Thinking about Mathematics

The Philosophy of Mathematics

Author: Stewart Shapiro

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780192893062

Category: Philosophy

Page: 328

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Thinking about Mathematics covers the range of philosophical issues and positions concerning mathematics. The text describes the questions about mathematics that motivated philosophers throughout history and covers historical figures such as Plato, Aristotle, Kant, and Mill. It also presents the major positions and arguments concerning mathematics throughout the twentieth century, bringing the reader up to the present positions and battle lines.

Why Is There Philosophy of Mathematics At All?

Author: Ian Hacking

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107729823

Category: Science

Page: 212

View: 7464

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This truly philosophical book takes us back to fundamentals - the sheer experience of proof, and the enigmatic relation of mathematics to nature. It asks unexpected questions, such as 'what makes mathematics mathematics?', 'where did proof come from and how did it evolve?', and 'how did the distinction between pure and applied mathematics come into being?' In a wide-ranging discussion that is both immersed in the past and unusually attuned to the competing philosophical ideas of contemporary mathematicians, it shows that proof and other forms of mathematical exploration continue to be living, evolving practices - responsive to new technologies, yet embedded in permanent (and astonishing) facts about human beings. It distinguishes several distinct types of application of mathematics, and shows how each leads to a different philosophical conundrum. Here is a remarkable body of new philosophical thinking about proofs, applications, and other mathematical activities.

Introduction to Mathematical Thinking

The Formation of Concepts in Modern Mathematics

Author: Friedrich Waismann

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486167429

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 5454

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Examinations of arithmetic, geometry, and theory of integers; rational and natural numbers; complete induction; limit and point of accumulation; remarkable curves; complex and hypercomplex numbers; more. Includes 27 figures. 1959 edition.

Principia Mathematica.

Author: Alfred North Whitehead,Bertrand Russell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Page: 167

View: 3106

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The Joy of x

Die Schönheit der Mathematik

Author: Steven Strogatz

Publisher: Kein & Aber AG

ISBN: 3036992693

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

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Mathematik durchdringt den ganzen Kosmos. Das weiß jeder, doch nur die wenigsten verstehen die Zusammenhänge wirklich. Steven Strogatz nimmt uns bei der Hand und spaziert mit uns durch diese Welt der Weisheit, Klarheit und Eleganz. Als Reiseleiter geht er neue, erfrischende Wege, deutet auf Besonderheiten, schildert Hintergründe und erklärt die unsichtbaren Mechanismen. Wir erfahren unter anderem von dem Wunder des Zählens, der genialen Einfachheit der Algebra, dem ewigen Erbe Newtons, dem Tango mit Quadraten, der Zweisamkeit von Primzahlen und der Macht des Unendlichen. Mit all seiner Begeisterung, seinem Scharfblick und seinem leichtem Ton hat Steven Strogatz ein herrliches Buch für alle geschrieben, die ihr Verständnis von Mathematik auf eine neue Art vertiefen möchten.

How Not to Be Wrong

The Power of Mathematical Thinking

Author: Jordan Ellenberg

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0698163842

Category: Mathematics

Page: 480

View: 1006

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The Freakonomics of math—a math-world superstar unveils the hidden beauty and logic of the world and puts its power in our hands The math we learn in school can seem like a dull set of rules, laid down by the ancients and not to be questioned. In How Not to Be Wrong, Jordan Ellenberg shows us how terribly limiting this view is: Math isn’t confined to abstract incidents that never occur in real life, but rather touches everything we do—the whole world is shot through with it. Math allows us to see the hidden structures underneath the messy and chaotic surface of our world. It’s a science of not being wrong, hammered out by centuries of hard work and argument. Armed with the tools of mathematics, we can see through to the true meaning of information we take for granted: How early should you get to the airport? What does “public opinion” really represent? Why do tall parents have shorter children? Who really won Florida in 2000? And how likely are you, really, to develop cancer? How Not to Be Wrong presents the surprising revelations behind all of these questions and many more, using the mathematician’s method of analyzing life and exposing the hard-won insights of the academic community to the layman—minus the jargon. Ellenberg chases mathematical threads through a vast range of time and space, from the everyday to the cosmic, encountering, among other things, baseball, Reaganomics, daring lottery schemes, Voltaire, the replicability crisis in psychology, Italian Renaissance painting, artificial languages, the development of non-Euclidean geometry, the coming obesity apocalypse, Antonin Scalia’s views on crime and punishment, the psychology of slime molds, what Facebook can and can’t figure out about you, and the existence of God. Ellenberg pulls from history as well as from the latest theoretical developments to provide those not trained in math with the knowledge they need. Math, as Ellenberg says, is “an atomic-powered prosthesis that you attach to your common sense, vastly multiplying its reach and strength.” With the tools of mathematics in hand, you can understand the world in a deeper, more meaningful way. How Not to Be Wrong will show you how.

Philosophy of Mathematics

Author: Thomas Bedürftig,Roman Murawski

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110470772

Category: Mathematics

Page: 474

View: 1856

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The present book is an introduction to the philosophy of mathematics. It asks philosophical questions concerning fundamental concepts, constructions and methods - this is done from the standpoint of mathematical research and teaching. It looks for answers both in mathematics and in the philosophy of mathematics from their beginnings till today. The reference point of the considerations is the introducing of the reals in the 19th century that marked an epochal turn in the foundations of mathematics. In the book problems connected with the concept of a number, with the infinity, the continuum and the infinitely small, with the applicability of mathematics as well as with sets, logic, provability and truth and with the axiomatic approach to mathematics are considered. In Chapter 6 the meaning of infinitesimals to mathematics and to the elements of analysis is presented. The authors of the present book are mathematicians. Their aim is to introduce mathematicians and teachers of mathematics as well as students into the philosophy of mathematics. The book is suitable also for professional philosophers as well as for students of philosophy, just because it approaches philosophy from the side of mathematics. The knowledge of mathematics needed to understand the text is elementary. Reports on historical conceptions. Thinking about today‘s mathematical doing and thinking. Recent developments. Based on the third, revised German edition. For mathematicians - students, teachers, researchers and lecturers - and readersinterested in mathematics and philosophy. Contents On the way to the reals On the history of the philosophy of mathematics On fundamental questions of the philosophy of mathematics Sets and set theories Axiomatic approach and logic Thinking and calculating infinitesimally – First nonstandard steps Retrospection

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Mathematics

Author: Eleanor Robson,Jacqueline Stedall

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191607444

Category: Mathematics

Page: 926

View: 1176

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This Handbook explores the history of mathematics under a series of themes which raise new questions about what mathematics has been and what it has meant to practise it. It addresses questions of who creates mathematics, who uses it, and how. A broader understanding of mathematical practitioners naturally leads to a new appreciation of what counts as a historical source. Material and oral evidence is drawn upon as well as an unusual array of textual sources. Further, the ways in which people have chosen to express themselves are as historically meaningful as the contents of the mathematics they have produced. Mathematics is not a fixed and unchanging entity. New questions, contexts, and applications all influence what counts as productive ways of thinking. Because the history of mathematics should interact constructively with other ways of studying the past, the contributors to this book come from a diverse range of intellectual backgrounds in anthropology, archaeology, art history, philosophy, and literature, as well as history of mathematics more traditionally understood. The thirty-six self-contained, multifaceted chapters, each written by a specialist, are arranged under three main headings: 'Geographies and Cultures', 'Peoples and Practices', and 'Interactions and Interpretations'. Together they deal with the mathematics of 5000 years, but without privileging the past three centuries, and an impressive range of periods and places with many points of cross-reference between chapters. The key mathematical cultures of North America, Europe, the Middle East, India, and China are all represented here as well as areas which are not often treated in mainstream history of mathematics, such as Russia, the Balkans, Vietnam, and South America. A vital reference for graduates and researchers in mathematics, historians of science, and general historians.

Unser mathematisches Universum

Auf der Suche nach dem Wesen der Wirklichkeit

Author: Max Tegmark

Publisher: Ullstein eBooks

ISBN: 3843710783

Category: Mathematics

Page: 520

View: 5144

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„Max Tegmark, Prophet der Parallelwelten, flirtet mit der Unendlichkeit.“ ULF VON RAUCHHAUPT, FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE SONNTAGSZEITUNG WORUM GEHT ES? Max Tegmark entwickelt eine neue Theorie des Kosmos: Das Universum selbst ist reine Mathematik. In diesem Buch geht es um die physikalische Realität des Kosmos, um den Urknall und die „Zeit davor“ und um die Evolution des Weltalls. Welche Rollen spielen wir dabei – die Wesen, die klug genug sind, das alles verstehen zu wollen? Tegmark findet, dieses Terrain sollte nicht länger den Philosophen überlassen bleiben. Denn die Physiker von heute haben die besseren Antworten auf die ewigen Fragen. WAS IST BESONDERS? „Eine hinreißende Expedition, die jenseits des konventionellen Denkens nach der wahren Bedeutung von Realität sucht.“ BBC „Tegmark behandelt die großen Fragen der Kosmologie und der Teilchenphysik weitaus verständlicher als Stephen Hawking.“ THE TIMES WER LIEST? • Jeder, der das Universum verstehen will • Die Leser von Richard Dawkins und Markus Gabriel

Kant’s Philosophy of Mathematics

Modern Essays

Author: C.J. Posy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401580464

Category: Philosophy

Page: 380

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Kant's views about mathematics were controversial in his own time, and they have inspired or infuriated thinkers ever since. Though specific Kantian doctrines fell into disrepute earlier in this century, the past twenty-five years have seen a surge of interest in and respect for Kant's philosophy of mathematics among both Kant scholars and philosophers of mathematics. The present volume includes the classic papers from the 1960s and 1970s which spared this renaissance of interest, together with updated postscripts by their authors. It also includes the most important recent work on Kant's philosophy of mathematics. The essays bring to bear a wealth of detailed Kantian scholarship, together with powerful new interpretative tools drawn from modern mathematics, logic and philosophy. The cumulative effect of this collection upon the reader will be a deeper understanding of the centrality of mathematics in all aspects of Kant's thought and a renewed respect for the power of Kant's thinking about mathematics. The essays contained in this volume will set the agenda for further work on Kant's philosophy of mathematics for some time to come.

What is Mathematics, Really?

Author: Reuben Hersh

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195130874

Category: Mathematics

Page: 343

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Reflecting an insider's view of mathematical life, the author argues that mathematics must be historically evolved, and intelligible only in a social context.

Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy

Author: Bertrand Russell

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486277240

Category: Mathematics

Page: 208

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In the words of Bertrand Russell, "Because language is misleading, as well as because it is diffuse and inexact when applied to logic (for which it was never intended), logical symbolism is absolutely necessary to any exact or thorough treatment of mathematical philosophy." That assertion underlies this book, a seminal work in the field for more than 70 years. In it, Russell offers a nontechnical, undogmatic account of his philosophical criticism as it relates to arithmetic and logic. Rather than an exhaustive treatment, however, the influential philosopher and mathematician focuses on certain issues of mathematical logic that, to his mind, invalidated much traditional and contemporary philosophy. In dealing with such topics as number, order, relations, limits and continuity, propositional functions, descriptions, and classes, Russell writes in a clear, accessible manner, requiring neither a knowledge of mathematics nor an aptitude for mathematical symbolism. The result is a thought-provoking excursion into the fascinating realm where mathematics and philosophy meet — a philosophical classic that will be welcomed by any thinking person interested in this crucial area of modern thought.

Forms of Mathematical Knowledge

Learning and Teaching with Understanding

Author: Dina Tirosh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792359951

Category: Education

Page: 252

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What mathematics is entailed in knowing to act in a moment? Is tacit, rhetorical knowledge significant in mathematics education? What is the role of intuitive models in understanding, learning and teaching mathematics? Are there differences between elementary and advanced mathematical thinking? Why can't students prove? What are the characteristics of teachers' ways of knowing? This book focuses on various types of knowledge that are significant for learning and teaching mathematics. The first part defines, discusses and contrasts psychological, philosophical and didactical issues related to various types of knowledge involved in the learning of mathematics. The second part describes ideas about forms of mathematical knowledge that are important for teachers to know and ways of implementing such ideas in preservice and in-service education. The chapters provide a wide overview of current thinking about mathematics learning and teaching which is of interest for researchers in mathematics education and mathematics educators. Topics covered include the role of intuition in mathematics learning and teaching, the growth from elementary to advanced mathematical thinking, the significance of genres and rhetoric for the learning of mathematics and the characterization of teachers' ways of knowing.

Vermutungen und Widerlegungen

das Wachstum der wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnis

Author: Karl R. Popper

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161501975

Category: Philosophy

Page: 694

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English summary: This is the 2nd authorized, revised and expanded German edition of Karl Popper's famous collection of essays. German description: In diesen Aufsatzen und Vortragen veranschaulicht Karl Popper, dass wir unser Wissen nur erweitern konnen, wenn wir Fehler machen und daraus lernen. Die zweite Auflage ist revidiert und enthalt zusatzlich ein Nachwort und eine Konkordanz.Ich halte diese Aufsatzsammlung fur eine der einflussreichsten philosophischen Veroffentlichungen des letzten Jahrhunderts, die zu konsultieren ich jedem nahelegen kann, der an einer Philosophie interessiert ist, die ihren Gegenstand den Problemen entnimmt, die unserem Versuch entgegenstehen, die Welt theoretisch fundiert zu erklaren. Insofern sind die 'Vermutungen und Widerlegungen' ein Buch uber die Bedeutsamkeit von Theorien und die Moglichkeit, mit ihrer Hilfe und trotz unseres begrenzten, falliblen Erkenntnisvermogens eine realistische Weltsicht zu gewinnen und zu verteidigen und damit den Fallstricken des Skeptizismus ebenso zu entgehen wie denen des Relativismus.Michael Schmid in Soziologische Revue 24 (2001), S. 408-416Nach mehr als dreissig Jahren Abstand erscheinen so viele Passagen noch immer treffend und aktuell. Seine Kritik am neopositivistisch gefassten Induktionsprinzip oder der Wissenschaft des Wiener Kreises insgesamt [...] wird hier noch einmal aufgegriffen und ausfuhrlicher entwickelt. [...] Zahlreiche hier zusammengetragene Vortrage und Aufsatze beschaftigen sich scheinbar mit nur philosophiehistorisch interessanten Fragen. Doch immer versucht Popper die dahinterstehenden sachlichen Probleme zu fassen, die zu dieser jeweiligen philosophischen Theorie gefuhrt haben. Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 1998, S. 84

Derrida, Badiou and the Formal Imperative

Author: Christopher Norris

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1441193979

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

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In this path-breaking study Christopher Norris proposes a transformed understanding of the much-exaggerated differences between analytic and continental philosophy. While keeping the analytic tradition squarely in view his book focuses on the work of Jacques Derrida and Alain Badiou, two of the most original and significant figures in the recent history of ideas. Norris argues that these thinkers have decisively reconfigured the terrain of contemporary philosophy and, between them, pointed a way beyond some of those seemingly intractable issues that have polarised debate on both sides of the notional rift between the analytic and continental traditions. In particular his book sets out to show - against the received analytic wisdom - that continental philosophy has its own analytic resources and is capable of bringing some much-needed fresh insight to bear on problems in philosophy of language, logic and mathematics. Norris provides not only a unique comparative account of Derrida's and Badiou's work but also a remarkably wide-ranging assessment of their joint contribution to philosophy's current - if widely resisted - potential for self-transformation.

Proof and Other Dilemmas

Mathematics and Philosophy

Author: Roger Simons

Publisher: MAA

ISBN: 9780883855676

Category: Mathematics

Page: 346

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For the majority of the twentieth century, philosophers of mathematics focused their attention on foundational questions. However, in the last quarter of the century they began to return to basics, and two new schools of thought were created: social constructivism and structuralism. The advent of the computer also led to proofs and development of mathematics assisted by computer, and to questions concerning the role of the computer in mathematics. This book of sixteen original essays is the first to explore this range of new developments in the philosophy of mathematics, in a language accessible to mathematicians. Approximately half the essays were written by mathematicians, and consider questions that philosophers have not yet discussed. The other half, written by philosophers of mathematics, summarise the discussion in that community during the last 35 years. A connection is made in each case to issues relevant to the teaching of mathematics.

The Sense of the Universe

Philosophical Explication of the Theological Commitment in Modern Cosmology

Author: Alexei V. Nesteruk

Publisher: Fortress Press

ISBN: 1451494173

Category: Religion

Page: 545

View: 918

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The Sense of the Universe deals with existential and phenomenological reflection upon modern cosmology with the aim to reveal hidden theological commitments in cosmology related to the mystery of human existence. The book proposes a new approach to the dialogue between science and theology based in a thorough philosophical analysis of acting forms of subjectivity involved in the study of the world and in religious experience. The book contributes to the synthesis of appropriation and incorporation of modern philosophical ideas in Christian theology, in particular its Eastern Orthodox form.

Realism in Mathematics

Author: Penelope Maddy

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019824035X

Category: Political Science

Page: 204

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When engaged in mathematics, most people tend to think of themselves as scientists investigating the features of real mathematical things, and the wildly successful application of mathematics in the physical sciences reinforces this picture of mathematics as an objective study. For philosophers, however, this realism about mathematics raises serious questions: What are mathematical things? Where are they? How do we know about them? Penelope Maddy delineates and defends a novel versionof mathematical realism that answers the traditional questions and refocuses philosophical attention on the pressing foundational issues of contemporary mathematics.

Mathematics: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Timothy Gowers

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191579417

Category: Mathematics

Page: 160

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The aim of this book is to explain, carefully but not technically, the differences between advanced, research-level mathematics, and the sort of mathematics we learn at school. The most fundamental differences are philosophical, and readers of this book will emerge with a clearer understanding of paradoxical-sounding concepts such as infinity, curved space, and imaginary numbers. The first few chapters are about general aspects of mathematical thought. These are followed by discussions of more specific topics, and the book closes with a chapter answering common sociological questions about the mathematical community (such as "Is it true that mathematicians burn out at the age of 25?") ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.