Time and Memory in Indigenous Amazonia

Anthropological Perspectives

Author: Carlos Fausto,Michael Heckenberger

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780813044798

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 3034

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“Broadens and deepens the anthropological project of understanding histories and historicities in Lowland South America that has emerged as a central theme in recent decades. . . . The outstanding quality and ethnographic richness of the nine case studies included in the volume are a tribute to just how far Amazonian ethnology has come since the 1980s.”—Journal of Anthropological Research “Explores the native Amazonian sense of history in a way that enriched previous debates about 'cold' and 'hot' societies. The book does more than simply engage ethnography with temporality; it demonstrates that 'historicity' and 'identity' are mutually constitutive.”—Tipití: Journal of the Society for the Anthropology of Lowland South America “Brings together an international collection of leading Amazonia specialists to rethink some of the most fundamental categories through which anthropologists have traditionally conceptualized history and change. The result is a sophisticated interrogation of the ways we normally think about indigenous Amazonian cultures and a productive challenge to anthropology as a whole.”—Donald Pollock, State University of New York, Buffalo Based on recent ethnographic fieldwork and firsthand analysis of indigenous history, this collection examines the concepts of time and change as they played out in areas ranging from religion, cosmology, and mortuary practices to attitudes toward ethnic difference and the treatment of animals. Without imposing traditionally Western notions of what “time” and “change” mean, the collection looks at how native Amazonians experienced forms of cultural memory and at how their narratives of the past helped construct their sense of the present and, inevitably, their own identity. The volume offers some of the most interesting and nuanced discussions to date on Amazonian conceptualizations of temporality and change. Carlos Fausto, associate professor of anthropology at the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, is the author of Warfare and Shamanism in Amazonia. Michael Heckenberger, associate professor of anthropology at the University of Florida, is the author of The Ecology of Power: Culture, Place and Personhood in the Southern Amazon, AD 1000–2000.

Warfare and Shamanism in Amazonia

Author: Carlos Fausto

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107020069

Category: History

Page: 347

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Describes the culture of the Parakanã, a little-known indigenous people of Amazonia, focusing on conflict and ritual.

Fluent Selves

Autobiography, Person, and History in Lowland South America

Author: Suzanne Oakdale,Magnus Course

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 0803265158

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 315

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Fluent Selves examines narrative practices throughout lowland South America focusing on indigenous communities in Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Peru, illuminating the social and cultural processes that make the past as important as the present for these peoples. This collection brings together leading scholars in the fields of anthropology and linguistics to examine the intersection of these narratives of the past with the construction of personhood. The volume’s exploration of autobiographical and biographical accounts raises questions about fieldwork, ethical practices, and cultural boundaries in the study of anthropology. Rather than relying on a simple opposition between the “Western individual” and the non-Western rest, contributors to Fluent Selves explore the complex interplay of both individualizing as well as relational personhood in these practices. Transcending classic debates over the categorization of “myth” and “history,” the autobiographical and biographical narratives in Fluent Selves illustrate the very medium in which several modes of engaging with the past meet, are reconciled, and reemerge.

Death, Mourning, and Burial

A Cross-Cultural Reader

Author: Antonius C. G. M. Robben

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119151759

Category: Social Science

Page: 368

View: 303

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The definitive reference on the anthropology of death and dying, expanded with new contributions covering everything from animal mourning to mortuary cannibalism Few subjects stir the imagination more than the study of how people across cultures deal with death and dying. This expanded second edition of the internationally bestselling Death, Mourning, and Burial offers cross-cultural readings that span the period from dying to afterlife, considering approaches to this transition as a social process and exploring the great variations of cultural responses to death. Exploring new content including organ transplantation, institutionalized care for the dying, HIV-AIDs, animal mourning, and biotechnology, this text retains classic readings from the first edition, and is enhanced by sixteen new articles and two new sections which provide increased breadth and depth for readers. Death, Mourning, and Burial, Second Edition is divided into eight parts reflecting the social trajectory of death: conceptualizations of death; death, dying, and care; grief and mourning; mortuary rituals; and remembrance and regeneration. Sections are introduced through foundational texts which provide the ideal introduction to this diverse field. It is essential reading for anyone concerned with issues of death and dying, as well as violence, terrorism, war, state terror, organ theft, and mortuary rituals. A thoroughly revised edition of this classic anthology featuring twenty-three new articles, two new sections, and three reformulated sections Updated to include current topics, including organ transplantation, institutionalized care for the dying, HIV-AIDs, animal mourning, and biotechnology Must reading for anyone concerned with issues of death and dying, as well as violence, terrorism, war, state terror, organ theft, and mortuary rituals Serves as a text for anthropology classes and provides a genuinely cross-cultural perspective to all those studying death and dying

Ownership and Nurture

Studies in Native Amazonian Property Relations

Author: Marc Brightman,Carlos Fausto,Vanessa Grotti

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785330837

Category: Religion

Page: 270

View: 2820

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The first book to address the classic anthropological theme of property through the ethnography of Amazonia, Ownership and Nurture sets new and challenging terms for anthropological debates about the region and about property in general. Property and ownership have special significance and carry specific meanings in Amazonia, which has been portrayed as the antithesis of Western, property-based, civilization. Through carefully constructed studies of land ownership, slavery, shamanism, spirit mastery, aesthetics, and intellectual property, this volume demonstrates that property relations are of central importance in Amazonia, and that the ownership of persons plays an especially significant role in native cosmology.

Creating Dialogues

Indigenous Perceptions and Changing Forms of Leadership in Amazonia

Author: Hanne Veber,Pirjo Virtanen

Publisher: University Press of Colorado

ISBN: 1607325608

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 8495

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Creating Dialogues discusses contemporary forms of leadership in a variety of Amazonian indigenous groups. Examining the creation of indigenous leaders as political subjects in the context of contemporary state policies of democratization and exploitation of natural resources, the book addresses issues of resilience and adaptation at the level of local community politics in lowland South America. Contributors investigate how indigenous peoples perceive themselves as incorporated into the structures of states and how they tend to see the states as accomplices of the private companies and non-indigenous settlers who colonize or devastate indigenous lands. Adapting to the impacts of changing political and economic environments, leaders adopt new organizational forms, participate in electoral processes, become adept in the use of social media, experiment with cultural revitalization and new forms of performance designed to reach non-indigenous publics, and find allies in support of indigenous and human rights claims to secure indigenous territories and conditions for survival. Through these multiple transformations, the new styles and manners of leadership are embedded in indigenous notions of power and authority whose shifting trajectories predate contemporary political conjunctures. Despite the democratization of many Latin American countries and international attention to human rights efforts, indigenous participation in political arenas is still peripheral. Creating Dialogues sheds light on dramatic, ongoing social and political changes within Amazonian indigenous groups. The volume will be of interest to students and scholars of anthropology, ethnology, Latin American studies, and indigenous studies, as well as governmental and nongovernmental organizations working with Amazonian groups. Contributors: Jean-Pierre Chaumeil, Gérard Collomb, Luiz Costa, Oscar Espinosa, Esther López, Valéria Macedo, José Pimenta, Juan Pablo Sarmiento Barletti, Terence Turner, Hanne Veber, Pirjo Kristiina Virtanen

Thunder Shaman

Making History with Mapuche Spirits in Chile and Patagonia

Author: Ana Mariella Bacigalupo

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 1477308822

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 9209

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As a "wild," drumming thunder shaman, a warrior mounted on her spirit horse, Francisca Kolipi's spirit traveled to other historical times and places, gaining the power and knowledge to conduct spiritual warfare against her community's enemies, including forestry companies and settlers. As a "civilized" shaman, Francisca narrated the Mapuche people's attachment to their local sacred landscapes, which are themselves imbued with shamanic power, and constructed nonlinear histories of intra- and interethnic relations that created a moral order in which Mapuche become history's spiritual victors. Thunder Shaman represents an extraordinary collaboration between Francisca Kolipi and anthropologist Ana Mariella Bacigalupo, who became Kolipi's "granddaughter," trusted helper, and agent in a mission of historical (re)construction and myth-making. The book describes Francisca's life, death, and expected rebirth, and shows how she remade history through multitemporal dreams, visions, and spirit possession, drawing on ancestral beings and forest spirits as historical agents to obliterate state ideologies and the colonialist usurpation of indigenous lands. Both an academic text and a powerful ritual object intended to be an agent in shamanic history, Thunder Shaman functions simultaneously as a shamanic "bible," embodying Francisca's power, will, and spirit long after her death in 1996, and an insightful study of shamanic historical consciousness, in which biography, spirituality, politics, ecology, and the past, present, and future are inextricably linked. It demonstrates how shamans are constituted by historical-political and ecological events, while they also actively create history itself through shamanic imaginaries and narrative forms.

Indigenous Youth in Brazilian Amazonia

Changing Lived Worlds

Author: P. Virtanen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137266511

Category: Social Science

Page: 221

View: 1283

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How do Amazonian native young people perceive, question, and negotiate the new kinds of social and cultural situations in which they find themselves? Virtanen looks at how current power relations constituted by ethnic recognition, new social contacts, and cooperation with different institutions have shaped the current native youth in Amazonia.

Amazonian Routes

Indigenous Mobility and Colonial Communities in Northern Brazil

Author: Heather F. Roller

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804792127

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 7164

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This book reconstructs the world of eighteenth-century Amazonia to argue that indigenous mobility did not undermine settlement or community. In doing so, it revises longstanding views of native Amazonians as perpetual wanderers, lacking attachment to place and likely to flee at the slightest provocation. Instead, native Amazonians used traditional as well as new, colonial forms of spatial mobility to build enduring communities under the constraints of Portuguese colonialism. Canoeing and trekking through the interior to collect forest products or to contact independent native groups, Indians expanded their social networks, found economic opportunities, and brought new people and resources back to the colonial villages. When they were not participating in these state-sponsored expeditions, many Indians migrated between colonial settlements, seeking to be incorporated as productive members of their chosen communities. Drawing on largely untapped village-level sources, the book shows that mobile people remained attached to their home communities and committed to the preservation of their lands and assets. This argument still matters today, and not just to scholars, as rural communities in the Brazilian Amazon find themselves threatened by powerful outsiders who argue that their mobility invalidates their claims to territory.

Customizing indigeneity

paths to a visionary politics in Peru

Author: Shane Greene

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804761192

Category: Social Science

Page: 244

View: 9991

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Customizing Indigeneity follows the Aguaruna on their paths to becoming leaders of Peru's Amazonian movement, revealing both their creative cultural agency and the constraints of contemporary indigenous movement politics along the way.

Vital enemies

slavery, predation, and the Amerindian political economy of life

Author: Fernando Santos-Granero

Publisher: Univ of Texas Pr

ISBN: 9780292718883

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 6879

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Analyzing slavery and other forms of servitude in six non-state indigenous societies of tropical America at the time of European contact, Vital Enemies offers a fascinating new approach to the study of slavery based on the notion of "political economy of life." Fernando Santos-Granero draws on the earliest available historical sources to provide novel information on Amerindian regimes of servitude, sociologies of submission, and ideologies of capture. Estimating that captive slaves represented up to 20 percent of the total population and up to 40 percent when combined with other forms of servitude, Santos-Granero argues that native forms of servitude fulfill the modern understandings of slavery, though Amerindian contexts provide crucial distinctions with slavery as it developed in the American South. The Amerindian understanding of life forces as being finite, scarce, unequally distributed, and in constant circulation yields a concept of all living beings as competing for vital energy. The capture of human beings is an extreme manifestation of this understanding, but it marks an important element in the ways Amerindian "captive slavery" was misconstrued by European conquistadors. Illuminating a cultural facet that has been widely overlooked or miscast for centuries, Vital Enemies makes possible new dialogues regarding hierarchies in the field of native studies, as well as a provocative re-framing of pre- and post-contact America.

Latin American Antiquity

A Journal of the Society for American Archaeology

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Indians of Central America

Page: N.A

View: 6601

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Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology

Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands

Author: William L. Balée,Clark L. Erickson

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231509618

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 3301

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This collection of studies by anthropologists, botanists, ecologists, and biologists is an important contribution to the emerging field of historical ecology. The book combines cutting-edge research with new perspectives to emphasize the close relationship between humans and their natural environment. Contributors examine how alterations in the natural world mirror human cultures, societies, and languages. Treating the landscape like a text, these researchers decipher patterns and meaning in the Ecuadorian Andes, Amazonia, the desert coast of Peru, and other regions in the neotropics. They show how local peoples have changed the landscape over time to fit their needs by managing and modifying species diversity, enhancing landscape heterogeneity, and controlling ecological disturbance. In turn, the environment itself becomes a form of architecture rich with historical and archaeological significance. Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology explores thousands of years of ecological history while also addressing important contemporary issues, such as biodiversity and genetic variation and change. Engagingly written and expertly researched, this book introduces and exemplifies a unique method for better understanding the link between humans and the biosphere.

The Global Prehistory of Human Migration

Author: Immanuel Ness

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118970586

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 1214

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Previously published as the first volume of The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, this work is devoted exclusively to prehistoric migration, covering all periods and places from the first hominin migrations out of Africa through the end of prehistory. Presents interdisciplinary coverage of this topic, including scholarship from the fields of archaeology, anthropology, genetics, biology, linguistics, and more Includes contributions from a diverse international team of authors, representing 17 countries and a variety of disciplines Divided into two sections, covering the Pleistocene and Holocene; each section examines human migration through chapters that focus on different regional and disciplinary lenses

Landscapes of Devils

Tensions of Place and Memory in the Argentinean Chaco

Author: Gastón R. Gordillo

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 082238602X

Category: Social Science

Page: 326

View: 1966

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Landscapes of Devils is a rich, historically grounded ethnography of the western Toba, an indigenous people in northern Argentina’s Gran Chaco region. In the early twentieth century, the Toba were defeated by the Argentinean army, incorporated into the seasonal labor force of distant sugar plantations, and proselytized by British Anglicans. Gastón R. Gordillo reveals how the Toba’s memory of these processes is embedded in their experience of “the bush” that dominates the Chaco landscape. As Gordillo explains, the bush is the result of social, cultural, and political processes that intertwine this place with other geographies. Labor exploitation, state violence, encroachment by settlers, and the demands of Anglican missionaries all transformed this land. The Toba’s lives have been torn between alienating work in sugar plantations and relative freedom in the bush, between moments of domination and autonomy, abundance and poverty, terror and healing. Part of this contradictory experience is culturally expressed in devils, evil spirits that acquire different features in different places. The devils are sources of death and disease in the plantations, but in the bush they are entities that connect with humans as providers of bush food and healing power. Enacted through memory, the experiences of the Toba have produced a tense and shifting geography. Combining extensive fieldwork conducted over a decade, historical research, and critical theory, Gordillo offers a nuanced analysis of the Toba’s social memory and a powerful argument that geographic places are not only objective entities but also the subjective outcome of historical forces.

Consuming Grief

Compassionate Cannibalism in an Amazonian Society

Author: Beth A. Conklin

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292782543

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 4517

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Mourning the death of loved ones and recovering from their loss are universal human experiences, yet the grieving process is as different between cultures as it is among individuals. As late as the 1960s, the Wari' Indians of the western Amazonian rainforest ate the roasted flesh of their dead as an expression of compassion for the deceased and for his or her close relatives. By removing and transforming the corpse, which embodied ties between the living and the dead and was a focus of grief for the family of the deceased, Wari' death rites helped the bereaved kin accept their loss and go on with their lives. Drawing on the recollections of Wari' elders who participated in consuming the dead, this book presents one of the richest, most authoritative ethnographic accounts of funerary cannibalism ever recorded. Beth Conklin explores Wari' conceptions of person, body, and spirit, as well as indigenous understandings of memory and emotion, to explain why the Wari' felt that corpses must be destroyed and why they preferred cannibalism over cremation. Her findings challenge many commonly held beliefs about cannibalism and show why, in Wari' terms, it was considered the most honorable and compassionate way of treating the dead.

Nature and Society

Anthropological Perspectives

Author: Philippe Descola,Gisli Palsson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134827156

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 1320

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The contributors to this book focus on the relationship between nature and society from a variety of theoretical and ethnographic perspectives. Their work draws upon recent developments in social theory, biology, ethnobiology, epistemology, sociology of science, and a wide array of ethnographic case studies -- from Amazonia, the Solomon Islands, Malaysia, the Mollucan Islands, rural comunities from Japan and north-west Europe, urban Greece, and laboratories of molecular biology and high-energy physics. The discussion is divided into three parts, emphasising the problems posed by the nature-culture dualism, some misguided attempts to respond to these problems, and potential avenues out of the current dilemmas of ecological discourse.

History, Power, and Identity

Ethnogenesis in the Americas, 1492-1992

Author: Jonathan D. Hill

Publisher: University of Iowa Press

ISBN: 158729110X

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 8281

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For the past five centuries, indigenous and African American communities throughout the Americas have sought to maintain and recreate enduring identities under conditions of radical change and discontinuity. The essays in this groundbreaking volume document this cultural activity—this ethnogenesis—within and against the broader contexts of domination; the authors simultaneously encompass the entanglements of local communities in the webs of national and global power relations as well as people's unique abilities to gain control over their history and identity. By defining ethnogenesis as the synthesis of people's cultural and political struggles, History, Power, and Identity breaks out of the implicit contrast between isolated local cultures and dynamic global history. From the northeastern plains of North America to Amazonia, colonial and independent states in the Americas interacted with vast multilingual and multicultural networks, resulting in the historical emergence of new ethnic identities and the disappearance of many earlier ones. The importance of African, indigenous American, and European religions, myths, and symbols, as historical cornerstones in the building of new ethnic identities, emerges as one of the central themes of this convincing collection.

Indigenous Struggle at the Heart of Brazil

State Policy, Frontier Expansion, and the Xavante Indians, 1937–1988

Author: Seth Garfield

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822326656

Category: History

Page: 316

View: 5622

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DIVHow the Xavante Indians have reshaped the Brazilian government’s policies of nationalism and assimiliation./div