Mathematical Surveys and Monographs

Author: V. M. Buchstaber,Taras E. Panov

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781470422141

Category: Algebraic topology

Page: 518

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"This book is about toric topology, a new area of mathematics that emerged at the end of the 1990s on the border of equivariant topology, algebraic and symplectic geometry, combinatorics, and commutative algebra. It has quickly grown into a very active area with many links to other areas of mathematics, and continues to attract experts from different fields. The key players in toric topology are moment-angle manifolds, a class of manifolds with torus actions defined in combinatorial terms. Construction of moment-angle manifolds relates to combinatorial geometry and algebraic geometry of toric varieties via the notion of a quasitoric manifold. Discovery of remarkable geometric structures on moment-angle manifolds led to important connections with classical and modern areas of symplectic, Lagrangian, and non-Kaehler complex geometry. A related categorical construction of moment-angle complexes and polyhedral products provides for a universal framework for many fundamental constructions of homotopical topology. The study of polyhedral products is now evolving into a separate subject of homotopy theory. A new perspective on torus actions has also contributed to the development of classical areas of algebraic topology, such as complex cobordism. This book includes many open problems and is addressed to experts interested in new ideas linking all the subjects involved, as well as to graduate students and young researchers ready to enter this beautiful new area"--Back cover.

Toric Topology

Author: Victor M. Buchstaber,Taras E. Pano

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 147042214X

Category: Algebraic topology

Page: 518

View: 9347

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This book is about toric topology, a new area of mathematics that emerged at the end of the 1990s on the border of equivariant topology, algebraic and symplectic geometry, combinatorics, and commutative algebra. It has quickly grown into a very active area with many links to other areas of mathematics, and continues to attract experts from different fields. The key players in toric topology are moment-angle manifolds, a class of manifolds with torus actions defined in combinatorial terms. Construction of moment-angle manifolds relates to combinatorial geometry and algebraic geometry of toric varieties via the notion of a quasitoric manifold. Discovery of remarkable geometric structures on moment-angle manifolds led to important connections with classical and modern areas of symplectic, Lagrangian, and non-Kaehler complex geometry. A related categorical construction of moment-angle complexes and polyhedral products provides for a universal framework for many fundamental constructions of homotopical topology. The study of polyhedral products is now evolving into a separate subject of homotopy theory. A new perspective on torus actions has also contributed to the development of classical areas of algebraic topology, such as complex cobordism. This book includes many open problems and is addressed to experts interested in new ideas linking all the subjects involved, as well as to graduate students and young researchers ready to enter this beautiful new area.

Combinatorial And Toric Homotopy: Introductory Lectures

Author: Darby Alastair,Grbic Jelena,Lu Zhi

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813226587

Category: Mathematics

Page: 448

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This volume consists of introductory lectures on the topics in the new and rapidly developing area of toric homotopy theory, and its applications to the current research in configuration spaces and braids, as well as to more applicable mathematics such as fr-codes and robot motion planning. The book starts intertwining homotopy theoretical and combinatorial ideas within the remits of toric topology and illustrates an attempt to classify in a combinatorial way polytopes known as fullerenes, which are important objects in quantum physics, quantum chemistry and nanotechnology. Toric homotopy theory is then introduced as a further development of toric topology, which describes properties of Davis–Januszkiewicz spaces, moment-angle complexes and their generalizations to polyhedral products. The book also displays the current research on configuration spaces, braids, the theory of limits over the category of presentations and the theory of fr-codes. As an application to robotics, the book surveys topological problems relevant to the motion planning problem of robotics and includes new results and constructions, which enrich the emerging area of topological robotics. The book is at research entry level addressing the core components in homotopy theory and their important applications in the sciences and thus suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Contents: Toric Homotopy Theory (Stephen Theriault)Fullerenes, Polytopes and Toric Topology (Victor M Buchstaber and Nikolay Yu Erokhovets)Around Braids (Vladimir Vershinin)Higher Limits, Homology Theories and fr-Codes (Sergei O Ivanov and Roman Mikhailov)Configuration Spaces and Robot Motion Planning Algorithms (Michael Farber)Cellular Stratified Spaces (Dai Tamaki) Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers interested in homotopy theory and its applications in the sciences. Keywords: Toric Topology;Toric Homotopy;Configuration Space;Stratified Spaces;Braid Group;Fullerene;Polytope;Virtual Braid Group;Thompson Group;Robotics;Motion PlanningReview: Key Features: The first book in the area of toric homotopy theory consisting of introductory lectures on the topics and their applications to fr-codes and robot motion planning

Pattern Recognition on Oriented Matroids

Author: Andrey O. Matveev

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110531143

Category: Mathematics

Page: 231

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Pattern Recognition on Oriented Matroids covers a range of innovative problems in combinatorics, poset and graph theories, optimization, and number theory that constitute a far-reaching extension of the arsenal of committee methods in pattern recognition. The groundwork for the modern committee theory was laid in the mid-1960s, when it was shown that the familiar notion of solution to a feasible system of linear inequalities has ingenious analogues which can serve as collective solutions to infeasible systems. A hierarchy of dialects in the language of mathematics, for instance, open cones in the context of linear inequality systems, regions of hyperplane arrangements, and maximal covectors (or topes) of oriented matroids, provides an excellent opportunity to take a fresh look at the infeasible system of homogeneous strict linear inequalities – the standard working model for the contradictory two-class pattern recognition problem in its geometric setting. The universal language of oriented matroid theory considerably simplifies a structural and enumerative analysis of applied aspects of the infeasibility phenomenon. The present book is devoted to several selected topics in the emerging theory of pattern recognition on oriented matroids: the questions of existence and applicability of matroidal generalizations of committee decision rules and related graph-theoretic constructions to oriented matroids with very weak restrictions on their structural properties; a study (in which, in particular, interesting subsequences of the Farey sequence appear naturally) of the hierarchy of the corresponding tope committees; a description of the three-tope committees that are the most attractive approximation to the notion of solution to an infeasible system of linear constraints; an application of convexity in oriented matroids as well as blocker constructions in combinatorial optimization and in poset theory to enumerative problems on tope committees; an attempt to clarify how elementary changes (one-element reorientations) in an oriented matroid affect the family of its tope committees; a discrete Fourier analysis of the important family of critical tope committees through rank and distance relations in the tope poset and the tope graph; the characterization of a key combinatorial role played by the symmetric cycles in hypercube graphs. Contents Oriented Matroids, the Pattern Recognition Problem, and Tope Committees Boolean Intervals Dehn–Sommerville Type Relations Farey Subsequences Blocking Sets of Set Families, and Absolute Blocking Constructions in Posets Committees of Set Families, and Relative Blocking Constructions in Posets Layers of Tope Committees Three-Tope Committees Halfspaces, Convex Sets, and Tope Committees Tope Committees and Reorientations of Oriented Matroids Topes and Critical Committees Critical Committees and Distance Signals Symmetric Cycles in the Hypercube Graphs

Toric Varieties

Author: David A. Cox,John B. Little,Henry K. Schenck

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821848194

Category: Mathematics

Page: 841

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Toric varieties form a beautiful and accessible part of modern algebraic geometry. This book covers the standard topics in toric geometry; a novel feature is that each of the first nine chapters contains an introductory section on the necessary background material in algebraic geometry. Other topics covered include quotient constructions, vanishing theorems, equivariant cohomology, GIT quotients, the secondary fan, and the minimal model program for toric varieties. The subject lends itself to rich examples reflected in the 134 illustrations included in the text. The book also explores connections with commutative algebra and polyhedral geometry, treating both polytopes and their unbounded cousins, polyhedra. There are appendices on the history of toric varieties and the computational tools available to investigate nontrivial examples in toric geometry. Readers of this book should be familiar with the material covered in basic graduate courses in algebra and topology, and to a somewhat lesser degree, complex analysis. In addition, the authors assume that the reader has had some previous experience with algebraic geometry at an advanced undergraduate level. The book will be a useful reference for graduate students and researchers who are interested in algebraic geometry, polyhedral geometry, and toric varieties.

Mirror Symmetry and Algebraic Geometry

Author: David A. Cox,Sheldon Katz

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 082182127X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 469

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Mathematicians wanting to get into the field ... will find a very well written and encyclopaedic account of the mathematics which was needed in, and was developed from, what now might be termed classical mirror symmetry. --Bulletin of the LMS The book is highly recommended for everyone who wants to learn about the fascinating recent interplay between physics and mathematics. --Mathematical Reviews Mirror symmetry began when theoretical physicists made some astonishing predictions about rational curves on quintic hypersurfaces in four-dimensional projective space. Understanding the mathematics behind these predictions has been a substantial challenge. This book is a completely comprehensive monograph on mirror symmetry, covering the original observations by the physicists through the most recent progress made to date. Subjects discussed include toric varieties, Hodge theory, Kahler geometry, moduli of stable maps, Calabi-Yau manifolds, quantum cohomology, Gromov-Witten invariants, and the mirror theorem.

Homotopical Topology

Author: Anatoly Fomenko,Dmitry Fuchs

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319234889

Category: Mathematics

Page: 627

View: 7109

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This textbook on algebraic topology updates a popular textbook from the golden era of the Moscow school of I. M. Gelfand. The first English translation, done many decades ago, remains very much in demand, although it has been long out-of-print and is difficult to obtain. Therefore, this updated English edition will be much welcomed by the mathematical community. Distinctive features of this book include: a concise but fully rigorous presentation, supplemented by a plethora of illustrations of a high technical and artistic caliber; a huge number of nontrivial examples and computations done in detail; a deeper and broader treatment of topics in comparison to most beginning books on algebraic topology; an extensive, and very concrete, treatment of the machinery of spectral sequences. The second edition contains an entirely new chapter on K-theory and the Riemann-Roch theorem (after Hirzebruch and Grothendieck).

Combinatorics and Commutative Algebra

Author: Richard P. Stanley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0817644334

Category: Mathematics

Page: 168

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* Stanley represents a broad perspective with respect to two significant topics from Combinatorial Commutative Algebra: 1) The theory of invariants of a torus acting linearly on a polynomial ring, and 2) The face ring of a simplicial complex * In this new edition, the author further develops some interesting properties of face rings with application to combinatorics

Mirror Symmetry

Author: Claire Voisin

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821819470

Category: Science

Page: 120

View: 911

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This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the Calabi-Yau case. The book concludes with the first ``naive'' Givental computation, which is a mysterious mathematical justification of the computation of Candelas, et al.

Cluster Algebras and Poisson Geometry

Author: Michael Gekhtman,Michael Shapiro,Alek Vainshtein

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821849727

Category: Mathematics

Page: 246

View: 1314

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Cluster algebras, introduced by Fomin and Zelevinsky in 2001, are commutative rings with unit and no zero divisors equipped with a distinguished family of generators (cluster variables) grouped in overlapping subsets (clusters) of the same cardinality (the rank of the cluster algebra) connected by exchange relations. Examples of cluster algebras include coordinate rings of many algebraic varieties that play a prominent role in representation theory, invariant theory, the study of total positivity, etc. The theory of cluster algebras has witnessed a spectacular growth, first and foremost due to the many links to a wide range of subjects including representation theory, discrete dynamical systems, Teichmuller theory, and commutative and non-commutative algebraic geometry. This book is the first devoted to cluster algebras. After presenting the necessary introductory material about Poisson geometry and Schubert varieties in the first two chapters, the authors introduce cluster algebras and prove their main properties in Chapter 3. This chapter can be viewed as a primer on the theory of cluster algebras. In the remaining chapters, the emphasis is made on geometric aspects of the cluster algebra theory, in particular on its relations to Poisson geometry and to the theory of integrable systems.

Compact Complex Surfaces

Author: W. Barth,K. Hulek,Chris Peters,A.van de Ven

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642577393

Category: Mathematics

Page: 436

View: 8078

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In the 19 years which passed since the first edition was published, several important developments have taken place in the theory of surfaces. The most sensational one concerns the differentiable structure of surfaces. Twenty years ago very little was known about differentiable structures on 4-manifolds, but in the meantime Donaldson on the one hand and Seiberg and Witten on the other hand, have found, inspired by gauge theory, totally new invariants. Strikingly, together with the theory explained in this book these invariants yield a wealth of new results about the differentiable structure of algebraic surfaces. Other developments include the systematic use of nef-divisors (in ac cordance with the progress made in the classification of higher dimensional algebraic varieties), a better understanding of Kahler structures on surfaces, and Reider's new approach to adjoint mappings. All these developments have been incorporated in the present edition, though the Donaldson and Seiberg-Witten theory only by way of examples. Of course we use the opportunity to correct some minor mistakes, which we ether have discovered ourselves or which were communicated to us by careful readers to whom we are much obliged.

Moment Maps, Cobordisms, and Hamiltonian Group Actions

Author: Victor Guillemin,Yael Karshon,Viktor L. Ginzburg

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821805029

Category: Mathematics

Page: 350

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This research monograph presents many new results in a rapidly developing area of great current interest. Guillemin, Ginzburg, and Karshon show that the underlying topological thread in the computation of invariants of G-manifolds is a consequence of a linearization theorem involving equivariant cobordisms. The book incorporates a novel approach and showcases exciting new research. During the last 20 years, 'localization' has been one of the dominant themes in the area of equivariant differential geometry. Typical results are the Duistermaat-Heckman theory, the Berline-Vergne-Atiyah-Bott localization theorem in equivariant de Rham theory, and the 'quantization commutes with reduction' theorem and its various corollaries. To formulate the idea that these theorems are all consequences of a single result involving equivariant cobordisms, the authors have developed a cobordism theory that allows the objects to be non-compact manifolds.A key ingredient in this non-compact cobordism is an equivariant-geometrical object which they call an 'abstract moment map'. This is a natural and important generalization of the notion of a moment map occurring in the theory of Hamiltonian dynamics. The book contains a number of appendices that include introductions to proper group-actions on manifolds, equivariant cohomology, Spin${^\mathrm{c}}$-structures, and stable complex structures. It is geared toward graduate students and research mathematicians interested in differential geometry. It is also suitable for topologists, Lie theorists, combinatorists, and theoretical physicists. Prerequisite is some expertise in calculus on manifolds and basic graduate-level differential geometry.

Geometry and Combinatorics

Author: J. J. Seidel

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483268004

Category: Mathematics

Page: 430

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Geometry and Combinatorics: Selected Works of J. J. Seidel brings together some of the works of J. J. Seidel in geometry and combinatorics. Seidel's selected papers are divided into four areas: graphs and designs; lines with few angles; matrices and forms; and non-Euclidean geometry. A list of all of Seidel's publications is included. Comprised of 29 chapters, this book begins with a discussion on equilateral point sets in elliptic geometry, followed by an analysis of strongly regular graphs of L2-type and of triangular type. The reader is then introduced to strongly regular graphs with (-1, 1, 0) adjacency matrix having eigenvalue 3; graphs related to exceptional root systems; and equiangular lines. Subsequent chapters deal with the regular two-graph on 276 vertices; the congruence order of the elliptic plane; equi-isoclinic subspaces of Euclidean spaces; and Wielandt's visibility theorem. This monograph will be of interest to students and practitioners in the field of mathematics.

Mirror Symmetry

Author: Kentaro Hori

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821829556

Category: Mathematics

Page: 929

View: 1412

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Mirror symmetry is a phenomenon arising in string theory in which two very different manifolds give rise to equivalent physics. Such a correspondence has significant mathematical consequences, the most familiar of which involves the enumeration of holomorphic curves inside complex manifolds by solving differential equations obtained from a ``mirror'' geometry. The inclusion of D-brane states in the equivalence has led to further conjectures involving calibrated submanifolds of the mirror pairs and new (conjectural) invariants of complex manifolds: the Gopakumar Vafa invariants. This book aims to give a single, cohesive treatment of mirror symmetry from both the mathematical and physical viewpoint. Parts 1 and 2 develop the necessary mathematical and physical background ``from scratch,'' and are intended for readers trying to learn across disciplines. The treatment is focussed, developing only the material most necessary for the task. In Parts 3 and 4 the physical and mathematical proofs of mirror symmetry are given. From the physics side, this means demonstrating that two different physical theories give isomorphic physics. Each physical theory can be described geometrically, and thus mirror symmetry gives rise to a ``pairing'' of geometries. The proof involves applying $R\leftrightarrow 1/R$ circle duality to the phases of the fields in the gauged linear sigma model. The mathematics proof develops Gromov-Witten theory in the algebraic setting, beginning with the moduli spaces of curves and maps, and uses localization techniques to show that certain hypergeometric functions encode the Gromov-Witten invariants in genus zero, as is predicted by mirror symmetry. Part 5 is devoted to advanced topics in mirror symmetry, including the role of D-branes in the context of mirror symmetry, and some of their applications in physics and mathematics: topological strings and large $N$ Chern-Simons theory; geometric engineering; mirror symmetry at higher genus; Gopakumar-Vafa invariants; and Kontsevich's formulation of the mirror phenomenon as an equivalence of categories. This book grew out of an intense, month-long course on mirror symmetry at Pine Manor College, sponsored by the Clay Mathematics Institute. The lecturers have tried to summarize this course in a coherent, unified text.

Diffeology

Author: Patrick Iglesias-Zemmour

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821891316

Category: Mathematics

Page: 439

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Diffeology is an extension of differential geometry. With a minimal set of axioms, diffeology allows us to deal simply but rigorously with objects which do not fall within the usual field of differential geometry: quotients of manifolds (even non-Hausdorff), spaces of functions, groups of diffeomorphisms, etc. The category of diffeology objects is stable under standard set-theoretic operations, such as quotients, products, co-products, subsets, limits, and co-limits. With its right balance between rigor and simplicity, diffeology can be a good framework for many problems that appear in various areas of physics. Actually, the book lays the foundations of the main fields of differential geometry used in theoretical physics: differentiability, Cartan differential calculus, homology and cohomology, diffeological groups, fiber bundles, and connections. The book ends with an open program on symplectic diffeology, a rich field of application of the theory. Many exercises with solutions make this book appropriate for learning the subject.

Algebraic Topology of Finite Topological Spaces and Applications

Author: Jonathan A. Barmak

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642220029

Category: Mathematics

Page: 170

View: 4001

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This volume deals with the theory of finite topological spaces and its relationship with the homotopy and simple homotopy theory of polyhedra. The interaction between their intrinsic combinatorial and topological structures makes finite spaces a useful tool for studying problems in Topology, Algebra and Geometry from a new perspective. In particular, the methods developed in this manuscript are used to study Quillen's conjecture on the poset of p-subgroups of a finite group and the Andrews-Curtis conjecture on the 3-deformability of contractible two-dimensional complexes. This self-contained work constitutes the first detailed exposition on the algebraic topology of finite spaces. It is intended for topologists and combinatorialists, but it is also recommended for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students with a modest knowledge of Algebraic Topology.

Algebra and Algebraic Topology

Author: Ched E. Stedman

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781600211874

Category: Mathematics

Page: 159

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Gathers results in pure and applied algebra, including algebraic topology from researchers around the globe.

A Study in Derived Algebraic Geometry: Volume I: Correspondences and Duality

Author: Dennis Gaitsgory,Nick Rozenblyum

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470435691

Category: Algebraic geometry -- (Co)homology theory -- Differentials and other special sheaves

Page: 553

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Derived algebraic geometry is a far-reaching generalization of algebraic geometry. It has found numerous applications in various parts of mathematics, most prominently in representation theory. This volume develops the theory of ind-coherent sheaves in the context of derived algebraic geometry. Ind-coherent sheaves are a “renormalization” of quasi-coherent sheaves and provide a natural setting for Grothendieck-Serre duality as well as geometric incarnations of numerous categories of interest in representation theory. This volume consists of three parts and an appendix. The first part is a survey of homotopical algebra in the setting of -categories and the basics of derived algebraic geometry. The second part builds the theory of ind-coherent sheaves as a functor out of the category of correspondences and studies the relationship between ind-coherent and quasi-coherent sheaves. The third part sets up the general machinery of the -category of correspondences needed for the second part. The category of correspondences, via the theory developed in the third part, provides a general framework for Grothendieck's six-functor formalism. The appendix provides the necessary background on -categories needed for the third part.

Homotopy of Operads and Grothendieck-Teichmuller Groups

Author: Benoit Fresse

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470434822

Category: Grothendieck groups

Page: 704

View: 1342

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The ultimate goal of this book is to explain that the Grothendieck–Teichmüller group, as defined by Drinfeld in quantum group theory, has a topological interpretation as a group of homotopy automorphisms associated to the little 2-disc operad. To establish this result, the applications of methods of algebraic topology to operads must be developed. This volume is devoted primarily to this subject, with the main objective of developing a rational homotopy theory for operads. The book starts with a comprehensive review of the general theory of model categories and of general methods of homotopy theory. The definition of the Sullivan model for the rational homotopy of spaces is revisited, and the definition of models for the rational homotopy of operads is then explained. The applications of spectral sequence methods to compute homotopy automorphism spaces associated to operads are also explained. This approach is used to get a topological interpretation of the Grothendieck–Teichmüller group in the case of the little 2-disc operad. This volume is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in the applications of homotopy theory methods in operad theory. It is accessible to readers with a minimal background in classical algebraic topology and operad theory.