Varieties of Comparative Criminology

Author: Gregory J. Howard,Graeme R. Newman

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004122451

Category: Social Science

Page: 268

View: 9594

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According to Durkheim comparative sociology is sociology itself. Comparative criminology goes back to the days of Durkheim, but today it is possible to conduct group comparisons in many settings and with an incredible array of data. This book represents a variety of approaches making comparisons. The emphasis is on creative methods, challenging theory and unusual subject matter. Topics range from Micro-Macro Criminology to Police Strength and from Women Police to Crime Prevention Policies in the UK and the US.

Power and Law in International Society

International Relations as the Sociology of International Law

Author: Mark Klamberg

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317617126

Category: Law

Page: 182

View: 977

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When studying international law there is often a risk of focusing entirely on the content of international rules (i.e. regimes), and ignoring why these regimes exist and to what extent the rules affect state behavior. Similarly, international relations studies can focus so much on theories based on the distribution of power among states that it overlooks the existence and relevance of the rules of international law. Both approaches hold their dangers. The overlooking of international relations risk assuming that states actually follow international law, and discounting the specific rules of international law makes it difficult for readers to understand the impact of the rules in more than a superficial manner. This book unifies international law and international relations by exploring how international law and its institutions may be relevant and influence the course of international relations in international trade, protection of the environment, human rights, international criminal justice and the use of force. As a study on the intersection of power and law, this book will be of great interest and use to scholars and students of international law, international relations, political science, international trade, and conflict resolution.

A Sociology of the Total Organization

Atomistic Unity in the French Foreign Legion

Author: Mikaela Sundberg

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317186605

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 1849

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Examining the organization of everyday life inside the regiments of the French Foreign Legion, this book takes its theoretical point of departure in the notion of the voluntary total organization; that is to say, an institution that constitutes a geographically delimited place of residence and work in which inmates are voluntarily separated from the outside world, leading an enclosed, formally administered life. Informed by a modified version of Goffman's original concept of the total institution, A Sociology of the Total Organization untangles the Foreign Legion and the ways in which different kinds of social orders interplay there. With a focus on regimental life, the author characterizes the armed forces not only as a total organization, but also as a greedy one, seeking undivided loyalty and the incorporation of all social roles within its bounds. Against this understanding, the book draws on rich ethnographic work to develop the notion of atomistic unity, the ideal relational condition that exists in the military, in which individuals commit to a unit and articulate ties with individuals on an impersonal basis, grounded in the belief in a greater whole. A detailed and empirically grounded study of the mechanisms in which the Foreign Legion not only cuts members' ties to people outside the organization, but also restricts the creation and maintenance of ties among its members, this book shows how atomistic unity is not limited to greedy organizations such as the military, but applies to a variety of collectivist settings. As such, it will appeal to scholars of sociology and anthropology with interests in military life, social relations, social theory and the work of Goffman.

Comparative Deviance

Perception and Law in Six Cultures

Author: Graeme R. Newman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351527312

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 9552

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"Comparative Deviance" represents a systematic attempt to survey public perceptions of deviant behavior cross-culturally: in India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Yugoslavia and the United States. There is extensive diversity in both law and perception concerning such deviances as taking drugs, homosexuality, and abortion, yet there is evidence for a basically invariant structure in perception of deviance across all cultures. Within the countries studied in this volume, Geraeme Newman discovers that the strength of religious belief and urban rural background accounted for major differences in the perception of deviance - when differences were identified.Contrary to popular academic opinion in the United States, Newman finds that those countries with the most liberal laws on deviance (i.e., the least punitive sanctions) are also those highly economically developed and least totalitarian (United States and Italy). But when public opinion is considered, the public favors harsher punishments than the law provides. In contrast, in the developing countries of India, Iran and Indonesia, where penal sanctions are more severe, public opinion is much more liberal. The crucial question is the role criminal law plays in the process of modernization: whether law is a stable cultural influence, round which public opinion wavers in a startling fashion, depending on the stage of modernization.These findings challenge many assumptions of conflict theory in sociology, of cultural relativism in anthropology, and of ethical relativism in moral philosophy. All findings are examined in relation to research on modernization, social development, and the evolution of law. These fundamental issues are thus important to many different disciplines across the board.

Varieties of Opposition to Gender Equality in Europe

Author: Mieke Verloo

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317232917

Category: Political Science

Page: 238

View: 9840

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In contrast to the wealth of studies on progress towards gender equality, opposition to gender equality is rarely studied, which makes it difficult to understand the positive and negative dynamics of gender equality as a political project. The first of its kind, this timely collection examines the potential and challenges of our current scholarship on understanding opposition to gender+ equality in Europe. Divided into three parts, Mieke Verloo and her team of international experts begin Varieties of Opposition to Gender Equality in Europe by theorizing the dynamics of opposition to gender equality policies in Europe. Part Two highlights oppositional actors (politicians, governments, citizens, policy makers, churches) and political arenas (parliament, courts, Internet), as well as different and opposing visions of gender+ equality. Part Three concludes with a framework for understanding oppositional dynamics on gender equality change. Setting the agenda for future research, this book will be useful for students of gender and politics, social movements, European integration, and policy studies, as well as for high-level policymakers, students, and feminist activists alike. It will be an inspiration to thinkers and doers and to scholars and political actors.

The European Union's Foreign Policy in Comparative Perspective

Beyond the “Actorness and Power” Debate

Author: Ingo Peters

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317536541

Category: Political Science

Page: 292

View: 9211

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This ground-breaking volume provides a new perspective on the EU’s foreign policy and offers a reconstruction of EU research that extends beyond narrow-minded concepts of ‘power’ and ‘actorness’. Focusing on two intertwined research questions, it presents a more sustainable base for studying EU foreign policy: What is the EU’s foreign policy quality in terms of ‘actorness’ and ‘power’ compared to other types of actors in international relations and global politics? What factors influence the EU’s foreign policy performance in comparison to states and international organizations? This guiding principle and application of a ‘grounded theory’ or ‘heuristic case study’ approach allows the book to deliver a structured comparative analysis of EU foreign policy, comparing findings across policy fields, different legal foundations and respective policy modes of governance. This book will be of key interest to students and scholars of European Union studies, European Union foreign policy studies, international relations, and security policy studies.

The Punishment Response

Author: Graeme Newman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351475711

Category: Social Science

Page: 372

View: 963

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Punishment occupies a central place in our lives and attitudes. We suffer a profound ambivalence about its moral consequences. Persons who have been punished or are liable to be punished have long objected to the legitimacy of punishment. We are all objects of punishment, yet we are also its users. Our ambivalence is so profound that not only do we punish others, but we punish ourselves as well. We view those who submit too willingly to punishment as obedient verging on the groveling coward, and we view those who resist punishment as disobedient, rebels. In The Punishment Response Graeme Newman describes the uses of punishment and how these uses change over time.Some argue that punishment promotes discrimination and divisiveness in society. Others claim that it is through punishment that order and legitimacy are upheld. It is important that punishment is understood as neither one nor the other; it is both. This point, simple though it seems, has never really been addressed. This is why Newman claims we wax and wane in our uses of punishment; why punishing institutions are clogged by bureaucracy; why the death penalty comes and goes like the tide.Graeme Newman emphasizes that punishment is a cultural process and also a mechanism of particular institutions, of which criminal law is but one. Because academic discussions of punishment have been confined to legalistic preoccupations, much of the policy and justification of punishment have been based on discussions of extreme cases. The use of punishment in the sphere of crime is an extreme unto itself, since crime is a minor aspect of daily life. The uses of punishment, and the moral justifications for punishment within the family and school have rarely been considered, certainly not to the exhaustive extent that criminal law has been in this outstanding work.

Ageing Populations in Post-Industrial Democracies

Comparative Studies of Policies and Politics

Author: Pieter Vanhuysse,Achim Goerres

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136598766

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

View: 2354

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Most advanced democracies are currently experiencing accelerated population ageing, which fundamentally changes not just their demographic composition; it can also be expected to have far-reaching political and policy consequences. This volume brings together an expert set of scholars from Europe and North America to investigate generational politics and public policies within an approach explicitly focusing on comparative political science. This theoretically unified text examines changing electoral policy demands due to demographic ageing, and features analysis of USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Italy and all major EU countries. As the first sustained political science analysis of population ageing, this monograph examines both sides of the debate. It examines the actions of the state against the interests of a growing elderly voting bloc to safeguard fiscal viability, and looks at highly-topical responses such as pension cuts and increasing retirement age. It also examines the rise of ‘grey parties’, and asks what, if anything, makes such pensioner parties persist over time, in the first ever analysis of the emergence of pensioner parties in Europe. Ageing Populations in Post-Industrial Democracies will be of interest to students and scholars of European politics, and to those studying electoral and social policy reform. Official publication date 1st January 2012.

Global Report on Crime and Justice

Author: Graeme R. Newman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195133165

Category: Law

Page: 356

View: 5291

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Research and data gathered by the UN Centre for International Crime Prevention. The work combines a wealth of information about crime and justice from UN member states and beyond, and presents emerging crime trends and operations of criminal justice systems on a comparative basis.

Comparative Criminology in Asia

Author: Jianhong Liu,Max Travers,Lennon Y.C. Chang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319549421

Category: Social Science

Page: 206

View: 2296

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This edited volume presents the diversity of comparative criminology research in Asia, and the complex theoretical and methodological issues involved in conducting comparative research. With contributors both from the West and the East exploring these questions, the Editors have created a balanced resource, as well as set an agenda for future research. The increasing pace of globalization means that researchers should be armed with an understanding of how criminal justice systems work across the world. In the past, comparative research largely compared Western countries to each other, or involve d researchers from a Western perspective examining an Asian country, with models and theories developed in the West considered to have universal applications. This work aims to correct that gap, by providing a critical examination of comparative research, presenting quantitative and qualitative research data, and asking new questions that challenge prevailing research norms and provide an agenda for future research. This work will be of interest for researchers across the field of Criminology, particularly those with an interest in International and Comparative Research, research on or about Asia, and related disciplines such as Sociology, Demography, and Social Policy. “This fine collection that goes to the rich distinctiveness of Asian criminology. The editors have brought together a wonderful collection of authors mainly from the region. The distinctiveness of values and relational practices in Asia are recurrent themes that are well developed in this book and help us to make sense of patterns of crime and criminal justice in Asia.” John Braithwaite, Australian National University “What theoretical, methodological, and practical issues must we confront in conducting cross-cultural studies encompassing Western and Asian countries? Comparative Criminology in Asia discusses these issues and presents exemplary comparative research. The introductory chapter and the introduction to each part by the co-editors are lucid and highly educational. This collection must be required reading for every serious scholar and aspiring graduate student in Asian countries so that criminological and criminal justice studies will be brought to a much higher level o f sophistication.” Setsuo Miyazawa, UC Hastings “Can there be – and should there be -- a distinctive Asian criminology? What would this involve? The answer depends on what one thinks of the universalistic explanatory claims of Western criminology. Will these claims become self- fulfilling as these societies add to colonial influences a more deliberate borrowing of criminal justice models and established ways of pursuing discipline of criminology? Or will a more critical spirit prevail? This welcome edited collection by Liu, Travers and Chang provides an excellent starting point for reflecting on these and other questions. Rather than attempting to provide descriptions of the variety of similarities and differences in this region (though there are some fascinating case studies of these) the focus is even more on exploring the theoretical approa ches and methodologies used in comparing institutional and cultural differences by Asian criminologists and others.” David Nelken, King’s College, London “Criminologists can no longer ignore the impact of globalization on the pattern and amount of crime as we experienced recently, nor can we ignore the global change of criminal justice policies to deal with crime. There is, therefore, a desperate need to collect data on how crime and criminal justice are influenced by globalization across Asian countries. On the other hand, there are debates on the issue of culture-specific vs. pan-culture theories of crime. This collection addresses both issues in an interesting way. Its publication is timely and welcome.” Chuen-Jim Sheu, National Taipei University

Religious NGOs in International Relations

The Construction of 'the Religious' and 'the Secular'

Author: Karsten Lehmann

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317499034

Category: Political Science

Page: 218

View: 7478

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Over the last 30 years, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have become increasingly present in international discourses and ?active in international decision-making. Among the estimated several million NGOs in existence today, an increasingly visible number of organizations are defining themselves in religious terms – referring to themselves as "religious", "spiritual", or "faith-based" NGOs. This book documents the initial encounters between the particularly international segment of those organizations and the UN while at the same time covering the Protestant and Catholic spectrum that dominated the early years of their activities in the UN-context. This book focuses on the construction of the human rights discourse inside two religiously affiliated organizations: The Commissions of the Churches on International Affairs (CCIA) and Pax Romana (IMCS / ICMICA). These organizations have been formally accredited as NGOs by the UN, label themselves as religious, and look back upon a long and intense cooperation with the UN. Lehmann presents material from the archives of those two organizations that has so far rarely been used for academic analysis. In doing so, as well as documenting the encounters between those organizations and the UN, and looking at the Protestant and Catholic spectrum, the book provides new insights into the very construction of the notions of ‘the religious’ and the ‘secular’ inside those organizations. This work will be of great interest to all students of religion and international relations, and will also be of interest to those studying related subjects such as global institutions, comparative politics and international politics.

Cases on Technologies for Teaching Criminology and Victimology: Methodologies and Practices

Methodologies and Practices

Author: Sette, Raffaella

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1605668737

Category: Education

Page: 320

View: 2079

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Presents state-of-the-art research and teaching into the study of corruption and those affected by it. Analyzes the benefits and disadvantages of various teaching methodologies in universities, police academies, and crime victim services.

The SAGE Dictionary of Criminology

Author: Eugene McLaughlin,John Muncie

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446271765

Category: Social Science

Page: 536

View: 6680

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Now in its third edition, this bestselling reference text has established itself as the authoritative source covering the key concepts, theories, and methods in criminology and criminal justice. Edited by two of the leading figures in the field, the book is: Comprehensive: with now over 300 entries, the third edition has been updated to include new entries and an expanded editorial introduction Definitive: concepts are precisely defined so students have a clear understanding of the history and development of each topic and debate Student-focused: each entry maps connections across various fields and issues and includes further reading to extend students' knowledge throughout their studies International: contributions from internationally renowned academics and practitioners ensure that this book is global and comparative throughout This wide-ranging reference and research tool will be an essential companion for students and academics within criminology, criminal justice and legal studies and related fields including sociology, social policy, psychology and cultural studies.

New Frontiers in Comparative Sociology

Author: Masamichi S. Sasaki

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004170340

Category: Social Science

Page: 463

View: 8462

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This book is a collection of notable papers from the first six volumes of the journal "Comparative Sociology." Its content represents leading-edge and contemporarily astute analyses in the burgeoning science of comparative sociology, especially relevant to a globalizing world in transition. Given that not everyone is acquainted with comparative sociology, this book offers an opportunity to enlighten readers unfamiliar with the discipline about the importance of comparative sociology to the new world order. Taken together, the articles illuminate various aspects of comparative sociologya "theoretical, methodological, substantive. Some compare social entities in subjective, case-study fashion, while others report on rigorous social research. All contribute in one form or another to describing the many and varied facets of the exciting a oenewa science of comparative sociology. The content of this volume has previously been published in "Comparative Sociology" volumes 1 a " 6.3.

Routledge Handbook of International Criminology

Author: Cindy J. Smith,Sheldon X. Zhang,Rosemary Barberet

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135193843

Category: Social Science

Page: 584

View: 8772

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The Routledge Handbook of International Criminology brings together the latest thinking and findings from a diverse group of both senior and promising young scholars from around the globe. This collaborative project articulates a new way of thinking about criminology that extends existing perspectives in understanding crime and social control across borders, jurisdictions, and cultures, and facilitates the development of an overarching framework that is truly international. The book is divided into three parts, in which three distinct yet overlapping types of crime are analyzed: international crime, transnational crime, and national crime. Each of these perspectives is then articulated through a number of chapters which cover theory and methods, international and transnational crime analyses, and case studies of criminology and criminal justice in relevant nations. In addition, questions placed at the end of each chapter encourage greater reflection on the issues raised, and will encourage young scholars to move the field of inquiry forward. This handbook is an excellent reference tool for undergraduate and graduate students with particular interests in research methods, international criminology, and making comparisons across countries.

Just and Painful

A Case for the Corporal Punishment of Criminals

Author: Graeme R. Newman

Publisher: Criminal Justice Press

ISBN: 9780911577334

Category: Law

Page: 184

View: 5100

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In a book of compelling power and vision, Newman brings the heated debate over the control of crime back to where it belongs: the nature of punishment. And he argues that the crucial question we must ask is what kind of punishment, rather than how much of it, fits the crime. Although talking of corporal punishment without conjuring visions of torture is not easy; Newman makes his case persuasively.

Handbook of Transnational Crime and Justice

Author: Philip Reichel,Jay Albanese

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483321967

Category: Social Science

Page: 576

View: 5501

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Transnational crime and justice will characterize the 21st century in same way that traditional street crimes dominated the 20th century. In the Handbook of Transnational Crime and Justice, Philip Reichel and Jay Albanese bring together top scholars from around the world to offer perspectives on the laws, crimes, and criminal justice responses to transnational crime. This concise, reader-friendly handbook is organized logically around four major themes: the problem of transnational crime; analysis of specific transnational crimes; approaches to its control; and regional geographical analyses. Each comprehensive chapter is designed to be explored as a stand-alone topic, making this handbook an important textbook and reference tool for students and practitioners alike.

Learning and Teaching Around the World

Comparative and International Studies in Primary Education

Author: Kimberly Safford,Liz Chamberlain

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429958064

Category: Education

Page: 234

View: 3179

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Learning and Teaching Around the World is a wide-ranging introduction to diverse experiences, practices and developments in global primary education. It explores different contexts for children’s learning, and methods and purposes of primary education, in settings across Africa, Asia, Europe, the Americas and Australasia, and addresses wider issues such as the rise of refugee learners and large multi-grade classes. With an explicit focus on comparative and international studies and improving the knowledge, understanding and practice of effective pedagogies for children’s learning, this book reflects on key issues such as: Standards for learner-centred education Patterns of inclusion and exclusion Defining ‘teacher professionalism’ The impact of global education agendas Language policy for schooling and assessment Learning and Teaching Around the World is an essential text for those wishing to develop a critical understanding of the experiences of primary teachers and children around the world. Aimed at both undergraduate and postgraduate education studies students, the scope of this book will support all students in developing knowledge of primary education and of the diverse needs of learners in an era of global movement of children and families.