Urban Climates

Author: T. R. Oke,G. Mills,A. Christen,J. A. Voogt

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521849500

Category: Political Science

Page: 582

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Urban Climates is the first full synthesis of modern scientific and applied research on urban climates. The book begins with an outline of what constitutes an urban ecosystem. It develops a comprehensive terminology for the subject using scale and surface classification as key constructs. It explains the physical principles governing the creation of distinct urban climates, such as airflow around buildings, the heat island, precipitation modification and air pollution, and it then illustrates how this knowledge can be applied to moderate the undesirable consequences of urban development and help create more sustainable and resilient cities. With urban climate science now a fully-fledged field, this timely book fulfills the need to bring together the disparate parts of climate research on cities into a coherent framework. It is an ideal resource for students and researchers in fields such as climatology, urban hydrology, air quality, environmental engineering and urban design.

The Urban Climate

Author: Helmut E. Landsberg

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080924199

Category: Science

Page: 275

View: 7888

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The Urban Climate aims to summarize analytical studies directed toward physical understanding of the rural-urban differences in the atmospheric boundary layer. Attempts to quantify conditions have met with some success. There is certainly a clear understanding of the physical relations that create the climatic differences of urbanized areas. Although some of the earlier classical studies are cited here, the emphasis is on the work done during the last decade and a half. This volume comprises 11 chapters, beginning with an introductory chapter discussing the literature surrounding the topic, its historical development, and the problem of local climate modification. The second chapter presents an assessment of the urban atmosphere on a synoptic and local scale, and examines the observational procedures involved. The following chapters then go on to discuss urban air composition; urban energy fluxes; the urban heat island; the urban wind field; models of urban temperature and wind fields; moisture, clouds, and hydrometeors; urban hydrology; special aspects of urban climate; and finally, urban planning. This book will be of interest to practitioners in the fields of meteorology, urban planning, and urban climatology.

The Urban Climatic Map

A Methodology for Sustainable Urban Planning

Author: Edward Ng,Chao Ren

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317510526

Category: Architecture

Page: 476

View: 8508

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Rapid urbanization, higher density and more compact cities have brought about a new science of urban climatology. An understanding of the mapping of this phenomenon is crucial for urban planners. The book brings together experts in the field of Urban Climatic Mapping to provide the state of the art understanding on how urban climatic knowledge can be made available and utilized by urban planners. The book contains the technology, methodology, and various focuses and approaches of urban climatic map making. It illustrates this understanding with examples and case studies from around the world, and it explains how urban climatic information can be analysed, interpreted and applied in urban planning. The book attempts to bridge the gap between the science of urban climatology and the practice of urban planning. It provides a useful one-stop reference for postgraduates, academics and urban climatologists wishing to better understand the needs for urban climatic knowledge in city planning; and urban planners and policy makers interested in applying the knowledge to design future sustainable cities and quality urban spaces.

Climates and Societies - A Climatological Perspective

A Contribution on Global Change and Related Problems Prepared by the Commission on Climatology of the International Geographical Union

Author: M. Yoshino,Manfred Domrös,Annick Douguédroit,J. Paszynski,L.C. Nkemdirim

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401710554

Category: Science

Page: 408

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The impact of climate on human activities and the effect of humans on cli mate are two of the most important areas of inquiry in climatology. These interactions conducted through physical, chemical and biological process es were described as early as Roman and Greek times. Marcus Vitruvius (75-25 B. C. ), a famous Roman engineer and architect, made the following observation about the climatic conditions necessary for founding a city: Land ideal for the health is slightly elevated and there should be neither fog nor frost. The direction of the slope and the distance to the swamps, lakes, and beaches must also be considered. The prevailing wind directions, observed by a wind tower at the center of the city, like Horologium at Athens, should be taken into consideration in city planning. The main and narrow streets should be placed in the middle angle of the two prevailing wind directions. Then the location of the Pantheons and squares should be decided. The influence of humans on climate was a major subject for discussion in the 19th century, inspired in part, by the rapid industrial growth and expanding deforestation of the time. D. L. Howard wrote brilliant pieces on the climate of London in the 1830s, while G . P. Marsh discussed the effects of forests on precipitation in the U. S . A. in the second half of the 19th century.

Urban Climates

Proceedings of the Symposium on Urban Climates and Building Climatology

Author: World Meteorological Organization

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Urban climatology

Page: 390

View: 753

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Urban Forests and Trees

A Reference Book

Author: Cecil C. Konijnendijk,Kjell Nilsson,Thomas B. Randrup,Jasper Schipperijn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540251262

Category: Architecture

Page: 520

View: 3883

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This multidisciplinary book covers all aspects of planning, designing, establishing and managing forests and trees and forests in and near urban areas, with chapters by experts in forestry, horticulture, landscape ecology, landscape architecture and even plant pathology. Beginning with historical and conceptual basics, the coverage includes policy, design, implementation and management of forestry for urban populations.

WorldMinds

Geographical Perspectives on 100 Problems

Author: Donald G. Janelle,Barney Warf,Kathy Hansen,Gamaiel Zavala,Benjamin Sprague

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402016134

Category: Science

Page: 635

View: 2909

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WorldMinds provides broad exposure to a geography that is engaged with discovery, interpretation, and problem solving. Its 100 succinct chapters demonstrate the theories, methods, and data used by geographers, and exemplify the conceptual and topical richness of contemporary geography. The 150 contributing authors and co-authors address the challenges posed by issues such as globalization, regional and ethnic conflict, environmental hazards, terrorism, poverty, and sustainable development. This volume demonstrates the utility of geography as a conceptual discipline that contributes theoretically; as an applied practice that informs policy-making; and as a coherent set of methodologies to gather and analyze data about Earth and its occupants. WorldMinds is the ideal general reader to supplement textbooks in the full range of academic geography courses. In addition to geography students and instructors, it is relevant to researchers, applied geographers and policy makers.

Designing High-density Cities for Social and Environmental Sustainability

Author: Edward Ng

Publisher: Earthscan

ISBN: 1849774447

Category: Architecture

Page: 384

View: 8554

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Compact living is sustainable living. High-density cities can support closer amenities, encourage reduced trip lengths and the use of public transport and therefore reduce transport energy costs and carbon emissions. High-density planning also helps to control the spread of urban suburbs into open lands, improves efficiency in urban infrastructure and services, and results in environmental improvements that support higher quality of life in cities. Encouraging, even requiring, higher density urban development is a major policy and a central principle of growth management programmes used by planners around the world. However, such density creates design challenges and problems. A collection of experts in each of the related architectural and planning areas examines these environmental and social issues, and argues that high-density cities are a sustainable solution. It will be essential reading for anyone with an interest in sustainable urban development.

Meteorologie und Klimatologie

Eine Einführung

Author: Horst Malberg

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662087006

Category: Science

Page: 364

View: 1855

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Auf der Basis der physikalischen Grundlagen (Strahlung, Luftbewegung, Wolken- und Niederschlagsbildung) sowie der verschiedenen Methoden der Wetterbeobachtung (Boden, Radiosonde, Satelliten, Radar) werden Wettersysteme und Wettervorhersage verständlich erläutert. Die allgemeine atmosphärische Zirkulation verknüpft das kurzlebige Wettergeschehen mit dem großräumigen Klima auf der Erde. Ausführungen über Klimaänderungen, orographische Windsysteme, Stadtklima, Luftverunreinigungen und Wetterbeeinflussung runden die Einführung in den aktuellen Stand der Meteorologie und Klimatologie ab. Die 4. Aufl. beinhaltet zahlreiche Aktualisierungen und Ergänzungen, so z.B. zu den lufthygienischen Bedingungen in Tälern, und wurde um ein Kapitel über El Nino bzw. ENSO erweitert.

Meteorological and Air Quality Models for Urban Areas

Author: Alexander Baklanov,Sue Grimmond,Alexander Mahura,Maria Athanassiadou

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642002984

Category: Science

Page: 184

View: 6158

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This book for the first time gives an overall view of the current situation in urbanization of meteorological and air quality models around the world. It discusses and makes recommendations on the best practice and strategy for urbanization of different types of meteorological and air quality models. Based on the selected presentations given at the COST728 workshop, the contributions are arranged in four parts: urban morphology and databases; parameterizations of urban canopy; strategy for urbanization of different types of models; and evaluation and city case studies / field studies. The chapters treat either dynamic (on wind and turbulent) and thermal effects (on temperature and energy in general). The final chapter of this volume summarizes the discussion and conclusions from the four main topics and provides recommendations and future requirements. This monograph is oriented towards numerical weather prediction and air quality modelling communities.

A Dictionary of Geography

Author: Susan Mayhew

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191053805

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 6767

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Containing over 3,100 entries on all aspects of both human and physical geography, this best-selling dictionary is the most authoritative single-volume reference work of its kind. It includes coverage of cartography, surveying, meteorology, climatology, ecology, population, industry, and development. Worked examples and diagrams are provided for many entries, including 15 new illustrations. All existing entries have been fully revised and updated for this new edition, and there is now expanded coverage of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and glacial geomorphology, as well as the inclusion of more international examples within definitions, broadening its coverage considerably. The dictionary includes more than 400 new entries, including economies of scope, marginalization, rurality, and tax havens and offshore financial centres. Recommended web links are suggested for many entries, accessible and kept up to date via the Dictionary of Geography companion website. Packed with clear, concise, and authoritative information, this A-Z reference is an essential companion for all students and teachers of geography.

Wind Climate in Cities

Author: Jack E. Cermak,Alan G. Davenport,Erich J. Plate,Domingos X. Viegas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792332022

Category: Science

Page: 772

View: 8732

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If one surveys the development of wind engineering, one comes to the conclusion that the challenge of urban climatology is one of the most important remaining tasks for the wind engineers. But what distinguishes wind engineering in urban areas from conventional wind engineering? Principally, the fact that the effects studied are usually unique to a particular situation, requiring consideration of the surroundings of the buildings. In the past, modelling criteria have been developed that make it possible to solve environmental problems with great confidence, and studies validated the models: at least in a neutrally stratified atmosphere. The approach adopted in the book is that of applied fluid mechanics, since this forms the basis for the evaluation of the urban wind field. Variables for air quality or loads are problem specific, or even random, and methods for studying them are based on risk analysis, which is also presented. Criteria are developed for a systematic approach to urban wind engineering problems, including parameter studies. The five sections of the book are: Fundamentals of urban boundary layer and dispersion; Forces on complex structures in built-up areas; Air pollution in cities; Numerical solution techniques; and Posters. A subject index is included.

Dictionary of Global Climate Change

Author: N.A

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0585295735

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 374

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Climate, climate change, climate fluctuations and climatic trends are only a few of the terms used today, in not only conferences, scientific symposia and workshops, but also parliaments and in discussions throughout society. climatologists these terms may be well known; to the vast majority of people, however, they are new, and they require definition and explanation. The World Meteorological Organization inherited an interest and involvement in the studies of climate and climate change from its predecessor, the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was established in 1873. By 1929 the had set up a Commission for Climatology to deal with matters related to climate studies. When, in 1950, the World Meteorological Organization assumed the mantle of the it retained the commission which, among other responsibilities, had already recognized the need for the definition and explanation of terms used in climatology. It must also be said that much of what we now know about climate derives from the scientific and technical programmes - ordinated by and now, to a much greater extent, by In 1979, the First World Climate Conference made an assessment of the status of knowledge of climate and climate variability, and recommended the establishment of a World Climate Programme.

Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate

Author: Roger Graham Barry,Richard J. Chorley

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415271707

Category: Nature

Page: 421

View: 9478

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Atmosphere, Weather and Climateis the essential introduction to weather processes and climatic conditions around the world, their observed variability and changes, and projected future trends. Extensively revised and updated, this eighth edition retains its popular tried and tested structure while incorporating recent advances in the field. From clear explanations of the basic physical and chemical principles of the atmosphere, to descriptions of regional climates and their changes, Atmosphere, Weather and Climatepresents a comprehensive coverage of global meteorology and climatology.

The Future of the World's Climate

Author: Ann Henderson-Sellers,K. McGuffie

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 012386917X

Category: Science

Page: 650

View: 5477

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The study of climate today seems to be dominated by global warming, but these predictions of climatic models must be placed in their geological, paleo-climatic, and astronomical context to create a complete picture of the Earth's future climate. The Future of the World's Climate presents that perspective with data and projections that have emerged from more technologically advanced and accurate climate modeling. The book is comprised of 18 new and revised chapters that feature reviews of current climate science. The authors are drawn from all over the world and from the highest regarded peer-reviewed groups. Each chapter has undergone major revisions and new content has been added throughout. Authored by the world's leading climate scientists, most of whom are also contributing authors to the IPCC Assessment Reports. More than 200 tables, diagrams, illustrations, and photographs Climate modeling technology is more advanced and precise than it was 15 years ago-a major implication featured in this new edition.