Urban Water Conflicts

UNESCO-IHP

Author: Bernard Barraque

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 0203877020

Category: Science

Page: 344

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Urban water conflicts manifested first in Europe in the 19th century and are observed nowadays in various forms throughout the world; in particular, in developing countries. Main causes of these conflicts are characterized by complex socioeconomic and institutional issues related to urban water management. The debate about public water services versus private water supplies is frequently associated with conflicts over water price and affordability. On the other hand, the issue of centralization versus decentralization of water utilities is also often discussed in the context of institutional aspects of urban water management. These issues are intertwined and, thereby, a critical examination of socioeconomic and institutional aspects of urban water management in a holistic way is important for better understanding water conflicts in urban areas. Urban Water Conflicts – the output of a project by UNESCO’s International Hydrological Programme on “Socioeconomic and Institutional Aspects in Urban Water Management” – presents a collection of essays on socioeconomic and institutional aspects of urban water management, focusing on water and sanitation services. The book examines interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and analyzing conflicts that arise from inadequate urban water management. Conflict analysis is addressed in some essays by taking into account economic, environmental and social dimensions of sustainability. The issue of institutional conflicts between different levels of government is also discussed in some case studies.

Sustainable Urban Water Environment

Climate, Pollution and Adaptation

Author: Ashantha Goonetilleke,Tan Yigitcanlar,Godwin A. Ayoko,Prasanna Egodawatta

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1781004641

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

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This multi-disciplinary book provides practical solutions for safeguarding the sustainability of the urban water environment. Firstly, the importance of the urban water environment is highlighted and the major problems urban water bodies face an

Managing Urban Water Supply

Author: D.E. Agthe,R.B. Billings,N. Buras

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402017209

Category: Science

Page: 277

View: 7602

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We, the editors, have long believed that a strong knowledge of relatively simple economic and engineering concepts is valuable in solving water management problems. The lack of such knowledge has been apparent to us in some of the journal articles, research proposals and books we have reviewed. The articles which have been written concerning specific local water economies and management issues are scattered over a wide variety of journals, making them hard to access. Most of the extensive water resources literature is concerned with large regional water projects or with narrow technical and regional issues. This book was written to make practical economic and engineering concepts readily available to urban water supply managers, thereby filling a gap in the available literature. It is concerned with decisions made daily, monthly, or annually by managers of urban water supply systems. The book includes basic chapters presenting supply and cost concepts, calculation of demand elasticities, use of marketing concepts, public goods analysis, water markets, industrial water demand and the use of price in water conservation. The authors have included multiple examples of how these concepts can aid in managing urban water supply. The water provider is generally a governmental entity or regulated private utility. Most books on public utilities and their management emphasize gas, electricity, or telephone rather than water. Water is different because of m~or variations in quality by source and the necessity for proper disposal of waste water.

Urban Water Infrastructure

Author: K.E. Schilling,Eric Porter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400905599

Category: Science

Page: 328

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URBAN WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NATO ADVANCED RESEARCH WORKSHOP SUMMARY 22-27 JUNE 1989 KYLE E SCHILLING P E Workshop Director The Workshop was based on the recognition that all NATO countries are concerned with similar water infrastructure issues. Present problems are aggravated by aging and neglected facilities, by inadequate financing and by water management institutions reflecting the needs of an earlier era. Service needs to be provided for expanding populations, at the same time that corrective measures must be taken for decaying older urban centers, resulting both from neglect and expiring service life. These needs exist within the framewode of other competing and conflicting uses for existing and yet to be developed water sources. The problems have generated some highly visible national debates over financing due to the large sums involved. Despite differences in the age of the North American, European and other societies, the technological ages of water supply and storm water systems are much the same and provide a common denominator in the worldwide trend to urbanization. Examination of approaches to urban water management also indicates that they are generally based on past experience and institutions created in a non-urban era. The physical, financial and institutional alternatives are consequently often out-of-step with current urban environment. Historically, the supply of adequate water and efficient storm water management have also been top priority items with water quality and other aspects of environmental protection assuming a lower priority after basic supply needs have been met.

Urban Water Engineering and Management

Author: Mohammad Karamouz,Ali Moridi,Sara Nazif

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439882517

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 628

View: 8732

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In past decades, urban water management practices focused on optimizing the design and operation of water distribution networks, wastewater collection systems, and water and wastewater treatment plants. However, municipalities are now faced with aging urban water infrastructures whose operation must be improved and expanded to maintain current high standards of living as well as new challenges such as climate change, systems sustainability and water quality issues. Integrating the latest developments in urban water hydrology and management, Urban Water Engineering and Management takes a system approach to urban water hydrology, engineering, planning and management, supplying examples and case studies and highlighting pressing issues such as urban water governance, disaster management, and climate change impacts on urban areas. The book draws attention to climate change as a main concern of this century by focusing on its impact the components of water cycle. The book covers modeling of urban water cycle components, urban water supply, and distribution systems demand forecasting. It also presents classical issues, such as design of water distribution networks and wastewater and storm collection in urban settings, from a system's perspective. The text also includes a discussion of water governance and disaster management in urban areas and the urbanization effects on the environment and the needed water infrastructure development in urban areas. Against this background, the authors discuss the importance of understanding the principles of simulation, optimization, multiple-criterion decision making, and conflict resolution for successful, integrated urban water management. They explore integrated water management and planning solutions for incorporating structural and nonstructural means to achieve the best operational schemes at affordable costs, going beyond using the existing structures and physical limitations on water availability to include technical, social, political, and economic aspects of better water and wastewater management in urban areas. Written and designed especially for intermediate and advanced courses/modules in water resources in civil and environmental engineering, and in urban planning, the book can be used as a textbook for civil engineering, urban and regional planning, geography, environmental science, and in courses dealing with urban water cycle. It also introduces new horizons for engineers as well as policy and decision makers who plan for future urban water and regional sustainability. Engineers and planners, especially those who work on design, planning, and management of urban systems and/or community development, can use this book in practice because it deals with a broad range of real world urban water problems.

Transforming Urban Water Supplies in India

The Role of Reform and Partnerships in Globalization

Author: Govind Gopakumar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136637451

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

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The absence of water supply infrastructure is a critical issue that affects the sustainability of cities in the developing world and the quality of life of millions of people living in these cities. Urban India has probably the largest concentration of people in the world lacking safe access to these infrastructures. This book is a unique study of the politics of water supply infrastructures in three metropolitan cities in contemporary India – Bangalore, Chennai and Kochi. It examines the process of change in water supply infrastructure initiated by notable Public Private Partnership’s efforts in these three cities to reveal the complexity of state-society relations in India at multiple levels – at the state, city and neighbourhood levels. Using a comparative methodology, the book develops as understanding of the changes in the production of reform water policy in contemporary India and its reception at the sub-national (state) level. It goes on to examine the governance of regimes of water supply in Bangalore, Chennai and Kochi, and evaluates the role of the partnerships in reforming water supply. The book is a useful contribution to studies on Urban Development and South Asian Politics.

Any Way You Slice It

The Past, Present, and Future of Rationing

Author: Stan Cox

Publisher: New Press, The

ISBN: 1595588841

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

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Rationing: it’s a word—and idea—that people often loathe and fear. Health care expert Henry Aaron has compared mentioning the possibility of rationing to “shouting an obscenity in church.” Yet societies in fact ration food, water, medical care, and fuel all the time, with those who can pay the most getting the most. As Nobel Prize–winning economist Amartya Sen has said, the results can be “thoroughly unequal and nasty.” In Any Way You Slice It, Stan Cox shows that rationing is not just a quaint practice restricted to World War II memoirs and 1970s gas station lines. Instead, he persuasively argues that rationing is a vital concept for our fragile present, an era of dwindling resources and environmental crises. Any Way You Slice It takes us on a fascinating search for alternative ways of apportioning life’s necessities, from the goal of “fair shares for all” during wartime in the 1940s to present-day water rationing in a Mumbai slum, from the bread shops of Cairo to the struggle for fairness in American medicine and carbon rationing on Norfolk Island in the Pacific. Cox’s question: can we limit consumption while assuring everyone a fair share? The author of Losing Our Cool, the much debated and widely acclaimed examination of air-conditioning’s many impacts, here turns his attention to the politically explosive topic of how we share our planet’s resources.

Satisfying Urban Thirst

Water Supply Augmentation and Pricing Policy in Hyderabad City, India

Author: R. Maria Saleth,Ariel Dinar

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821341469

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 39

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Vietnam's educational record is impressive: 91 percent of children between the ages of 5 and 10 are enrolled in school, and 88 percent of the countrys working-age population is literate. However, emerging market forces within Vietnam, as well as examples and competition from its economically vibrant neighbors, raise important new challenges for the countrys education and training (E & T) system. The government of Vietnam has set ambitious targets for increasing enrollments in E & T institutions, but one question remains unanswered: What policies are required to ensure that an expanded E & T system will give its graduates the knowledge, skills, and attitudes demanded by private sector employers and critical to the smooth functioning of a leaner public sector in the futureNULL This study attempts to answer the question and thereby assist education policymakers in Vietnam in making equitable and efficient choices. The report is divided into six chapters. The first two chapters set the general context for a consideration of E & T costs and financing in Vietnam and explain how the system is presently organized and managed. The third and fourth chapters assess the current financing system, including the state budget and other sources of public funding, and calculate the cost per student-year and the cost per graduate at each level. Chapter 5 examines the social rates of return and the cost burdens for different groups within the country. The final chapter looks ahead to the next decade and draws lessons from other countries.

Urban Policies and the Right to the City

The UN-HABITAT and UNESCO Joint Project

Author: Bernard Jouve

Publisher: Presses Universitaires de Lyon

ISBN: N.A

Category: City planning

Page: 174

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Modern states are facing various political rescaling processes in which the roles and functions of the different levels of government are evolving. City regions are increasingly becoming central economic and political territories where new divisions of labor are taking place between the states and the urban powers that be. This tendency has been specifically analysed by economics, and also by geographs, sociologists, and political scientists. At the same time, there is a substantial amount of literature that focuses on the general tendency towards the pluralization of urban decision-making systems in different institutional, cultural, political and economic contexts. Globalisation, political rescaling and the "right to the city" (i.e., the ability of civil societies to have access and to change the political agenda) are interlinked but do not necessarily have the same meaning and the same ration-ale for each city and social group. This book analyzes the various differences and gives a voice to a variety of different actors.

Privatizing Water

Governance Failure and the World's Urban Water Crisis

Author: Karen Bakker

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801467004

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

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Water supply privatization was emblematic of the neoliberal turn in development policy in the 1990s. Proponents argued that the private sector could provide better services at lower costs than governments; opponents questioned the risks involved in delegating control over a life-sustaining resource to for-profit companies. Private-sector activity was most concentrated-and contested-in large cities in developing countries, where the widespread lack of access to networked water supplies was characterized as a global crisis. In Privatizing Water, Karen Bakker focuses on three questions: Why did privatization emerge as a preferred alternative for managing urban water supply? Can privatization fulfill its proponents' expectations, particularly with respect to water supply to the urban poor? And, given the apparent shortcomings of both privatization and conventional approaches to government provision, what are the alternatives? In answering these questions, Bakker engages with broader debates over the role of the private sector in development, the role of urban communities in the provision of "public" services, and the governance of public goods. She introduces the concept of "governance failure" as a means of exploring the limitations facing both private companies and governments. Critically examining a range of issues-including the transnational struggle over the human right to water, the "commons" as a water-supply-management strategy, and the environmental dimensions of water privatization-Privatizing Water is a balanced exploration of a critical issue that affects billions of people around the world.

Water use conflicts in the West

implications of reforming the Bureau of Reclamation's water supply policies

Author: Marca Weinberg,United States. Congressional Budget Office

Publisher: Diane Pub Co

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 83

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Conflicts among water users still occur in the American West. Environmentalists, who want water to be left in the rivers to preserve threatened species, compete with urban & agricultural users for the West's limited water resources. Native American water rights are also receiving more attention. This study analyzes the policy tools slated for use in California, estimates the costs of those reforms to agriculture in the state, & discusses the implications of using those policy tools in the rest of the West. Policy changes introduced in California could serve as models for changes throughout the West. Charts & tables.

Adaptive Governance and Water Conflict

New Institutions for Collaborative Planning

Author: John T Scholz,Bruce Stiftel

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 113652486X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 296

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Water policy seems in perpetual crisis. Increasingly, conflicts extend beyond the statutory authority, competence, geographical jurisdictions, and political constituencies of highly specialized governing authorities. While other books address specific policy approaches or the application of adaptive management strategies to specific problems, this is the first book to focus more broadly on adaptive governance, or the evolution of new institutions that attempt to resolve conflicts among competing authorities. Adaptive Governance and Water Conflict investigates new types of water conflicts among users in the seemingly water-rich Eastern United States. Eight case studies of water quality, water quantity, and habitat preservation or restoration in Florida were chosen to span the range of conflicts crossing fragmented regulatory boundaries. Each begins with a history of the conflict and then focuses on the innovative institutional arrangements - some successful, some not - that evolved to grapple with the resulting challenges. In the chapters that follow, scholars and practitioners in urban planning, political science, engineering, law, policy, administration, and geology offer different theoretical and experience-based perspectives on the cases. Together, they discuss five challenges that new institutions must overcome to develop sustainable solutions for water users: Who is to be involved in the policy process? How are they to interact? How is science to be used? How are users and the public to be made aware? How can solutions be made efficient and equitable? In its diverse perspectives and unique combination of theory, application, and analysis, Adaptive Governance and Water Conflict will be a valuable book for water professionals, policy scientists, students, and scholars in natural resource planning and management.

Pricing Irrigation Water

Principles and Cases from Developing Countries

Author: Yacov Tsur

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113652374X

Category: Law

Page: 336

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As globalization links economies, the value of a country's irrigation water becomes increasingly sensitive to competitive forces in world markets. Water policy at the national and regional levels will need to accommodate these forces or water is likely to become undervalued. The inefficient use of this resource will lessen a country's comparative advantage in world markets and slow its transition to higher incomes, particularly in rural households. While professionals widely agree on what constitutes sound water resource management, they have not yet reached a consensus on the best ways of implementing policies. Policymakers have considered pricing water - a debated intervention - in many variations. Setting the price 'right,' some say, may guide different types of users in efficient water use by sending a signal about the value of this resource. Aside from efficiency, itself an important policy objective, equity, accessibility, and implementation costs associated with the right pricing must be considered. Focusing on the examples of China, Mexico, Morocco, South Africa, and Turkey, Pricing Irrigation Water provides a clear methodology for studying farm-level demand for irrigation water. This book is the first to link the macroeconomics of policies affecting trade to the microeconomics of water demand for irrigation and, in the case of Morocco, to link these forces to the creation of a water user-rights market. This type of market reform, the contributors argue, will result in growing economic benefits to both rural and urban households.

Groundwater Quality

Securing Groundwater Quality in Urban and Industrial Environments

Author: Michael G. Trefry

Publisher: International Assn of Hydrological Sciences

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 565

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Selected and reviewed papers from the Groundwater Quality 2007 conference held in Fremantle, Australia, 2-7 December 2007.

Waters of Life and Death

Ethical and Theological Responses to Contempoary Water Crises

Author: Chandran Paul Martin,Sam Peedikayil Mathew

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Water

Page: 280

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Contributed research papers presented at various seminars.

More Urban Water

Design and Management of Dutch water cities

Author: Fransje Hooimeijer,Wout Toorn Vrijthoff

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 020393850X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 7633

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The perceptibly changing climate has resulted in more precipitation in a small number of short periods. As most urban water management systems were developed at a time when precipitation was distributed more evenly throughout the year, they cannot deal properly with the new circumstances, and high groundwater levels and excess water are the result. In practice, many urban dwellers are consequently confronted with flooded cellars and inaccessible urban infrastructure. To solve these phenomena in the future, a major part of the urban water programmes for the next few decades consists of restructuring and transformation of the existing urban areas, in which water management is considered as an integral part of urban renewal activities and in which its capacity is compliant with the urban area scale. With an integral approach, this book treats the relation of urbanism and water management in Dutch water cities. It also treats the financial aspects of the adjustment of existing water systems to meet the changes in the urban hydrological cycle. It presents the typology of typical current and future Dutch water cities, their urban function and the ecological and technical aspects. Separate chapters deal with the transformation of the historical city, the consolidation of the inter-war city and the restructuring of the post-war city to meet future conditions. The final chapter presents a comparison of the Dutch situation with South Korean (Seoul), Japanese (Tokyo) and German (Ruhr area) urban areas.