Understanding Mathematical and Statistical Techniques in Hydrology

An Examples-based Approach

Author: Harvey J. E. Rodda,Max A. Little

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119076609

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 104

View: 4212

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Pick up any hydrology textbook and it will not be long before you encounter pages listing sequences of equations representing complex mathematical concepts. Students and practitioners of hydrology will not find this very helpful, as their aim, generally, is to study and understand hydrology, and not to find themselves confronted with material that even students of mathematics would find challenging. Often, equations appear to be copied and pasted into hydrological texts in an attempt to give a more rigorous scientific basis to the narrative. However, they are commonly wrong, poorly explained, without context or background, and more likely to confuse and distance the reader than to enlighten and engage them in the topic. Understanding Mathematical and Statistical Techniques in Hydrology provides full and detailed expositions of such equations and mathematical concepts, commonly used in hydrology. In contrast to other hydrological texts, instead of presenting abstract mathematical hydrology, the essential mathematics is explained with the help of real-world hydrological examples.

Trends and Changes in Hydroclimatic Variables

Links to Climate Variability and Change

Author: Ramesh Teegavarapu

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128109866

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 1479

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Trends and Changes in Hydroclimatic Variables: Links to Climate Variability and Change discusses the change detection and trend analysis methods used to assess hydroclimatic variables in a changing climate. Changes and trends in hydroclimatic variables are assessed using state-of-the-art methods, such as non-linear trend estimation (including spline smoothing and local regression) and handling persistence (or serial auto-correlation in data) for assessing trends in different hydroclimatic variables (e.g. pre-whitening methods). This book offers a variety of real-life case studies and problem-solving techniques for a field that is rapidly evolving. Users will find methods to evaluate points where time series characteristics change and non-homogeneity in time series. In addition, it covers the subject of climate variability and change in an immense level of detail, including changes on precipitation, streamflow and sea levels. Examines statistical methods for trend analysis, providing an excellent reference book for scholars, scientists, students and professionals Offers an exhaustive treatment of several hydroclimatic variables in one book, providing readers with a comprehensive understanding of changes in hydroclimatic variables over time and space Presents case studies dealing with changes in hydroclimatic variables in different geographical regions of the world Focuses on climate variability and change, including an extensive assessment of trends and their associated links to climate variability and change

Modeling Hydrologic Change

Statistical Methods

Author: Richard H. McCuen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420032194

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 7897

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Modeling hydrologic changes and predicting their impact on watersheds is a dominant concern for hydrologists and other water resource professionals, civil and environmental engineers, and urban and regional planners. As such changes continue, it becomes more essential to have the most up-to-date tools with which to perform the proper analyses and modeling of the complex ecology, morphology, and physical processes that occur within watersheds. An application-oriented text, Modeling Hydrologic Change: Statistical Methods provides a step-by-step presentation of modeling procedures to help you properly analyze and model real-world data. The text addresses modeling systems where change has affected data that will be used to calibrate and test models of the system. The use of actual hydrologic data will help you learn how to handle the vagaries of real-world hydrologic-change data. All four elements of the modeling process are discussed: conceptualization, formulation, calibration, and verification. Although the book is oriented towards the statistical aspects of modeling, a strong background in statistics is not required. The statistical and modeling methods discussed here will be of value to all disciplines involved in modeling change. With approximately 100 illustrations, Modeling Hydrologic Change will equip you with an understanding with which to perform the proper analyses and modeling of the complex processes that occur across various disciplines.

Statistical Methods in Hydrology and Hydroclimatology

Author: Rajib Maity

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811087792

Category: Science

Page: 444

View: 9904

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This book focuses on the application of statistical methods in the field of hydrology and hydroclimatology. Among the latest theories being used in these fields, the book introduces the theory of copulas and its applications in this context. The purpose is to develop an understanding and illustrate the usefulness of the statistical techniques with detailed theory and numerous worked out examples. Apart from this, MATLAB-based codes and solutions of some worked out examples are also provided to assist the readers to handle real life data. This book presents a comprehensive knowledge of statistical techniques combining the basics of probability and the current advances in stochastic hydrology. Besides serving as a textbook for graduate courses on stochastic modeling in hydrology and related disciplines, the book offers valuable resources for researchers and professionals involved in the field of hydrology and climatology.

Statistical Data Analysis Explained

Applied Environmental Statistics with R

Author: Clemens Reimann,Peter Filzmoser,Robert Garrett,Rudolf Dutter

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119965284

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 8423

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Few books on statistical data analysis in the natural sciences are written at a level that a non-statistician will easily understand. This is a book written in colloquial language, avoiding mathematical formulae as much as possible, trying to explain statistical methods using examples and graphics instead. To use the book efficiently, readers should have some computer experience. The book starts with the simplest of statistical concepts and carries readers forward to a deeper and more extensive understanding of the use of statistics in environmental sciences. The book concerns the application of statistical and other computer methods to the management, analysis and display of spatial data. These data are characterised by including locations (geographic coordinates), which leads to the necessity of using maps to display the data and the results of the statistical methods. Although the book uses examples from applied geochemistry, and a large geochemical survey in particular, the principles and ideas equally well apply to other natural sciences, e.g., environmental sciences, pedology, hydrology, geography, forestry, ecology, and health sciences/epidemiology. The book is unique because it supplies direct access to software solutions (based on R, the Open Source version of the S-language for statistics) for applied environmental statistics. For all graphics and tables presented in the book, the R-scripts are provided in the form of executable R-scripts. In addition, a graphical user interface for R, called DAS+R, was developed for convenient, fast and interactive data analysis. Statistical Data Analysis Explained: Applied Environmental Statistics with R provides, on an accompanying website, the software to undertake all the procedures discussed, and the data employed for their description in the book.

Statistical Analysis of Extreme Values

from Insurance, Finance, Hydrology and Other Fields

Author: Rolf-Dieter Reiss,Michael Thomas

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3034863365

Category: Mathematics

Page: 316

View: 7402

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The statistical analysis of extreme data is important for various disciplines, including hydrology, insurance, finance, engineering and environmental sciences. This book provides a self-contained introduction to the parametric modeling, exploratory analysis and statistical interference for extreme values. The entire text of this third edition has been thoroughly updated and rearranged to meet the new requirements. Additional sections and chapters, elaborated on more than 100 pages, are particularly concerned with topics like dependencies, the conditional analysis and the multivariate modeling of extreme data. Parts I–III about the basic extreme value methodology remain unchanged to some larger extent, yet notable are, e.g., the new sections about "An Overview of Reduced-Bias Estimation" (co-authored by M.I. Gomes), "The Spectral Decomposition Methodology", and "About Tail Independence" (co-authored by M. Frick), and the new chapter about "Extreme Value Statistics of Dependent Random Variables" (co-authored by H. Drees). Other new topics, e.g., a chapter about "Environmental Sciences", (co--authored by R.W. Katz), are collected within Parts IV–VI.

Statistical Methods in Hydrology

Author: Charles T Haan

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780813815039

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 378

View: 3081

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This classic text and reference has been totally revised, redesigned, and comprehensively updated for the new millennium and beyond—bound in a new, revamped hardcover version. Inside, the reader will find improved coverage of time series analysis by the addition of a treatment of IRIMA models, improved coverage of regression with the addition of consideration of multicollinarity and correlated errors, increased material on Bayesian statistics, and a major section on the use of statistics in hydrologic and water quality modeling; which includes sensitivity analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, First Order Analysis, uncertainty analysis, parameter estimation for models, and calibration and verification of models. A greater emphasis, in this new edition, has been on the use of computers in statistical analysis without the dependence on any one particular software vendor. The reader of this new edition will also notice improved coverage on plotting and graphical analysis and some added coverage of nonparametric terms applicable in hydrology. Exercises follow nearly every chapter for increased retention and learning.

Hydrologic Time Series Analysis

Theory and Practice

Author: Deepesh Machiwal,Madan Kumar Jha

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400718616

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 482

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There is a dearth of relevant books dealing with both theory and application of time series analysis techniques, particularly in the field of water resources engineering. Therefore, many hydrologists and hydrogeologists face difficulties in adopting time series analysis as one of the tools for their research. This book fills this gap by providing a proper blend of theoretical and practical aspects of time sereies analysis. It deals with a comprehensive overview of time series characteristics in hydrology/water resources engineering, various tools and techniques for analyzing time series data, theoretical details of 31 available statistical tests along with detailed procedures for applying them to real-world time series data, theory and methodology of stochastic modelling, and current status of time series analysis in hydrological sciences. In adition, it demonstrates the application of most time series tests through a case study as well as presents a comparative performance evaluation of various time series tests, together with four invited case studies from India and abroad. This book will not only serve as a textbook for the students and teachers in water resources engineering but will also serve as the most comprehensive reference to educate researchers/scientists about the theory and practice of time series analysis in hydrological sciences. This book will be very useful to the students, researchers, teachers and professionals involved in water resources, hydrology, ecology, climate change, earth science, and environmental studies.

Statistical Methods in Water Resources

Author: D.R. Helsel,R.M. Hirsch

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080875088

Category: Mathematics

Page: 546

View: 4282

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Data on water quality and other environmental issues are being collected at an ever-increasing rate. In the past, however, the techniques used by scientists to interpret this data have not progressed as quickly. This is a book of modern statistical methods for analysis of practical problems in water quality and water resources. The last fifteen years have seen major advances in the fields of exploratory data analysis (EDA) and robust statistical methods. The 'real-life' characteristics of environmental data tend to drive analysis towards the use of these methods. These advances are presented in a practical and relevant format. Alternate methods are compared, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each as applied to environmental data. Techniques for trend analysis and dealing with water below the detection limit are topics covered, which are of great interest to consultants in water-quality and hydrology, scientists in state, provincial and federal water resources, and geological survey agencies. The practising water resources scientist will find the worked examples using actual field data from case studies of environmental problems, of real value. Exercises at the end of each chapter enable the mechanics of the methodological process to be fully understood, with data sets included on diskette for easy use. The result is a book that is both up-to-date and immediately relevant to ongoing work in the environmental and water sciences.

Statistics for Long-Memory Processes

Author: Jan Beran

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351414100

Category: Mathematics

Page: 315

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Statistical Methods for Long Term Memory Processes covers the diverse statistical methods and applications for data with long-range dependence. Presenting material that previously appeared only in journals, the author provides a concise and effective overview of probabilistic foundations, statistical methods, and applications. The material emphasizes basic principles and practical applications and provides an integrated perspective of both theory and practice. This book explores data sets from a wide range of disciplines, such as hydrology, climatology, telecommunications engineering, and high-precision physical measurement. The data sets are conveniently compiled in the index, and this allows readers to view statistical approaches in a practical context. Statistical Methods for Long Term Memory Processes also supplies S-PLUS programs for the major methods discussed. This feature allows the practitioner to apply long memory processes in daily data analysis. For newcomers to the area, the first three chapters provide the basic knowledge necessary for understanding the remainder of the material. To promote selective reading, the author presents the chapters independently. Combining essential methodologies with real-life applications, this outstanding volume is and indispensable reference for statisticians and scientists who analyze data with long-range dependence.

Practical and Applied Hydrogeology

Author: Zekâi Şen

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128005815

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 7887

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Applications in Hydrogeology for Geoscientists presents the most recent scientific developments in the field that are accessible yet rigorous enough for industry professionals and academic researchers alike. A multi-contributed reference that features the knowledge and experience of the field’s experts, the book’s chapters span the full scope of hydrogeology, introducing new approaches and progress in conceptualization, simulation of groundwater flow and transport, and progressive hydro-geophysical methods. Each chapter includes examples of recent developments in hydrogeology, groundwater, and hydrology that are underscored with perspectives regarding the challenges that are facing industry professionals, researchers, and academia. Several sub-themes—including theoretical advances in conceptualization and modeling of hydro-geologic challenges—connect the chapters and weave the topics together holistically. Advances in research are aided by insights arising from observations from both field and laboratory work. Introduces new approaches and progress in hydrogeology, including conceptualization, simulated groundwater flow and transport, and cutting edge hydro-geophysical methods Features more than 100 figures, diagrams, and illustrations to highlight major themes and aid in the retention of key concepts Presents a holistic approach to advances in hydrogeology, from the most recent developments in reservoirs and hydraulics to analytic modeling of transient multi-layer flow and aquifer flow theory Integrates real life data, examples and processes, making the content practical and immediately implementable

Mathematical and Statistical Methods for Actuarial Sciences and Finance

Author: Marco Corazza,Claudio Pizzi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331902499X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 313

View: 5117

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The interaction between mathematicians and statisticians has been shown to be an effective approach for dealing with actuarial, insurance and financial problems, both from an academic perspective and from an operative one. The collection of original papers presented in this volume pursues precisely this purpose. It covers a wide variety of subjects in actuarial, insurance and finance fields, all treated in the light of the successful cooperation between the above two quantitative approaches. The papers published in this volume present theoretical and methodological contributions and their applications to real contexts. With respect to the theoretical and methodological contributions, some of the considered areas of investigation are: actuarial models; alternative testing approaches; behavioral finance; clustering techniques; coherent and non-coherent risk measures; credit scoring approaches; data envelopment analysis; dynamic stochastic programming; financial contagion models; financial ratios; intelligent financial trading systems; mixture normality approaches; Monte Carlo-based methods; multicriteria methods; nonlinear parameter estimation techniques; nonlinear threshold models; particle swarm optimization; performance measures; portfolio optimization; pricing methods for structured and non-structured derivatives; risk management; skewed distribution analysis; solvency analysis; stochastic actuarial valuation methods; variable selection models; time series analysis tools. As regards the applications, they are related to real problems associated, among the others, to: banks; collateralized fund obligations; credit portfolios; defined benefit pension plans; double-indexed pension annuities; efficient-market hypothesis; exchange markets; financial time series; firms; hedge funds; non-life insurance companies; returns distributions; socially responsible mutual funds; unit-linked contracts. This book is aimed at academics, Ph.D. students, practitioners, professionals and researchers. But it will also be of interest to readers with some quantitative background knowledge.

Introduction to Geostatistics

Applications in Hydrogeology

Author: P. K. Kitanidis

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521587471

Category: Science

Page: 249

View: 9361

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Introduction to Geostatistics presents practical techniques for engineers and applied geophysicists who routinely encounter interpolation and estimation problems when analyzing data from field observations. Requiring no background in statistics, and with a unique approach that synthesizes classic and geostatistical methods, this book presents linear estimation methods for practitioners and advanced students. Well illustrated with exercises and worked examples, taken from hydrogeology Introduction to Geostatistics is suitable for graduate-level courses in earth sciences and environmental engineering, and also for self-study.

Biogeography

An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach

Author: C. Barry Cox,Peter D. Moore,Richard Ladle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118968603

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 4863

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Through eight successful editions, and over nearly 40 years, Biogeography: An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach has provided a thorough and comprehensive exploration of the varied scientific disciplines and research that are essential to understanding the subject. The text has been praised for its solid background in historical biogeography and basic biology, that is enhanced and illuminated by discussions of current research. This new edition incorporates the exciting changes of the recent years, and presents a thoughtful exploration of the research and controversies that have transformed our understanding of the biogeography of the world. It also clearly identifies the three quite different arenas of biogeographical research: continental biogeography, island biogeography and marine biogeography. It is the only current textbook with full coverage of marine biogeography. It reveals how the patterns of life that we see today have been created by the two great Engines of the Planet - the Geological Engine, plate tectonics, which alters the conditions of life on the planet, and the Biological Engine, evolution, which responds to these changes by creating new forms and patterns of life.

Groundwater Hydrology of Springs

Engineering, Theory, Management and Sustainability

Author: Neven Kresic,Zoran Stevanovic

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 9780080949451

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 5030

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Groundwater Hydrology of Water Resource Series - Water is an essential environmental resource and one that needs to be properly managed. As the world places more emphasis on sustainable water supplies, the demand for expertise in hydrology and water resources continues to increase. This series is intended for professional engineers, who seek a firm foundation in hydrology and an ability to apply this knowledge to solve problems in water resource management. Future books in the series are: Groudwater Hydrology of Springs (2009), Groudwater Hydrology of River Basins (2009), Groudwater Hydrology of Aquifers (2010), and Groudwater Hydrology of Wetlands (2010). First utilized as a primary source of drinking water in the ancient world, springs continue to supply many of the world's cities with water. In recent years their long-term sustainability is under pressure due to an increased demand from groundwater users. Edited by two world-renowned hydrologists, Groundwater Hydrology of Springs: Theory, Management, and Sustainability will provide civil and environmental engineers with a comprehensive reference for managing and sustaining the water quality of Springs. With contributions from experts from around the world, this book cover many of the world's largest springs, providing a unique global perspective on how engineers around the world are utilizing engineering principles for coping with problems such as: mismanagement, overexploitation and their impacts both water quantity and quality. The book will be divided into two parts: part one will explain the theory and principles of hydrology as they apply to Springs while part two will provide a rare look into the engineering practices used to manage some of the most important Springs from around the world. Description of the spring and the aquifer feeding it Latest groundwater and contaminant transport models Description of sources of aquifer use Understanding of contamination and/or possible contamination A plan for management and sustainability

Geostatistics Explained

An Introductory Guide for Earth Scientists

Author: Steve McKillup,Melinda Darby Dyar

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139486691

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4635

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A reader-friendly introduction to geostatistics for students and researchers struggling with statistics. Using simple, clear explanations for introductory and advanced material, it demystifies complex concepts and makes formulas and statistical tests easy to apply. Beginning with a critical evaluation of experimental and sampling design, the book moves on to explain essential concepts of probability, statistical significance and type 1 and type 2 error. An accessible graphical explanation of analysis of variance (ANOVA) leads onto advanced ANOVA designs, correlation and regression, and non-parametric tests including chi-square. Finally, it introduces the essentials of multivariate techniques, multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis, analysis of sequences and concepts of spatial analysis. Illustrated with wide-ranging examples from topics across the Earth and environmental sciences, Geostatistics Explained can be used for undergraduate courses or for self-study and reference. Worked examples at the end of each chapter reinforce a clear understanding of the statistical tests and their applications.

Statistics and Probability for Engineering Applications with Microsoft Excel

Author: William J. DeCoursey

Publisher: Amsterdam : Newnes

ISBN: 9780750676182

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 396

View: 4655

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More than ever, American industry- especially the semiconductor industry- is using statistical methods to improve its competitive edge in the world market. It is becoming more imperative that graduate engineers have solid statistical know-how, yet engineers in industry typically are not well-prepared to use statistics and they are fuzzy about how to apply statistical tools and techniques. This valuable reference makes statistical methods easier and more accessible to engineers. Although the book can be read sequentially, like a normal textbook, it is designed to be used as a handbook, pointing the reader to the topics and sections pertinent to a particular type of statistical problem. It contains the following features: * Covers all major topics treated in a standard college engineering statistics course, but minimizes the mathematical derivations and focuses on practical applications * Uses real data sets/case studies taken from electronics, electrical engineering, and other engineering fields, such as mechanical and chemical engineering * Contains numerous software examples using the powerful statistical functions of Excel In addition, the book provides an "engineering problem solver" section that directs the reader to the relevant section of the book for the problem they are trying to solve. The accompanying CD-ROM contains the Excel data sets for the examples and case studies given in the book, along with other statistical tools and software. * Filled with practical techniques directly applicable on the job * Contains hundreds of solved problems and case studies, using real data sets * Avoids unnecessary theory

Statistical Postprocessing of Ensemble Forecasts

Author: Stéphane Vannitsem,Daniel S. Wilks,Jakob Messner

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 012812248X

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 977

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Statistical Postprocessing of Ensemble Forecasts brings together chapters contributed by international subject-matter experts describing the current state of the art in the statistical postprocessing of ensemble forecasts. The book illustrates the use of these methods in several important applications including weather, hydrological and climate forecasts, and renewable energy forecasting. After an introductory section on ensemble forecasts and prediction systems, the second section of the book is devoted to exposition of the methods available for statistical postprocessing of ensemble forecasts: univariate and multivariate ensemble postprocessing are first reviewed by Wilks (Chapters 3), then Schefzik and Möller (Chapter 4), and the more specialized perspective necessary for postprocessing forecasts for extremes is presented by Friederichs, Wahl, and Buschow (Chapter 5). The second section concludes with a discussion of forecast verification methods devised specifically for evaluation of ensemble forecasts (Chapter 6 by Thorarinsdottir and Schuhen). The third section of this book is devoted to applications of ensemble postprocessing. Practical aspects of ensemble postprocessing are first detailed in Chapter 7 (Hamill), including an extended and illustrative case study. Chapters 8 (Hemri), 9 (Pinson and Messner), and 10 (Van Schaeybroeck and Vannitsem) discuss ensemble postprocessing specifically for hydrological applications, postprocessing in support of renewable energy applications, and postprocessing of long-range forecasts from months to decades. Finally, Chapter 11 (Messner) provides a guide to the ensemble-postprocessing software available in the R programming language, which should greatly help readers implement many of the ideas presented in this book. Edited by three experts with strong and complementary expertise in statistical postprocessing of ensemble forecasts, this book assesses the new and rapidly developing field of ensemble forecast postprocessing as an extension of the use of statistical corrections to traditional deterministic forecasts. Statistical Postprocessing of Ensemble Forecasts is an essential resource for researchers, operational practitioners, and students in weather, seasonal, and climate forecasting, as well as users of such forecasts in fields involving renewable energy, conventional energy, hydrology, environmental engineering, and agriculture. Consolidates, for the first time, the methodologies and applications of ensemble forecasts in one succinct place Provides real-world examples of methods used to formulate forecasts Presents the tools needed to make the best use of multiple model forecasts in a timely and efficient manner

Hydrology and Hydraulic Systems

Fourth Edition

Author: Ram S. Gupta

Publisher: Waveland Press

ISBN: 1478634219

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 888

View: 465

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For more than 25 years, the multiple editions of Hydrology & Hydraulic Systems have set the standard for a comprehensive, authoritative treatment of the quantitative elements of water resources development. The latest edition extends this tradition of excellence in a thoroughly revised volume that reflects the current state of practice in the field of hydrology. Widely praised for its direct and concise presentation, practical orientation, and wealth of example problems, Hydrology & Hydraulic Systems presents fundamental theories and concepts balanced with excellent coverage of engineering applications and design. The Fourth Edition features a major revision of the chapter on distribution systems, as well as a new chapter on the application of remote sensing and computer modeling to hydrology. Outstanding features of the Fourth Edition include . . . • More than 350 illustrations and 200 tables • More than 225 fully solved examples, both in FPS and SI units • Fully worked-out examples of design projects with realistic data • More than 500 end-of-chapter problems for assignment • Discussion of statistical procedures for groundwater monitoring in accordance with the EPA’s Unified Guidance • Detailed treatment of hydrologic field investigations and analytical procedures for data assessment, including the USGS acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) approach • Thorough coverage of theory and design of loose-boundary channels, including the latest concept of combining the regime theory and the power function laws

Climate Time Series Analysis

Classical Statistical and Bootstrap Methods

Author: Manfred Mudelsee

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048194827

Category: Science

Page: 474

View: 704

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Climate is a paradigm of a complex system. Analysing climate data is an exciting challenge, which is increased by non-normal distributional shape, serial dependence, uneven spacing and timescale uncertainties. This book presents bootstrap resampling as a computing-intensive method able to meet the challenge. It shows the bootstrap to perform reliably in the most important statistical estimation techniques: regression, spectral analysis, extreme values and correlation. This book is written for climatologists and applied statisticians. It explains step by step the bootstrap algorithms (including novel adaptions) and methods for confidence interval construction. It tests the accuracy of the algorithms by means of Monte Carlo experiments. It analyses a large array of climate time series, giving a detailed account on the data and the associated climatological questions. This makes the book self-contained for graduate students and researchers.