The Two-Mile Time Machine

Ice Cores, Abrupt Climate Change, and Our Future

Author: Richard B. Alley

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400852242

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 7075

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In the 1990s Richard B. Alley and his colleagues made headlines with the discovery that the last ice age came to an abrupt end over a period of only three years. In The Two-Mile Time Machine, Alley tells the fascinating history of global climate changes as revealed by reading the annual rings of ice from cores drilled in Greenland. He explains that humans have experienced an unusually temperate climate compared to the wild fluctuations that characterized most of prehistory. He warns that our comfortable environment could come to an end in a matter of years and tells us what we need to know in order to understand and perhaps overcome climate changes in the future. In a new preface, the author weighs in on whether our understanding of global climate change has altered in the years since the book was first published, what the latest research tells us, and what he is working on next.

Kulturgeschichte des Klimas

Von der Eiszeit bis zur globalen Erwärmung

Author: Wolfgang Behringer

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406625053

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 8948

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Zum Buch Alle sprechen vom Wetter. Darüber, wie es werden wird, gibt es derzeit mehr Voraussagen als je zuvor. Aber was wissen wir über Klimaschwankungen vor 500 oder vor 5000 Jahren? Wie können wir überhaupt etwas über die Geschichte des Wetters herausfinden? Schließlich: Wie haben sich die Klimaschwankungen der Vergangenheit auf den Menschen, seine Lebensweise und seine Kultur ausgewirkt? Der Historiker Wolfgang Behringer erschließt uns in einem faszinierenden Streifzug, was wir über Klimaänderungen und ihre kulturellen Konsequenzen vom Holozän bis ins 21. Jahrhundert wissen. Er führt uns ein in die historische Forschung zur Klimaentwicklung und zeigt uns, welche Schwankungen es gab und wie sie das Fortkommen des Homo sapiens behinderten oder beförderten. Sein spannendes Buch führt uns plastisch vor Augen, mit welchen Schwierigkeiten, manchmal aber auch mit welch angenehmen Wetterepochen unsere Vorfahren konfrontiert waren und wie sie damit umgingen. Das lehrt uns nicht zuletzt Mut zu fassen, den Klimawandel als die Herausforderung unserer Gegenwart zu begreifen und in einem besseren Sinne als bisher zu beeinflussen.

Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments

Author: Vivien Gornitz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402045514

Category: Science

Page: 1049

View: 7028

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One of Springer’s Major Reference Works, this book gives the reader a truly global perspective. It is the first major reference work in its field. Paleoclimate topics covered in the encyclopedia give the reader the capability to place the observations of recent global warming in the context of longer-term natural climate fluctuations. Significant elements of the encyclopedia include recent developments in paleoclimate modeling, paleo-ocean circulation, as well as the influence of geological processes and biological feedbacks on global climate change. The encyclopedia gives the reader an entry point into the literature on these and many other groundbreaking topics.

Vor uns die Sintflut

Author: Elizabeth Kolbert

Publisher: ebook Berlin Verlag

ISBN: 3827071402

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 5539

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Tauendes Polareis, Naturkatastrophen von ungeahnten Ausmaßen, ganze Landstriche, die im Wasser versinken. Erderwärmung und Klimawandel infolge des unkontrollierten Ausstoßes von Treibhausgasen sind längst keine graue Theorie mehr - für viele Menschen sind sie bereits bittere Realität. Elizabeth Kolbert begibt sich an die Orte, an denen die konkreten Auswirkungen des Klimawandels heute schon spürbar sind, spricht mit Wissenschaftlern und akut Betroffenen und zeichnet ein ebenso unbestechliches wie eindrückliches Bild der Lage. Sie besucht Inuit in Alaska, die umgesiedelt werden, weil das Eis ihre Häuser nicht mehr trägt, Bewohner »schwimmender Eigenheime« in den Niederlanden, Schmetterlingsforscher in England, Gletscherbeobachter in Island, vor allem aber auch zahlreiche Klimaexperten und politische Entscheidungsträger weltweit und lässt sie ihre Sicht der Dinge schildern. Einleuchtend und klar verknüpft Kolbert die historischen, wissenschaftlichen und politischen Zusammenhänge des anthropogenen Klimawandels und wagt einen Blick in die Zukunft des Planeten: Was ist zu tun? Kann uns das Kyoto-Protokoll retten? Und wird der Mensch in der Lage sein, sich den neuen Lebensbedingungen anzupassen? Scharfsinnig und doch frei von Alarmismus und Apokalyptik sucht Vor uns die Sintflut Antworten auf einige der wichtigsten Fragen des kommenden Jahrhunderts - lehrreich, aufrüttelnd und aktueller denn je.

Climate: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Mark Maslin

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191653934

Category: Science

Page: 152

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In this wide-ranging Very Short Introduction to climate, Mark Maslin considers all aspects of the global climate system, exploring and explaining the different components that control climate on Earth. He considers the processes that allow energy to reach the Earth and how it is redistributed around the planet by the ocean-atmosphere system; the relationship and differences between climate and the weather; how climate has affected life on Earth and human settlements; and the cyclic and quasi-cyclic features of climate such as the Milankovitch cycles and El Nino. He concludes by touching on the issue of climate change, and outlines some of the approaches that are now being taken to tackle it. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The Oxford Handbook of Environmental History

Author: Andrew C. Isenberg

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199394474

Category: Science

Page: 640

View: 8318

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The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.

The White Planet

The Evolution and Future of Our Frozen World

Author: Jean Jouzel,Claude Lorius,Dominique Raynaud

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 140084469X

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 7050

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From the Arctic Ocean and ice sheets of Greenland, to the glaciers of the Andes and Himalayas, to the great frozen desert of Antarctica, The White Planet takes readers on a spellbinding scientific journey through the shrinking world of ice and snow to tell the story of the expeditions and discoveries that have transformed our understanding of global climate. Written by three internationally renowned scientists at the center of many breakthroughs in ice core and climate science, this book provides an unparalleled firsthand account of how the "white planet" affects global climate--and how, in turn, global warming is changing the frozen world. Jean Jouzel, Claude Lorius, and Dominique Raynaud chronicle the daunting scientific, technical, and human hurdles that they and other scientists have had to overcome in order to unravel the mysteries of past and present climate change, as revealed by the cryosphere--the dynamic frozen regions of our planet. Scientifically impeccable, up-to-date, and accessible, The White Planet brings cutting-edge climate research to general readers through a vivid narrative. This is an essential book for anyone who wants to understand the inextricable link between climate and our planet's icy regions.

Climate Justice

Vulnerability and Protection

Author: Henry Shue

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191022802

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 857

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The fruit of twenty years of moral reflection on the emerging greatest challenge to humanity of the 21st century, these far-sighted and influential essays by a pioneering practical philosopher on the tangled questions of justice between nations and justice across generations confronting all attempts at international cooperation in controlling climate change sharply crystallize the central choices and offer constructive directions forward. Arguing that persistent attempts by U.S. negotiators to avoid the fundamental issues of justice at the heart of persistent international disagreement on the terms of a binding multilateral treaty are as morally misguided as they are diplomatically counter-productive, Henry Shue has built a case that efforts to price carbon (through cap-and-trade or carbon taxes) as a mechanism to drive down greenhouse gas emissions by the affluent must, for both ethical and political reasons, be complemented by international transfers that temporarily subsidize the development of non-carbon energy and its dissemination to those trapped in poverty. Our vital escape from climate change rooted in the dominance of the fossil fuel regime ought not, and in fact need not, come at the price of de-railing the escape of the world's poorest from poverty rooted in lack of affordable energy that does not undermine the climate. The momentum of changes in the planetary climate system and the political inertia of energy regimes mean that future generations, like the poorest of the present, are vulnerable to our decisions, and they have rights not to be left helpless by those of us with the power instead to leave them hope.

Thin Ice

Unlocking the Secrets of Climate in the World's Highest Mountains

Author: Mark Bowen

Publisher: Henry Holt and Company

ISBN: 1429932708

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 8837

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"One of the best books yet published on climate change . . . The best compact history of the science of global warming I have read."—Bill McKibben, The New York Review of Books The world's premier climatologist, Lonnie Thompson has been risking his career and life on the highest and most remote ice caps along the equator, in search of clues to the history of climate change. His most innovative work has taken place on these mountain glaciers, where he collects ice cores that provide detailed information about climate history, reaching back 750,000 years. To gather significant data Thompson has spent more time in the death zone—the environment above eighteen thousand feet—than any man who has ever lived. Scientist and expert climber Mark Bowen joined Thompson's crew on several expeditions; his exciting and brilliantly detailed narrative takes the reader deep inside retreating glaciers from China, across South America, and to Africa to unravel the mysteries of climate. Most important, we learn what Thompson's hard-won data reveals about global warming, the past, and the earth's probable future.

The Next Species

The Future of Evolution in the Aftermath of Man

Author: Michael Tennesen

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1451677537

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 7925

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“Simultaneously sobering and exhilarating, Michael Tennesen’s wide-ranging survey of disasters highlights both life’s fragility and its metamorphosing persistence” (Booklist) and describes what life on earth could look like after the next mass extinction. A growing number of scientists agree we are headed toward a mass extinction, perhaps in as little as 300 years. Already there have been five mass extinctions in the last 600 million years, including the Cretaceous Extinction, during which an asteroid knocked out the dinosaurs. Though these events were initially destructive, they were also prime movers of evolutionary change in nature. And we can see some of the warning signs of another extinction event coming, as our oceans lose both fish and oxygen, and our lands lose both predators and prey. In The Next Species, Michael Tennesen questions what life might be like after it happens. In thoughtful, provocative ways, Tennesen discusses the future of nature and whether humans will make it through the bottleneck of extinction. Could life suddenly get very big as it did before the arrival of humans? Could the conquest of Mars lead to another form of human? Could we upload our minds into a computer and live in a virtual reality? How would we recognize the next humans? Are they with us now? Tennesen delves into the history of the planet and travels to rainforests, canyons, craters, and caves all over the world to explore the potential winners and losers of the next era of evolution. His predictions, based on reports and interviews with top scientists, have vital implications for life on earth today. The Next Species is “an engrossing history of life, the dismal changes wrought by man, and a forecast of life after the sixth mass extinction” (Kirkus Reviews).

Mathematical Geoscience

Author: Andrew Fowler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780857297211

Category: Mathematics

Page: 883

View: 5991

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Mathematical Geoscience is an expository textbook which aims to provide a comprehensive overview of a number of different subjects within the Earth and environmental sciences. Uniquely, it treats its subjects from the perspective of mathematical modelling with a level of sophistication that is appropriate to their proper investigation. The material ranges from the introductory level, where it can be used in undergraduate or graduate courses, to research questions of current interest. The chapters end with notes and references, which provide an entry point into the literature, as well as allowing discursive pointers to further research avenues. The introductory chapter provides a condensed synopsis of applied mathematical techniques of analysis, as used in modern applied mathematical modelling. There follows a succession of chapters on climate, ocean and atmosphere dynamics, rivers, dunes, landscape formation, groundwater flow, mantle convection, magma transport, glaciers and ice sheets, and sub-glacial floods. This book introduces a whole range of important geoscientific topics in one single volume and serves as an entry point for a rapidly expanding area of genuine interdisciplinary research. By addressing the interplay between mathematics and the real world, this book will appeal to graduate students, lecturers and researchers in the fields of applied mathematics, the environmental sciences and engineering.

Geoscience Data and Collections

National Resources in Peril

Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Committee on Earth Resources,Committee on the Preservation of Geoscience Data and Collections

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309169660

Category: Science

Page: 124

View: 1077

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Geoscience data and collections (such as, rock and sediment cores, geophysical data, engineering records, and fossils) are necessary for industries to discover and develop domestic natural resources to fulfill the nation’s energy and mineral requirements and to improve the prediction of immediate and long term hazards, such as land slides, volcanic eruptions and global climate change. While the nation has assembled a wealth of geoscience data and collections, their utility remains incompletely tapped. Many could act as invaluable resources in the future but immediate action is needed if they are to remain available. Housing of and access to geoscience data and collections have become critical issues for industry, federal and state agencies, museums, and universities. Many resources are in imminent danger of being lost through mismanagement, neglect, or disposal. A striking 46 percent of the state geological surveys polled by the committee reported that there is no space available or they have refused to accept new material. In order to address these challenges, Geoscience Data and Collections offers a comprehensive strategy for managing geoscience data and collections in the United States.

A World Without Ice

Author: Henry Pollack Ph.D.

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101524855

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 5879

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A co-winner of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize offers a clear-eyed explanation of the planet’s imperiled ice. Much has been written about global warming, but the crucial relationship between people and ice has received little focus—until now. As one of the world’s leading experts on climate change, Henry Pollack provides an accessible, comprehensive survey of ice as a force of nature, and the potential consequences as we face the possibility of a world without ice. A World Without Ice traces the effect of mountain glaciers on supplies of drinking water and agricultural irrigation, as well as the current results of melting permafrost and shrinking Arctic sea ice—a situation that has degraded the habitat of numerous animals and sparked an international race for seabed oil and minerals. Catastrophic possibilities loom, including rising sea levels and subsequent flooding of lowlying regions worldwide, and the ultimate displacement of millions of coastal residents. A World Without Ice answers our most urgent questions about this pending crisis, laying out the necessary steps for managing the unavoidable and avoiding the unmanageable.

On the Edge

Mapping North America's Coasts

Author: Thomas R. Dunlap

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199974381

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 6022

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With our access to Google Maps, Global Positioning Systems, and Atlases that cover all regions and terrains and tell us precisely how to get from one place to another, we tend to forget there was ever a time when the world was unknown and uncharted--a mystery waiting to be solved. In On the Edge, Roger McCoy tells the captivating--and often harrowing--story of the 400 year effort to map North America's Coasts. Much of the book is based on the narratives of mariners who sought a passage through the continent to Asia and produced maps as a byproduct of their journeys. These courageous explorers had to rely on the most rudimentary mapping tools and to contend with unimaginably harsh conditions: ship-crushing ice floes; the threat of frostbite, scurvy, and starvation; gold fever and mutiny; ice that could lock them in for months on end; and, inevitably, the failure to find the elusive Northwest passage. Telling the story from the explorers' perspective, McCoy allows readers to see how maps of their voyages were made and why they were so full of errors, as well as how they gradually acquired greater accuracy, especially after the longitude problem was solved. On the Edge tracks the dramatic voyages of John Cabot, John Davis, Captain Cook, Henry Hudson, Martin Frobisher, John Franklin (who nearly starved to death and become known in England as "the man who ate his boots"), and others, concluding with Robert Peary, Otto Sverdrup, and Vihjalmur Steffanson in the early twentieth century. Drawing upon diaries, journals, and other primary sources--and including a set of maps charting the progress of exploration over time--On the Edge shows exactly how we came to know the shape of our continent.

Wenn die Flüsse versiegen

Author: Fred Pearce

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783888974717

Category: Water resources development

Page: 398

View: 7956

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Alle Welt redet von schwindenden Energieressourcen; dass sich daneben eine ungleich gravierendere Wasserkrise anbahnt, ist bis jetzt kaum ins Bewusstsein gedrungen. Selbst wer umweltbewusst zu Hause Wasser spart, weiss selten, wieviel ”virtuelles Wasser“ er über Nahrung und Kleidung tatsächlich verbraucht: 5.000 Liter Wasser sind nötig, um ein Kilo Reis zu erzeugen, 11.000 Liter für das Rindfleisch eines Hamburgers, unglaubliche 20.000 Liter stecken in 1 kg Kaffeepulver. Kein Wunder, dass sich die Flüsse der Welt in atemberaubendem Tempo leeren, während durch Überregulierung andererseits die Flutgefahr dramatisch steigt. Längst weiss man, dass gigantomanische Bewässerungs- und Staudammprojekte eine enorme ökologische und ökonomische Verschwendung darstellen. Doch schon geht man weltweit dazu über, auch die unterirdischen Wasserreservoirs leer zu pumpen. Ressourcenkriege um Wasser bahnen sich an, denn: Ohne Öl können wir zur Not leben, ohne Wasser sicher nicht. Fred Pearces Berichte lesen sich wie Kriminalgeschichten und geben zugleich einen umfassenden Überblick über die Wasserkrise und ihre Auswirkungen.

Das Universum in dir

Eine etwas andere Naturgeschichte

Author: Neil Shubin

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104030901

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 7846

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Die Gesamtgeschichte der Erde und des Menschen und von Allem – ungewöhnlich, unterhaltsam und packend! Seit dem Urknall haben sich Galaxien, Sonnensysteme und Planeten gebildet und im Laufe der Äonen entwickelte sich das Leben auf der Erde. Angesichts dessen könnten wir Menschen uns unbedeutend vorkommen – doch tief in uns verborgen liegt das große Wunder des Lebens: Das Universum ist in uns! Der weltbekannte Paläontologe Neil Shubin geht in seinem neuen Buch den Rätseln unseres Lebens nach: Er erzählt von der Zusammensetzung der Moleküle, findet eine Erklärung dafür, weshalb wir einen Regenbogen sehen können und zeigt, wie das Universum unseren Schlafrhythmus und die Geschwindigkeit beeinflusst, mit der sich unsere Zellen teilen. Ein wissenschaftliches Abenteuer, nach dem wir besser verstehen, wer – und was – wir sind.

Kicking the Carbon Habit

Global Warming and the Case for Renewable and Nuclear Energy

Author: William Sweet

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231510373

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 470

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With glaciers melting, oceans growing more acidic, species dying out, and catastrophic events like Hurricane Katrina ever more probable, strong steps must be taken now to slow global warming. Further warming threatens entire regional economies and the well being of whole populations, and in this century alone, it could create a global cataclysm. Synthesizing information from leading scientists and the most up-to-date research, science journalist William Sweet examines what the United States can do to help prevent climate devastation. Rather than focusing on cutting oil consumption, which Sweet argues is expensive and unrealistic, the United States should concentrate on drastically reducing its use of coal. Coal-fired plants, which currently produce more than half of the electricity in the United States, account for two fifths of the country's greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Sweet believes a mixture of more environmentally sound technologies-wind turbines, natural gas, and nuclear reactors-can effectively replace coal plants, especially since dramatic improvements in technology have made nuclear power cleaner, safer, and more efficient. Sweet cuts through all the confusion and controversies. He explores dramatic advances made by climate scientists over the past twenty years and addresses the various political and economic issues associated with global warming, including the practicality of reducing emissions from automobiles, the efficacy of taxing energy consumption, and the responsibility of the United States to its citizens and the international community to reduce greenhouse gases. Timely and provocative, Kicking the Carbon Habit is essential reading for anyone interested in environmental science, economics, and the future of the planet.

A cultural history of climate

Author: Wolfgang Behringer

Publisher: Polity Pr

ISBN: 9780745645292

Category: History

Page: 295

View: 6073

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Global warming and the future of the climate is one of the greatest challenges of our time, but what do we know about climate variations 500 years ago, or 5000 years ago? How can we know anything at all about the history of weather? What impact have climate changes had on human prosperity and the spirit of invention? In this major new book Wolfgang Behringer introduces us to the latest historical research on the development of the earth's climate. He focuses above all on the cultural reactions to climate change through the ages, showing how even minor changes in the climate sometimes resulted in major social, political and religious upheavals. By examining how our predecessors responded to climate changes, Behringer provides us with a fresh basis for thinking about how we might address the serious climatic challenges we face today.