War and Revolution in Russia, 1914-22

The Collapse of Tsarism and the Establishment of Soviet Power

Author: Christopher Read

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137295686

Category: History

Page: 264

View: 6697

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The First World War unleashed a powerful, transforming, destructive storm across the European continent. Its consequences were felt as harshly in Russia as anywhere else in the world. A spiral of chaos and violence erupted, continuing to reign throughout years of revolution and civil war. Leading expert Christopher Read presents a cutting-edge, highly readable introduction to Russia's crisis years. Read synthesises a wealth of newly available material and treats the period 1914-22 as a whole in order to contextualise and better understand the events of 1917 and their impact. As he examines the multiple revolutions, Read asks how and why the Bolsheviks were able to survive the storm, eventually taking over the world's largest country.

A/AS Level History for AQA Tsarist and Communist Russia, 1855–1964 Student Book

Author: Robert Francis,Hannah Dalton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107531152

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 128

View: 3970

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A new series of bespoke, full-coverage resources developed for the AQA 2015 A/AS Level History. Written for the AQA A/AS Level History specifications for first teaching from 2015, this print Student Book covers the Tsarist and Communist Russia, 1855-1964 Breadth component. Completely matched to the new AQA specification, this full-colour Student Book provides valuable background information to contextualise the period of study. Supporting students in developing their critical thinking, research and written communication skills, it also encourages them to make links between different time periods, topics and historical themes.

From Tsar to Soviets

The Russian People and Their Revolution, 1917-21

Author: Christopher Read

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1857283589

Category: History

Page: 330

View: 9463

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By examining the 1917 revolution in the light of the experiences of the ordinary population rather than the activities of central parties and politicians, this book presents a challenging and fresh interpretation.

Late Imperial Russia

Problems and Prospects

Author: Ian D. Thatcher

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 9780719067877

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 2669

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This volume offers a detailed examination of the stability of the late imperial regime in Russia. Students and scholars will appreciate the lively summaries of the latest scholarship in political, economic, social, cultural, and international history. Accessible yet insightful, contributions cover the historiography of complex topics such as peasants, workers, revolutionaries, foreign relations, and Nicholas II. In addition, there are original studies of some of the leading intellectuals of the time. The late imperial economy is examined through the writings of Tugan-Baranovsky. There is an account of M. N. Pokrovskii's radical interpretation of late imperial Russia's historical path of development. The state of the Russian theatre is studied through the lives of theatrical impresarios. Each chapter also highlights a unique interpretation, suggesting new lines of inquiry and research. This book will be compulsory reading for students of Russian and European history of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries seeking to better understand why Tsarism collapsed in 1917.

Twilight of the Titans

Great Power Decline and Retrenchment

Author: Paul K. MacDonald,Joseph M. Parent

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501717103

Category: Political Science

Page: 276

View: 7320

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In this bold new perspective on the United States–China power transition, Paul K. MacDonald and Joseph M. Parent examine all great power transitions since 1870. They find that declining and rising powers have strong incentives to moderate their behavior at moments when the hierarchy of great powers is shifting. How do great powers respond to decline? they ask. What options do great powers have to slow or reverse their descent? In Twilight of the Titans, MacDonald and Parent challenge claims that policymakers for great powers, unwilling to manage decline through moderation, will be pushed to extreme measures. Tough talk, intimidation, provocation, and preventive war, they write, are not the only alternatives to defeat. Surprisingly, retrenchment tends not to make declining states tempting prey for other states nor does it promote domestic dysfunction. What retrenchment does encourage is resurrection. Only states that retrench have recovered their former position. MacDonald and Parent show how declining states tend to behave, what policy options they have to choose from, how rising states respond to decline, and what conditions reward which strategies. Using case studies that include Great Britain in 1872 and 1908, Russia in 1888 and 1903, and France in 1893 and 1924, Twilight of the Titans offers clear evidence that declining powers have a wide array of options at their disposal and offers guidance on how to use the right tools at the right time. The result is a comprehensive rethinking of power transition and hegemonic war theories and a different approach to the policy problems that declining states face. What matters most, the authors write, is the strategic choices made by the great powers.

War in Peace

Paramilitary Violence in Europe After the Great War

Author: Robert Gerwarth,John Horne

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 019968605X

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 8289

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The First World War did not end in November 1918. In Russia and Eastern Europe it finished up to a year earlier, and both there and elsewhere in Europe it triggered conflicts that lasted down to 1923. Paramilitary formations were prominent in this continuation of the war. They had some features of formal military organizations, but were used in opposition to the regular military as an instrument of revolution or as an adjunct or substitute for military forces when these were unable by themselves to put down a revolution (whether class or national). Paramilitary violence thus arose in different contexts. It was an important aspect of the violence unleashed by class revolution in Russia. It structured the counter-revolution in central and Eastern Europe, including Finland and Italy, which reacted against a mythic version of Bolshevik class violence in the name of order and authority. It also shaped the struggles over borders and ethnicity in the new states that replaced the multi-national empires of Russia, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Turkey. It was prominent on all sides in the wars for Irish independence. In many cases, paramilitary violence was charged with political significance and acquired a long-lasting symbolism and influence. War in Peace explores the differences and similarities between these various kinds of paramilitary violence within one volume for the first time. It thereby contributes to our understanding of the difficult transitions from war to peace. It also helps to re-situate the Great War in a longer-term context and to explain its enduring impact.

Imperialism Past and Present

Author: Emanuele Saccarelli,Latha Varadarajan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199397910

Category: Political Science

Page: 144

View: 5513

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After a long hiatus, when it was seemingly banished to the wilderness of esoteric academic debate, imperialism is back as one of the buzzwords of the day. In the past decade many have invoked it as an old specter only to nervously deny its contemporary applicability. A smaller, but highly significant minority has embraced it as a positive good - the only way out of the contemporary political impasse. Meanwhile, the term has continued to be applied to the most diverse range of economic, political, cultural and linguistic phenomena, as well as historical scope. From the Persian Empire of antiquity to contemporary American military operations in the Middle East; from China's ongoing economic penetration of Africa to the old Soviet domination of Eastern Europe, passing through every real or perceived form of "hierarchy" and "privilege", imperialism is now invoked with great frequency and even greater imprecision. Imperialism Past and Present clarifies the prevailing confusion and provides a concise historical account of imperialism, explaining when and how it emerged and its relation to the colonialism and empires of the past. Should any sort of predatory foreign policy be regarded as imperialist? Does the seemingly universal concern for "humanitarianism" and human rights rule out the applicability of imperialism to contemporary politics? The book examines important theoretical debates about the origins and nature of imperialism, as well as the most significant and dramatic episodes in its actual history - from the 1884 Berlin Conference, through two World Wars, decolonization, and the end of the Cold War. As Emanuele Saccarelli and Latha Varadarajan argue in this provocative book, imperialism is hardly a political artifact. Rather it remains the mainspring of global instability and conflict today.

Shattering Empires

The Clash and Collapse of the Ottoman and Russian Empires 1908–1918

Author: Michael A. Reynolds

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139494120

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 9182

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The break-up of the Ottoman empire and the disintegration of the Russian empire were watershed events in modern history. The unravelling of these empires was both cause and consequence of World War I and resulted in the deaths of millions. It irrevocably changed the landscape of the Middle East and Eurasia and reverberates to this day in conflicts throughout the Caucasus and Middle East. Shattering Empires draws on extensive research in the Ottoman and Russian archives to tell the story of the rivalry and collapse of two great empires. Overturning accounts that portray their clash as one of conflicting nationalisms, this pioneering study argues that geopolitical competition and the emergence of a new global interstate order provide the key to understanding the course of history in the Ottoman-Russian borderlands in the twentieth century. It will appeal to those interested in Middle Eastern, Russian, and Eurasian history, international relations, ethnic conflict, and World War I.

Lenin and Revolutionary Russia

Author: Stephen J. Lee

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415287180

Category: History

Page: 153

View: 980

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Lenin and Revolutionary Russia examines the background to and the course of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and Lenin's regime. It explores all the key aspects such as the development of the Bolsheviks as a revolutionary party, the 1905 Revolution, the collapse of the Tsarists, the Russian Civil War and historical interpretations of Lenin's legacy to Russian history.

Comparative Perspectives on Imperialism and Empire in Late Imperial Russia

Author: Moritz Deutschmann

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 364079771X

Category:

Page: 32

View: 2317

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Essay from the year 2009 in the subject History Europe - Other Countries - Modern Times, Absolutism, Industrialization, grade: -, European University Institute (Department of History, Florenz), language: English, abstract: There are few topics that have been as present in post-Soviet histories as empire and its aftermath. Tales of century-long Russia oppression have become core elements of many historical narratives in the former Soviet republics. In Western European scholarship concepts from imperial history and post-colonial studies have had a big influence on the historiography of Russia and the Soviet Union. However, these are recent phenomena: in most histories of Russia, written in Russia or the Soviet Union itself as well as in the West before 1991, empire has been left out to an astonishing degree. Only for the Soviet Union the so-called "nationality question" was a larger topic, appearing in Soviet praise for the "friendship of the peoples" or condemnation of "anti-Soviet nationalism" and "Great-Russian chauvinism." This essay picks up on some of these issues and looks at how various scholars interested in the imperial aspects of Russian history have put them into a comparative perspective. Although the number of works is still limited, especially compared to the huge number of studies on different Western European empires, it is possible to draw some general conclusions. This will also be helpful in considering to what extent Russian experiences could reflect back on more general theories of empire or post-colonial studies.

A History of Modern Europe

From the Renaissance to the Present, Third Edition

Author: John Merriman

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393934330

Category: History

Page: 1239

View: 4766

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Available in both one-volume and two-volume paperback editions, A History of Modern Europe presents a panoramic survey of modern Europe from the Renaissance to the present day. A single author lends a unified approach and consistent style throughout, with an emphasis on the connections of events and people over time. The Third Edition, like the two before it, is authoritative and up-to-date. New to the Third Edition is the theme of empire. From the imperial rivalries between France and Spain in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, through the rise and fall of the Ottoman Turkish empire, and on into the imperial history of the twentieth century—decolonization, the spread of the Soviet empire, and the imperial power of the United States—the theme of empire helps students find commonalities among the events of European history.

Lenin

A Revolutionary Life

Author: Christopher Read

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134624719

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 336

View: 3687

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From a highly distinguished author on the subject, this biography is an excellent scholarly introduction to one of the key figures of the Russian Revolution and post-Tsarist Russia. Not only does it make use of archive material made newly available in the glasnost and post-Soviet eras, it re-examines traditional sources as well, providing an original interpretation of Lenin's life and historical importance. Focal points of this study are: Lenin's revolutionary ascetic personality how he exploited culture, education and propaganda his relationship to Marxism his changing class analysis of Russia his 'populist' instincts. A prominent figure at the forefront of debates on the Russina revolution, Read makes sure that Lenin remains in his place as a highly influential and significant figure of the recent past.

The Russian Revolution

A New History

Author: Sean McMeekin

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 046509497X

Category: History

Page: 496

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The definitive, single-volume history of the Russian Revolution, from an award-winning scholar In The Russian Revolution, acclaimed historian Sean McMeekin traces the events which ended Romanov rule, ushered the Bolsheviks into power, and introduced Communism to the world. Between 1917 and 1922, Russia underwent a complete and irreversible transformation. Taking advantage of the collapse of the Tsarist regime in the middle of World War I, the Bolsheviks staged a hostile takeover of the Russian Imperial Army, promoting mutinies and mass desertions of men in order to fulfill Lenin's program of turning the "imperialist war" into civil war. By the time the Bolsheviks had snuffed out the last resistance five years later, over 20 million people had died, and the Russian economy had collapsed so completely that Communism had to be temporarily abandoned. Still, Bolshevik rule was secure, owing to the new regime's monopoly on force, enabled by illicit arms deals signed with capitalist neighbors such as Germany and Sweden who sought to benefit-politically and economically-from the revolutionary chaos in Russia. Drawing on scores of previously untapped files from Russian archives and a range of other repositories in Europe, Turkey, and the United States, McMeekin delivers exciting, groundbreaking research about this turbulent era. The first comprehensive history of these momentous events in two decades, The Russian Revolution combines cutting-edge scholarship and a fast-paced narrative to shed new light on one of the most significant turning points of the twentieth century.

Cultivating the Masses

Modern State Practices and Soviet Socialism, 1914–1939

Author: David L. Hoffmann

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801462843

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 2692

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Under Stalin’s leadership, the Soviet government carried out a massive number of deportations, incarcerations, and executions. Paradoxically, at the very moment that Soviet authorities were killing thousands of individuals, they were also engaged in an enormous pronatalist campaign to boost the population. Even as the number of repressions grew exponentially, Communist Party leaders enacted sweeping social welfare and public health measures to safeguard people's well-being. Extensive state surveillance of the population went hand in hand with literacy campaigns, political education, and efforts to instill in people an appreciation of high culture. In Cultivating the Masses, David L. Hoffmann examines the Party leadership's pursuit of these seemingly contradictory policies in order to grasp fully the character of the Stalinist regime, a regime intent on transforming the socioeconomic order and the very nature of its citizens. To analyze Soviet social policies, Hoffmann places them in an international comparative context. He explains Soviet technologies of social intervention as one particular constellation of modern state practices. These practices developed in conjunction with the ambitions of nineteenth-century European reformers to refashion society, and they subsequently prompted welfare programs, public health initiatives, and reproductive regulations in countries around the world. The mobilizational demands of World War I impelled political leaders to expand even further their efforts at population management, via economic controls, surveillance, propaganda, and state violence. Born at this moment of total war, the Soviet system institutionalized these wartime methods as permanent features of governance. Party leaders, whose dictatorship included no checks on state power, in turn attached interventionist practices to their ideological goal of building socialism.

The Russian Revolution, 1917

Author: Rex A. Wade

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107130328

Category: History

Page: 356

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Rex A. Wade presents an essential overview of the Russian Revolution from its beginning in February 1917, through the numerous political crises under Kerensky, to the victory of Lenin and the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution. This thoroughly revised and expanded third edition introduces students to new approaches to the Revolution's political history and clears away many of the myths and misconceptions that have clouded studies of the period. It also gives due space to the social history of the Revolution, incorporating people and places too often left out of the story, including women, national minority peoples, peasantry, and front soldiers. The third edition has been updated to include new scholarship on topics such as the coming of the Revolution and the beginning of Bolshevik rule, as well as the Revolution's cultural context. This highly readable book is an invaluable guide to one of the most important events of modern history.

Ten Days that Shook the World

Author: John Reed

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486149765

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 8565

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DIVReed's passionately involved narrative captures the opening days of the Russian Revolution, the fall of the provisional government, the assault on the Winter Palace, Lenin's seizure of power, and other tumultuous events. /div

The Russian Origins of the First World War

Author: Sean McMeekin

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674063201

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 4365

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In a major reinterpretation, Sean McMeekin rejects the standard notion of the war’s beginning as either a Germano-Austrian pre-emptive strike or a miscalculation. The key to the outbreak of violence, he argues, lies in St. Petersburg. Russian statesmen unleashed the war through policy decisions based on imperial ambitions in the Near East.

The Last of the Tsars: Nicholas II and the Russia Revolution

Author: Robert Service

Publisher: Pegasus Books

ISBN: 1681775727

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 2955

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A riveting account of the last eighteen months of Tsar Nicholas II's life and reign from one of the finest Russian historians writing today. In March 1917, Nicholas II, the last Tsar of All the Russias, abdicated and the dynasty that had ruled an empire for three hundred years was forced from power by revolution. Now, on the hundredth anniversary of that revolution, Robert Service, the eminent historian of Russia, examines Nicholas's life and thought from the months before his momentous abdication to his death, with his family, in Ekaterinburg in July 1918. The story has been told many times, but Service's deep understanding of the period and his forensic examination of previously untapped sources, including the Tsar's diaries and recorded conversations, as well as the testimonies of the official inquiry, shed remarkable new light on his troubled reign, also revealing the kind of Russia that Nicholas wanted to emerge from the Great War. The Last of the Tsars is a masterful study of a man who was almost entirely out of his depth, perhaps even willfully so. It is also a compelling account of the social, economic and political ferment in Russia that followed the February Revolution, the Bolshevik seizure of power in October 1917 and the beginnings of Lenin's Soviet socialist republic.