Top Drugs: Top Synthetic Routes

Author: John Saunders

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780198501008

Category: Science

Page: 96

View: 951

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This book will allow students to see how the organic chemistry taught in undergraduate courses is applied by medicinal chemists in industry. Many of today's best selling drugs are first made in the chemical laboratory on a very small scale many years before they enter the market place. During the intervening period, organic chemists investigate alternative methods both to improve the overall yield of the process and to ensure that it operates safely on a manufacturing scale. This book describes briefly how each drug works and then reviews the most efficient routes to their synthesis.

Stereoselectivity in Organic Synthesis

Author: Garry Procter

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780198559573

Category: Science

Page: 98

View: 2831

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This clear and concise text is concerned with the reactions used in stereoselective organic synthesis. These are important types of reactions which can be used for the selective preparation of new organic compounds with a defined and predictable three dimensional architecture. This informative text will be an invaluable study aid for all undergraduate chemistry students. Undergraduates in related subjects studying chemistry to second year level or higher will also find this book useful.

Organometallic Reagents in Synthesis

Author: Paul R. Jenkins

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198556664

Category: Science

Page: 91

View: 3779

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This straightforward introduction looks at the properties and reactions of main group organometallic compounds, placing particular emphasis on their applications in synthesis. The book adopts a logical approach to this important area of organic chemistry, providing the student with a clear account of all aspects of the field.

Practical Process Research and Development

Author: Neal G. Anderson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080514480

Category: Science

Page: 354

View: 2209

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This book provides a comprehensive, step-by-step approach to organic process research and development in the pharmaceutical, fine chemical, and agricultural chemical industries. Process R&D describes the steps taken, following synthesis and evaluation, to bring key compounds to market in a cost-effective manner. More people are being hired for work in this area as increasing numbers of drug candidates are identified through combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening. The book is directed to industrial (primarily organic) chemists, and academicians (particularly those involved in a growing number of start-up companies) and students who need insight into industrial process R&D. Current books do not describe hands-on, step-by-step, approaches to solving process development problems, including route, reagent, and solvent selection; optimising catalytic reactions; chiral syntheses; and "green chemistry." "Practical Process Research and Development" will be a valuable resource for researchers, managers, and graduate students. Provides insights into generating rugged, practical, cost-effective processes for the chemical preparation of "small molecules" Breaks down process optimization into route, reagent and solvent selection, development of reaction conditions, workup, crystallizations and more Includes over 100 tips for rapid process development Presents guidelines for implementing and troubleshooting processes

Pericyclic Reactions

Author: Ian Fleming

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199680906

Category: Addition reactions

Page: 118

View: 8402

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Key texts in the renowned Oxford Chemistry Primers series have been fully refreshed and updated to suit the needs of today's students, lecturers, and postgraduate researchers. The rigorous and yet accessible treatment of each subject area is ideal for those wanting to know more about a particular topic not covered comprehensively in existing undergraduate texts. Moreover, cutting-edge examples and applications throughout the texts show the relevance of thechemistry being described to the real world. Pericyclic reactions constitute a fundamental class of organic chemistry, including such commercially important synthetic reactions as theDiels-Alder reaction. This primer gives a concise and accessible account of these reactions, enabling students to recognise the different types of pericyclic reaction and understand their application in organic synthesis.

Contemporary Drug Synthesis

Author: Jie Jack Li,Douglas S. Johnson,Drago R. Sliskovic,Bruce D. Roth

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471686736

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 5921

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An integrated and insightful look at successful drug synthesis in today's drug discovery market The pharmaceutical industry is unquestionably vibrant today, with drug synthesis making a vital contribution. Whether in the early developmental stages of identifying and optimizing a lead, or the latter stages of process development and cost-effective scale-up, the ability to design elegant and economical synthetic routes is often a major factor in the eventual viability and commercial success of a drug. Contemporary Drug Synthesis examines how leading researchers and manufacturers have integrated chemistry, biology, pharmacokinetics, and a host of other disciplines in the creation and development of leading drugs. Authored by four of the pharmaceutical industry's most respected scientists, this timely volume: Focuses on the processes that resulted in high-profile drugs including Lipitor, Celebrex, Viagra, Gleevec, Nexium, Claritin, and over a dozen others Provides an in-depth introduction to each drug, followed by a detailed account of its synthesis Organizes the drugs into fourteen therapeutic areas for clarity and ease of use Process chemists provide an essential bridge between chemistry and the marketplace, creating scientifically practical drug processes while never losing sight of the commercial viability of those processes. Contemporary Drug Synthesis meets the needs of a growing community of researchers in pharmaceutical research and development, and is both a useful guide for practicing pharmaceutical scientists and an excellent text for medicinal and organic chemistry students.

Chemistry of Peptide Synthesis

Author: N. Leo Benoiton

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420027697

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 3204

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Chemistry of Peptide Synthesis is a complete overview of how peptides are synthesized and what techniques are likely to generate the most desirable reactions. Incorporating elements from the author’s role of Career Investigator of the Medical Research Council of Canada and his extensive teaching career, the book emphasizes learning rather than memorization. The text uses clear language and schematics to present concepts progressively, carefully excluding unnecessary details and providing a historical context in which to appreciate the development of the field. The author first outlines the fundamentals of peptide synthesis, focusing on the intermediates in aminolysis reactions. Gradually the text builds into discussions of the applicability of coupling reactions, stereomutation, methods of deprotection, solid-phase synthesis, side-chain protection and side reactions, and amplification on coupling methods. The book clarifies the differences between oxazolones from amino-acid derivatives and segments and the implications of their formation on the chiral integrity of products. The author offers a critical analysis of the mechanisms of coupling reactions and the desirability of preactivation. The text explains hindrance and the nucleophilicity of tertiary amines and rationalizes their use. The book also explores mechanisms of acidolysis and the dual role of nucleophiles as reactants and scavengers. Chemistry of Peptide Synthesis supplies a broad, yet straightforward approach that appeals to those with limited knowledge of organic chemistry or chemists from other fields as well as in-depth coverage that can be appreciated by experienced peptidologists.

Organic Stereochemistry

Author: Michael J. T. Robinson

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198792758

Category: Science

Page: 89

View: 3962

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This book is an account for students of how the three-dimensional shapes of molecules influence their chemical and physical properties. It begins with the structures of molecules and then describes how such structures can be changed.

Photochemistry of Organic Compounds

From Concepts to Practice

Author: Petr Klán,Jakob Wirz

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405190884

Category: Science

Page: 563

View: 9461

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This new volume in the Postgraduate Chemistry Series provides a thorough overview of the principles and uses of synthetic organic photochemistry. Appropriate at postgraduate and research level it will also serve as a reference for more experienced workers.

From Bench to Market

The Evolution of Chemical Synthesis

Author: Walter Cabri,Romano Di Fabio

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198503835

Category: Medical

Page: 266

View: 337

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'... a unique book... I highly recommendthis book to process chemists not only in the pharmaceutical industry but in the fine chemical, agrochemical, and colour chemical industries, too ... It is refreshing to see the book in paperback at a low cost. Highly recommended- I will certainly use it as a teaching aid' Chemistry in BritainWho wins the race to turn molecules into medicines? How much does it cost? What factors influence the choice of synthetic routes and reaction mechanisms? How can pharmaceutical companies protect their discoveries? In From Bench to Market, Walter Cabri and Romano Di Fabio chart the process of industrial chemical synthesis, from the first discovery of a molecule to its entry in the marketplace as a drug. Using real case histories of drug development from several therapeutic areas, they discuss all aspects related to the process research for bulk production, including comparison between different synthetic routes, key methodologies and reaction mechanisms, costs, patent competition, and crystalline forms.

A Natural History of Latin

Author: Tore Janson,Nigel Vincent,Merethe Damsgård Sørensen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199214050

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 305

View: 5561

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Beginning in Rome around 600 BC, Latin became the language of the civilized world and remained so for more than two millennia. French, Spanish, Italian, and Romanian are among its progeny and it provides the international vocabulary of law and life science. No known language, including English - itself enriched by Latin words and phrases - has achieved such success and longevity. Tore Janson tells its history from origins to present. Brilliantly conceived and written with the same light touch as his bestselling history of languages, A Natural History of Latin is a masterpiece of adroit synthesis. The author charts the expansion of Latin in the classical world, its renewed importance in the Middle Ages, and its survival into modern times. He shows how spoken and written Latin evolved in different places and its central role in European history and culture. He ends with a concise Latin grammar and lists of Latin words and phrases still in common use. Considered elitist andirrelevant in the second half of the twentieth century and often even banned from schools, Latin is now enjoying a huge revival of interest across Europe, the UK, and the USA. Tore Janson offers persuasive arguments for its value and gives direct access to its fascinating worlds, past and present.

The Neurology of Eye Movements

Author: R. John Leigh,David S. Zee

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199969280

Category: Medical

Page: 1136

View: 3043

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This new edition of Leigh and Zee's The Neurology of Eye Movements is available as an enhanced edition for the first time. Your purchase of the print version includes access to the online version via Oxford Medicine Online. By activating your unique access code, you can discover more than 200videos, view and enlarge nearly 250 high resolution images, and annotate the work for future personal reference. The 5th edition of The Neurology of Eye Movements has two interrelated parts. The first comprises a modern synthesis of the anatomical, physiological, and pharmacological substrate for eye movements, including current views on the reflexive and voluntary control of gaze. This synthesis is based onelectrophysiological and inactivation studies in macaque, and behavioural studies in humans that incorporate functional imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in normals, and clinicopathological studies in patients with neurological, visual, or vestibular disorders. Sophisticatedexperimental paradigms have been applied to both species to explore aspects of cognition, memory, volition, and reward. This large body of research has demonstrated the power of eye movements as experimental tools. The second part of the book applies this synthesis to the clinical and laboratoryevaluation of patients with abnormal eye movements due to a broad range of disorders - from muscular dystrophy, and genetic disorders, to dementia, including visual and vestibular conditions. By placing links to figures, tables, boxes, and videos, a synthesis of basic research and clinical findings is provided, that may shed new light on disease processes and provide insights on normal brain function.

Inherited Metabolic Disease in Adults

A Clinical Guide

Author: Professor of Internal Medicine Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism Carla E M Hollak,Robin Lachmann,Consultant in Metabolic Medicine Head of Charles Dent Metabolic Unit Robin Lachmann

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199972133

Category:

Page: 648

View: 7655

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As clinical management of inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) has improved, more patients affected by these conditions are surviving into adulthood. This trend, coupled with the widespread recognition that IMDs can present differently and for the first time during adulthood, makes the need for a working knowledge of these diseases more important than ever. Inherited Metabolic Disease in Adults offers an authoritative clinical guide to the adult manifestations of these challenging and myriad conditions. These include both the classic pediatric-onset conditions and a number of new diseases that can manifest at any age. It is the first book to give a clear and concise overview of how this group of conditions affects adult patients, a that topic will become a growing imperative for physicians across primary and specialized care.

Real World Drug Discovery

A Chemist's Guide to Biotech and Pharmaceutical Research

Author: Robert M. Rydzewski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080914886

Category: Medical

Page: 600

View: 858

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Drug discovery increasingly requires a common understanding by researchers of the many and diverse factors that go into the making of new medicines. The scientist entering the field will immediately face important issues for which his education may not have prepared him: project teams, patent law, consultants, target product profiles, industry trends, Gantt charts, target validation, pharmacokinetics, proteomics, phenotype assays, biomarkers, and many other unfamiliar topics for which a basic understanding must somehow be obtained. Even the more experienced scientist can find it frustratingly difficult to get an overview of the many factors involved in modern drug discovery and often only after years of exploring does a whole and integrated picture emerge in the mind of the researcher. Real World Drug Discovery: A Chemist’s Guide to Biotech and Pharmaceutical Research presents this kind of map of the landscape of drug discovery. In a single, readable volume it outlines processes and explains essential concepts and terms for the recent science graduate wondering what to expect in pharma or biotech, the medicinal chemist seeking a broader and more timely understanding of the industry, or the contractor or collaborator whose understanding of the commercial drug discovery process could increase the value of his contribution to it. Interviews with well-known experts in many of the fields involved, giving insightful comments from authorities on many of the sub-disciplines important to cutting edge drug discovery. Helpful suggestions gleaned from years of experience in biotech and pharma, which represents a repository drug discovery "lore" not previously available in any book. "Periodic Table of Drugs" listing current top-selling drugs arranged by target and laid out so that structural similarities and differences are plain and clear. Extensive use of diagrams to illustrate concepts like biotech startup models, preteomic profiling for target identification, Gantt charts for project planning, etc.

Principles of Process Research and Chemical Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Author: Oljan Repic

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: 9780471165163

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 8211

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This text discusses the functions of Process R&D (research and development), which involves the method of transforming a research synthetic procedure into a plant process and the key aspects of a synthesis that must be considered when scaling up a process. Topics consist of: basic principles of chemical development; techniques for the minimization of by-product impurities; criteria for cost-effective synthesis of enantiopure compounds by resolutions; asymmetric synthesis, and "chiral pool" strategy; synthesis for labeling substances with hydrogen or carbon isotopes; and last, licensing.

Polymer Syntheses

Author: Stanley Sandler

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 032315140X

Category: Science

Page: 414

View: 9675

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Polymer Syntheses, Volume II presents detailed laboratory instructions for the preparation of different types of polymers. This book provides information pertinent to useful polymer synthesis. Organized into 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of resins derived from urea, melamine, or benzoguanamine. This text then examines the reaction of formaldehyde with hydrogen chloride, which has been shown to lead to the spontaneous production of carcinogen bis(chloromethyl) ether. Other chapters consider the topic of silicone resins or polyorganosiloxanes, as well as the uses of vinyl ether polymers in lacquer resins, adhesives, plasticizers, paints, and copolymer compositions. This book discusses as well the methods of polymerization of acrylic and of methacrylic acid. The final chapter deals with the health and safety aspects of the production of the monomer vinyl chloride. This book is a valuable resource for industrial and polymer chemists. Students of polymer chemistry will also find this book useful.

Drug Benefits and Risks

International Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology - Revised 2nd Edition

Author: C.J. van Boxtel,B. Santoso,I.R. Edwards

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 160750345X

Category: Medical

Page: 848

View: 7112

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This updated and revised 2nd edition of Drug Benefits and Risks is an inclusive reference exploring the scientific basis and practice of drug therapy. The key concept is to look at the balance between the benefits and risks of drugs, but in this context also highlighting the social impact which drugs have in modern societies. Taking an evidence-based approach to the problem, the practice of clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapy in the developing as well as the developed world is examined. For this purpose the book covers general clinical pharmacology, pharmacology of various drug groups and the treatments specific to various diseases; the book gives guidance on how doctors should act so that drugs can be used effectively and safely; and it encourages the rational use of drugs in society. This publication brings together a large amount of excellent content that will be invaluable for anyone working within, or associated with, the field of clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapy - undergraduates, postgraduates, regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry.

Hardwiring Happiness

The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence

Author: Rick Hanson

Publisher: Harmony

ISBN: 0385347324

Category: Self-Help

Page: 304

View: 5525

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Why is it easier to ruminate over hurt feelings than it is to bask in the warmth of being appreciated? Because your brain evolved to learn quickly from bad experiences but slowly from good ones. You can change this. Life isn’t easy, and having a brain wired to take in the bad and ignore the good makes us worried, irritated, and stressed, instead of confident, secure, and happy. But each day is filled with opportunities to build inner strengths and Dr. Rick Hanson, an acclaimed clinical psychologist, shows what you can do to override the brain’s default pessimism. Hardwiring Happiness lays out a simple method that uses the hidden power of everyday experiences to build new neural structures full of happiness, love, confidence, and peace. You’ll learn to see through the lies your brain tells you. Dr. Hanson’s four steps build strengths into your brain—counterbalancing its ancient negativity bias—making contentment and a powerful sense of resilience the new normal. In mere minutes each day, you can transform your brain into a refuge and power center of calm and happiness. You can hardwire in happiness.