Urban Water Conflicts

UNESCO-IHP

Author: Bernard Barraque

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 0203877020

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 512

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Urban water conflicts manifested first in Europe in the 19th century and are observed nowadays in various forms throughout the world; in particular, in developing countries. Main causes of these conflicts are characterized by complex socioeconomic and institutional issues related to urban water management. The debate about public water services versus private water supplies is frequently associated with conflicts over water price and affordability. On the other hand, the issue of centralization versus decentralization of water utilities is also often discussed in the context of institutional aspects of urban water management. These issues are intertwined and, thereby, a critical examination of socioeconomic and institutional aspects of urban water management in a holistic way is important for better understanding water conflicts in urban areas. Urban Water Conflicts – the output of a project by UNESCO’s International Hydrological Programme on “Socioeconomic and Institutional Aspects in Urban Water Management” – presents a collection of essays on socioeconomic and institutional aspects of urban water management, focusing on water and sanitation services. The book examines interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and analyzing conflicts that arise from inadequate urban water management. Conflict analysis is addressed in some essays by taking into account economic, environmental and social dimensions of sustainability. The issue of institutional conflicts between different levels of government is also discussed in some case studies.

Sustainable Urban Water Environment

Climate, Pollution and Adaptation

Author: Ashantha Goonetilleke,Tan Yigitcanlar,Godwin A. Ayoko,Prasanna Egodawatta

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1781004641

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 8984

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This multi-disciplinary book provides practical solutions for safeguarding the sustainability of the urban water environment. Firstly, the importance of the urban water environment is highlighted and the major problems urban water bodies face an

Informing Water Policies in South Asia

Author: Anjal Prakash,Chanda Gurung Goodrich,Sreoshi Singh

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317560116

Category: Nature

Page: 372

View: 5765

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This book analyzes water policies in South Asia from the perspective of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). It seeks to address the problems of water scarcity, conflict and pollution resulting from the gross mismanagement and over-exploitation of this finite resource. Highlighting the need for IWRM in mitigating abuse and ensuring sustainable use, it discusses issues relating to groundwater management; inter-state water conflicts; peri-urban water use; local traditional water management practices; coordination between water users and uses; and water integration at the grassroots level. With case studies from India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal, the innovative, painstaking and transnational researches presented in the volume deal with questions of equity, gender, sustainability, and democratic governance in water policy interventions. It will interest researchers and students of development studies, environmental studies, natural resource management, water governance, and public administration, as also water sector professionals, policymakers, civil society activists and governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

Urban Water Infrastructure

Author: K.E. Schilling,Eric Porter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400905599

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 3335

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URBAN WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NATO ADVANCED RESEARCH WORKSHOP SUMMARY 22-27 JUNE 1989 KYLE E SCHILLING P E Workshop Director The Workshop was based on the recognition that all NATO countries are concerned with similar water infrastructure issues. Present problems are aggravated by aging and neglected facilities, by inadequate financing and by water management institutions reflecting the needs of an earlier era. Service needs to be provided for expanding populations, at the same time that corrective measures must be taken for decaying older urban centers, resulting both from neglect and expiring service life. These needs exist within the framewode of other competing and conflicting uses for existing and yet to be developed water sources. The problems have generated some highly visible national debates over financing due to the large sums involved. Despite differences in the age of the North American, European and other societies, the technological ages of water supply and storm water systems are much the same and provide a common denominator in the worldwide trend to urbanization. Examination of approaches to urban water management also indicates that they are generally based on past experience and institutions created in a non-urban era. The physical, financial and institutional alternatives are consequently often out-of-step with current urban environment. Historically, the supply of adequate water and efficient storm water management have also been top priority items with water quality and other aspects of environmental protection assuming a lower priority after basic supply needs have been met.

Water Conflicts in Northeast India

Author: K. J. Joy,Partha J. Das,Gorky Chakraborty,Chandan Mahanta,Suhas Paranjape,Shruti Vispute

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351685945

Category: Nature

Page: 272

View: 1801

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Northeast India, apart from being the rainiest in India, is drained by two large river systems of the world – the Brahmaputra and the Barak (Meghna) – both transnational rivers cutting across bordering countries. The region, known for its rich water resources, has been witnessing an increasing number of conflicts related to water in recent years. This volume documents the multifaceted conflicts and contestations around water in Northeast India, analyses their causes and consequences, and includes expert recommendations. It fills a major gap in the subject by examining wide-ranging issues such as cultural and anthropological dimensions of damming rivers in the Northeast and Eastern Himalayas; seismic surveys, oil extractions, and water conflicts; discontent over water quality and drinking water; floods, river bank erosion, embankments; water policy; transboundary water conflicts; and hydropower development. It also discusses the alleged Chinese efforts to divert the Brahmaputra River. With its analytical and comprehensive coverage, 18 case studies, and suggested approaches for conflict resolution, this book will be indispensable for scholars and researchers of development studies, governance and public policy, politics and international relations, water resources, environment, geography, climate change, area studies, economics, and sociology. It will also be an important resource for policymakers, bureaucrats, development practitioners, civil society groups, the judiciary, and media.

Urban Water Engineering and Management

Author: Mohammad Karamouz,Ali Moridi,Sara Nazif

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439882517

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 628

View: 6651

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In past decades, urban water management practices focused on optimizing the design and operation of water distribution networks, wastewater collection systems, and water and wastewater treatment plants. However, municipalities are now faced with aging urban water infrastructures whose operation must be improved and expanded to maintain current high standards of living as well as new challenges such as climate change, systems sustainability and water quality issues. Integrating the latest developments in urban water hydrology and management, Urban Water Engineering and Management takes a system approach to urban water hydrology, engineering, planning and management, supplying examples and case studies and highlighting pressing issues such as urban water governance, disaster management, and climate change impacts on urban areas. The book draws attention to climate change as a main concern of this century by focusing on its impact the components of water cycle. The book covers modeling of urban water cycle components, urban water supply, and distribution systems demand forecasting. It also presents classical issues, such as design of water distribution networks and wastewater and storm collection in urban settings, from a system's perspective. The text also includes a discussion of water governance and disaster management in urban areas and the urbanization effects on the environment and the needed water infrastructure development in urban areas. Against this background, the authors discuss the importance of understanding the principles of simulation, optimization, multiple-criterion decision making, and conflict resolution for successful, integrated urban water management. They explore integrated water management and planning solutions for incorporating structural and nonstructural means to achieve the best operational schemes at affordable costs, going beyond using the existing structures and physical limitations on water availability to include technical, social, political, and economic aspects of better water and wastewater management in urban areas. Written and designed especially for intermediate and advanced courses/modules in water resources in civil and environmental engineering, and in urban planning, the book can be used as a textbook for civil engineering, urban and regional planning, geography, environmental science, and in courses dealing with urban water cycle. It also introduces new horizons for engineers as well as policy and decision makers who plan for future urban water and regional sustainability. Engineers and planners, especially those who work on design, planning, and management of urban systems and/or community development, can use this book in practice because it deals with a broad range of real world urban water problems.

Transboundary Water Politics in the Developing World

Author: Naho Mirumachi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135082839

Category: Social Science

Page: 190

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This book examines the political economy that governs the management of international transboundary river basins in the developing world. These shared rivers are the setting for irrigation, hydropower and flood management projects as well as water transfer schemes. Often, these projects attempt to engineer the river basin with deep political, socio-economic and environmental implications. The politics of transboundary river basin management sheds light on the challenges concerning sustainable development, water allocation and utilization between sovereign states. Advancing conceptual thinking beyond simplistic analyses of river basins in conflict or cooperation, the author proposes a new analytical framework. The Transboundary Waters Interaction NexuS (TWINS) examines the coexistence of conflict and cooperation in riparian interaction. This framework highlights the importance of power relations between basin states that determine negotiation processes and institutions of water resources management. The analysis illustrates the way river basin management is framed by powerful elite decision-makers, combined with geopolitical factors and geographical imaginations. In addition, the book explains how national development strategies and water resources demands have a significant role in shaping the intensities of conflict and cooperation at the international level. The book draws on detailed case studies from the Ganges River basin in South Asia, the Orange–Senqu River basin in Southern Africa and the Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia, providing key insights on equity and power asymmetry applicable to other basins in the developing world.

The Private Sector and Water Pricing in Efficient Urban Water Management

Author: Cecilia Tortajada,Francisco González-Gómez,Asit K. Biswas,Miguel A. García-Rubio

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317652703

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

View: 3149

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This book focuses on participation of the public and private sectors in urban water management and on the role of water pricing. It discusses in-depth topics such as public choices of urban water service management; dynamics of privatization and regulation of water services; adoption of water demand instruments; impacts of price and non-price policies on residential water demand; quality of water services; lessons from not-for-profit public-private partnerships; and critical examinations of models and projections of demands in water utility resource planning in England and Wales. Appropriateness of water prices and tariffs in achieving socially desirable outcomes is also analyzed and a global survey of urban water tariffs is approached with a focus on sustainability, efficiency and fairness. This book was originally published as a special issue of the International Journal of Water Resources Management.

Water as a Catalyst for Peace

Transboundary Water Management and Conflict Resolution

Author: Ahmed Abukhater

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136171754

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 8940

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Examining international water allocation policies in different parts of the world, this book suggests that they can be used as a platform to induce cooperation over larger political issues, ultimately settling conflicts. The main premise is that water can and should be used as a catalyst for peace and cooperation rather than conflict. Evidence is provided to support this claim through detailed case studies from the Middle East and the Lesotho Highlands in Africa. These international cases – including bilateral water treaties and their development and formation process and aftermath – are analyzed to draw conclusions about the outcomes as well as the processes by which these outcomes are achieved. It is demonstrated that the perception of a particular treaty as being equitable and fair is mainly shaped by the negotiation process used to reach certain outcomes, rather than being determined mechanistically by the quantitative allocation of water to each party. The processes and perceptions leading to international water conflict resolutions are emphasized as key issues in advancing cooperation and robust implementation of international water treaties. The key messages of the book are therefore relevant to the geo-political and hydro-political aspects of water resources in the context of bilateral and multilateral conflicts, and the trans-boundary management of water resources, which contributes insights to political ecology, geo-politics, and environmental policy.

Water Justice

Author: Rutgerd Boelens,Tom Perreault,Jeroen Vos,Margreet Zwarteveen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107179084

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 390

View: 7414

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An overview of critical conceptual approaches to water justice, illustrated with global historic and contemporary case studies of socio-environmental struggles.

Privatizing Water

Governance Failure and the World's Urban Water Crisis

Author: Karen Bakker

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801467004

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

View: 8407

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Water supply privatization was emblematic of the neoliberal turn in development policy in the 1990s. Proponents argued that the private sector could provide better services at lower costs than governments; opponents questioned the risks involved in delegating control over a life-sustaining resource to for-profit companies. Private-sector activity was most concentrated-and contested-in large cities in developing countries, where the widespread lack of access to networked water supplies was characterized as a global crisis. In Privatizing Water, Karen Bakker focuses on three questions: Why did privatization emerge as a preferred alternative for managing urban water supply? Can privatization fulfill its proponents' expectations, particularly with respect to water supply to the urban poor? And, given the apparent shortcomings of both privatization and conventional approaches to government provision, what are the alternatives? In answering these questions, Bakker engages with broader debates over the role of the private sector in development, the role of urban communities in the provision of "public" services, and the governance of public goods. She introduces the concept of "governance failure" as a means of exploring the limitations facing both private companies and governments. Critically examining a range of issues-including the transnational struggle over the human right to water, the "commons" as a water-supply-management strategy, and the environmental dimensions of water privatization-Privatizing Water is a balanced exploration of a critical issue that affects billions of people around the world.

Water and Conflict: Incorporating Peacebuilding Into Water Development

Author: Jason Gehrig,Mark M. Rogers

Publisher: Catholic Relief Services

ISBN: 161492029X

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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Water is a simple but necessary part of life. Yet much of the world's population lacks adequate clean water, either because of physical scarcity or because they are denied equitable access to water resources. Such conditions inevitably breed conflict. Water-related violence is common in many parts of the world and is generally expected to increase in the years ahead.This document is intended to assist water development practitioners, civil society peacebuilders and human rights advocates seeking to integrate water and peacebuilding in their work. The purpose is twofold: to furnish a conceptual framework for understanding problems of scarcity and equity, and to provide practical guidance and tools for action.The text distills an extensive literature on water, conflict, and cooperation produced in recent years by researchers and development practitioners. Case studies and reflections are included to keep theory grounded in reality.

The Oxford Handbook of Water Politics and Policy

Author: Ken Conca,Erika Weinthal

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199335087

Category: Political Science

Page: 712

View: 6790

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This handbook is currently in development, with individual articles publishing online in advance of print publication. At this time, we cannot add information about unpublished articles in this handbook, however the table of contents will continue to grow as additional articles pass through the review process and are added to the site. Please note that the online publication date for this handbook is the date that the first article in the title was published online. For more information, please read the site FAQs.

Globalization of Water Governance in South Asia

Author: Vishal Narain,Chanda Gurung Goodrich,Jayati Chourey,Anjal Prakash

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317560205

Category: Nature

Page: 356

View: 9828

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Globalization has significantly redefined the nature of governance in the water sector. Non-state actors—multilateral and transnational donor agencies and corporations, non-government organizations, markets, and civil society at large—are assuming a bigger role in public policy-making for water resource management. New discourses on neoliberalism, integrated water resource management (IWRM), public–private partnerships, privatization, and gender equity have come to influence water governance. Drawing upon detailed case studies from India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Bhutan, this volume shows the implications of these new global paradigms for water allocation and management practices, institutions and governance structures in South Asia. It suggests that, despite claims to the contrary, they have done little to further human well-being, reduce gender disparity, or improve accountability and transparency in the system. Steering away from blueprint approaches, it argues for a more nuanced and contextual understanding of water management challenges, based on local knowledge and initiatives. This book will be useful to those interested in political economy and water governance, natural resource management, environmental studies, development studies, and public administration, as well as to water professionals, policy-makers and civil society activists.

The Social Life of Water

Author: John R. Wagner

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857459678

Category: Nature

Page: 326

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Everywhere in the world communities and nations organize themselves in relation to water. We divert water from rivers, lakes, and aquifers to our homes, workplaces, irrigation canals, and hydro-generating stations. We use it for bathing, swimming, recreation, and it functions as a symbol of purity in ritual performances. In order to facilitate and manage our relationship with water, we develop institutions, technologies, and cultural practices entirely devoted to its appropriation and distribution, and through these institutions we construct relations of class, gender, ethnicity, and nationality. Relying on first-hand ethnographic research, the contributors to this volume examine the social life of water in diverse settings and explore the impacts of commodification, urbanization, and technology on the availability and quality of water supplies. Each case study speaks to a local set of issues, but the overall perspective is global, with representation from all continents.

Transforming Urban Water Supplies in India

The Role of Reform and Partnerships in Globalization

Author: Govind Gopakumar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136637451

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

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The absence of water supply infrastructure is a critical issue that affects the sustainability of cities in the developing world and the quality of life of millions of people living in these cities. Urban India has probably the largest concentration of people in the world lacking safe access to these infrastructures. This book is a unique study of the politics of water supply infrastructures in three metropolitan cities in contemporary India – Bangalore, Chennai and Kochi. It examines the process of change in water supply infrastructure initiated by notable Public Private Partnership’s efforts in these three cities to reveal the complexity of state-society relations in India at multiple levels – at the state, city and neighbourhood levels. Using a comparative methodology, the book develops as understanding of the changes in the production of reform water policy in contemporary India and its reception at the sub-national (state) level. It goes on to examine the governance of regimes of water supply in Bangalore, Chennai and Kochi, and evaluates the role of the partnerships in reforming water supply. The book is a useful contribution to studies on Urban Development and South Asian Politics.

Satisfying Urban Thirst

Water Supply Augmentation and Pricing Policy in Hyderabad City, India

Author: R. Maria Saleth,Ariel Dinar

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821341469

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 39

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Vietnam's educational record is impressive: 91 percent of children between the ages of 5 and 10 are enrolled in school, and 88 percent of the countrys working-age population is literate. However, emerging market forces within Vietnam, as well as examples and competition from its economically vibrant neighbors, raise important new challenges for the countrys education and training (E & T) system. The government of Vietnam has set ambitious targets for increasing enrollments in E & T institutions, but one question remains unanswered: What policies are required to ensure that an expanded E & T system will give its graduates the knowledge, skills, and attitudes demanded by private sector employers and critical to the smooth functioning of a leaner public sector in the futureNULL This study attempts to answer the question and thereby assist education policymakers in Vietnam in making equitable and efficient choices. The report is divided into six chapters. The first two chapters set the general context for a consideration of E & T costs and financing in Vietnam and explain how the system is presently organized and managed. The third and fourth chapters assess the current financing system, including the state budget and other sources of public funding, and calculate the cost per student-year and the cost per graduate at each level. Chapter 5 examines the social rates of return and the cost burdens for different groups within the country. The final chapter looks ahead to the next decade and draws lessons from other countries.

Any Way You Slice It

The Past, Present, and Future of Rationing

Author: Stan Cox

Publisher: New Press, The

ISBN: 1595588841

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 2056

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Rationing: it’s a word—and idea—that people often loathe and fear. Health care expert Henry Aaron has compared mentioning the possibility of rationing to “shouting an obscenity in church.” Yet societies in fact ration food, water, medical care, and fuel all the time, with those who can pay the most getting the most. As Nobel Prize–winning economist Amartya Sen has said, the results can be “thoroughly unequal and nasty.” In Any Way You Slice It, Stan Cox shows that rationing is not just a quaint practice restricted to World War II memoirs and 1970s gas station lines. Instead, he persuasively argues that rationing is a vital concept for our fragile present, an era of dwindling resources and environmental crises. Any Way You Slice It takes us on a fascinating search for alternative ways of apportioning life’s necessities, from the goal of “fair shares for all” during wartime in the 1940s to present-day water rationing in a Mumbai slum, from the bread shops of Cairo to the struggle for fairness in American medicine and carbon rationing on Norfolk Island in the Pacific. Cox’s question: can we limit consumption while assuring everyone a fair share? The author of Losing Our Cool, the much debated and widely acclaimed examination of air-conditioning’s many impacts, here turns his attention to the politically explosive topic of how we share our planet’s resources.