAME) held in, El Jadida, Morocco in 2011. The conference, hosted by the Faculty of Sciences of Chouaib Doukkali University, was organized by the African Geoparks Network and the African Association of Women in Geosciences incollaboration with the UNESCO Cairo Office.

In Lady Audley's Shadow

Author: Saverio Tomaiuolo

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748686940

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 232

View: 9188

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This book is devoted to Mary Elizabeth Braddon's complex relationship with the three main Victorian literary genres (the Gothic, the Detective and the Realist novel) using Braddon's bestselling sensation fiction, Lady Audley's Secret, as a starting point

In Lady Audley's Shadow: Mary Elizabeth Braddon and Victorian Literary Genres

Mary Elizabeth Braddon and Victorian Literary Genres

Author: Saverio Tomaiuolo

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748643672

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 232

View: 8955

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This book is devoted to Mary Elizabeth Braddon's complex relationship with the three main Victorian literary genres: the Gothic, the Detective and the Realist novel. Using Braddon's bestselling sensation fiction Lady Audley's Secret as a paradigmatic novel and as a 'haunting' textual presence across her literary career, this study provides a fertile critical reading of a wide range of Braddon's novels and short stories. Through an analysis of Braddon's negotiations with Victorian narrative, ideological and cultural issues, this monograph offers readers a refreshing view of gender, female identity and subjectivity, the treatment of insanity, questions related to technology and progress, the impact of evolutionism and Darwinism, the intersemiotic dialogue between pictorial art and novel-writing, the role of the (female) writer in the new literary market and the changing notion of capital in an increasingly fluid social context. Braddon's manipulation of Victorian literary codes and conventions proves that she was something more than a mere sensation writer and that her primary role in the nineteenth-century literary scene has to be reaffirmed. Drawing on a wide range of textual materials and literary sources, the book foregrounds Braddon's constant and sometimes ambivalent dialogue with her times, and with ours as well.

A History of Geology and Medicine

Author: C.J. Duffin,R.T.J. Moody,C. Gardner-Thorpe

Publisher: Geological Society of London

ISBN: 1862393567

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 6885

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The historical links between Geology and Medicine are surprisingly numerous and diverse. This, the first ever volume dedicated to the subject, contains contributions from an international authorship of geologists, historians and medical professionals. Rocks, minerals, fossils and earths have been used therapeutically since earliest times and details recorded on ancient papyri, clay tablets, medieval manuscripts and early published sources. Pumice was used to clean teeth, antimony to heal wounds, clays as antidotes to poison, gold to cure haemorrhoids and warts, and gem pastes to treat syphilis and the plague, while mineral springs preserved health. Geology was crucial in the development of public health. Medical men making important geological contributions include Steno, Worm, Parkinson, Bigsby, William Hunter, Jenner, John Hulke, Conan Doyle, Gorini and various Antarctic explorers. A History of Geology and Medicine will be of particular interest to Earth scientists, medical personnel, historians of science and the general reader who has an interest in science.