When People Come First

Critical Studies in Global Health

Author: João Biehl,Adriana Petryna

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400846803

Category: Social Science

Page: 456

View: 379

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When People Come First critically assesses the expanding field of global health. It brings together an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars to address the medical, social, political, and economic dimensions of the global health enterprise through vivid case studies and bold conceptual work. The book demonstrates the crucial role of ethnography as an empirical lantern in global health, arguing for a more comprehensive, people-centered approach. Topics include the limits of technological quick fixes in disease control, the moral economy of global health science, the unexpected effects of massive treatment rollouts in resource-poor contexts, and how right-to-health activism coalesces with the increased influence of the pharmaceutical industry on health care. The contributors explore the altered landscapes left behind after programs scale up, break down, or move on. We learn that disease is really never just one thing, technology delivery does not equate with care, and biology and technology interact in ways we cannot always predict. The most effective solutions may well be found in people themselves, who consistently exceed the projections of experts and the medical-scientific, political, and humanitarian frameworks in which they are cast. When People Come First sets a new research agenda in global health and social theory and challenges us to rethink the relationships between care, rights, health, and economic futures.

When People Come First

Critical Studies in Global Health

Author: Joao Biehl,Adriana Petryna

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780691157382

Category: Medical

Page: 446

View: 1289

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"Rapid social change is the one constant in this ambitious volume. These pages come to life and are wrenching because they never seek to elide the messiness of experience. With ethnographic evidence from some of the most important theaters of global health, the authors give us a sound understanding of the collision of a crushing burden of disease, emerging audit cultures, and new therapeutic regimes. As case studies rooted in long familiarity but alive to overwhelming transformation, they will stand the test of time."--Paul Farmer, Harvard Medical School and Partners in Health "Award-winning medical anthropologists Joao Biehl and Adriana Petryna have produced a stunning and original collection. In an era of market-driven global health interventions, this volume demonstrates anthropology's unique contribution as a critically evaluative and humanizing discipline."--Marcia C. Inhorn, Yale University "Global health as a field is being redefined, from one based on narrow interventions to a more holistic focus on delivering value to patients. This requires a deep understanding of how to connect care delivery to patients, their families, and the local country context. "When People Come First" is an indispensable resource in creating the global health delivery systems of the future. Its rich case studies are essential for practitioners and scholars in designing and implementing care processes that really work."--Michael E. Porter, Harvard Business School "Global health is a big business: the World Bank, the World Health Organization, the United Nations, the Gates Foundation, academia, pharmaceutical companies, and thousands of NGOs are working to improve health around the world. Lost among these powerful groups, the supposed beneficiaries have little to say. "When People Come First" tells us why and how to make global health better. It is an eye-opener, especially for those of us locked into our comfortable disciplinary silos."--Angus Deaton, Princeton University ""When People Come First" is a truly pioneering volume that will change the kind of work that is done in the anthropology of global health in the future."--Richard G. Parker, Columbia University ""When People Come First" sets an ambitious agenda that emphasizes ethnography as an important methodological tool for better understanding health services at all levels of analysis, including at the stages of service provision, medicine marketing, and policymaking. There is no doubt that this book will be read and widely cited by scholars of global health."--Nitsan Chorev, Brown University

When People Come First

Critical Studies in Global Health

Author: Joao Biehl,Adriana Petryna

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780691157399

Category: Medical

Page: 446

View: 912

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When People Come First critically assesses the expanding field of global health. It brings together an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars to address the medical, social, political, and economic dimensions of the global health enterprise through vivid case studies and bold conceptual work. The book demonstrates the crucial role of ethnography as an empirical lantern in global health, arguing for a more comprehensive, people-centered approach. Topics include the limits of technological quick fixes in disease control, the moral economy of global health science, the unexpected effects of massive treatment rollouts in resource-poor contexts, and how right-to-health activism coalesces with the increased influence of the pharmaceutical industry on health care. The contributors explore the altered landscapes left behind after programs scale up, break down, or move on. We learn that disease is really never just one thing, technology delivery does not equate with care, and biology and technology interact in ways we cannot always predict. The most effective solutions may well be found in people themselves, who consistently exceed the projections of experts and the medical-scientific, political, and humanitarian frameworks in which they are cast. When People Come First sets a new research agenda in global health and social theory and challenges us to rethink the relationships between care, rights, health, and economic futures.

Reimagining Global Health

An Introduction

Author: Paul Farmer,Arthur Kleinman,Jim Kim,Matthew Basilico

Publisher: University of California Press

ISBN: 0520271998

Category: Medical

Page: 504

View: 9356

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Bringing together the experience, perspective and expertise of Paul Farmer, Jim Yong Kim, and Arthur Kleinman, Reimagining Global Health provides an original, compelling introduction to the field of global health. Drawn from a Harvard course developed by their student Matthew Basilico, this work provides an accessible and engaging framework for the study of global health. Insisting on an approach that is historically deep and geographically broad, the authors underline the importance of a transdisciplinary approach, and offer a highly readable distillation of several historical and ethnographic perspectives of contemporary global health problems. The case studies presented throughout Reimagining Global Health bring together ethnographic, theoretical, and historical perspectives into a wholly new and exciting investigation of global health. The interdisciplinary approach outlined in this text should prove useful not only in schools of public health, nursing, and medicine, but also in undergraduate and graduate classes in anthropology, sociology, political economy, and history, among others.

Metrics

What Counts in Global Health

Author: Vincanne Adams

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 082237448X

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 8183

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This volume's contributors evaluate the accomplishments, limits, and consequences of using quantitative metrics in global health. Whether analyzing maternal mortality rates, the relationships between political goals and metrics data, or the links between health outcomes and a program's fiscal support, the contributors question the ability of metrics to solve global health problems. They capture a moment when global health scholars and practitioners must evaluate the potential effectiveness and pitfalls of different metrics—even as they remain elusive and problematic. Contributors. Vincanne Adams, Susan Erikson, Molly Hales, Pierre Minn, Adeola Oni-Orisan, Carolyn Smith-Morris, Marlee Tichenor, Lily Walkover, Claire L. Wendland

Global Health

Why Cultural Perceptions, Social Representations, and Biopolitics Matter

Author: Mark Nichter

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816525744

Category: Medical

Page: 268

View: 2277

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In this lesson-packed book, Mark Nichter, one of the worldÕs leading medical anthropologists, summarizes what more than a quarter-century of health social science research has contributed to international health and elucidates what social science research can contribute to global health and the study of biopolitics in the future. Nichter focuses on our cultural understanding of infectious and vector-borne diseases, how they are understood locally, and how various populations respond to public health interventions. The book examines the perceptions of three groups whose points of view on illness, health care, and the politics of responsibility often differ and frequently conflict: local populations living in developing countries, public health practitioners working in international health, and health planners/policy makers. The book is written for both health social scientists working in the fields of international health and development and public health practitioners interested in learning practical lessons they can put to good use when engaging communities in participatory problem solving. Global Health critically examines representations that frame international health discourse. It also addresses the politics of what is possible in a world compelled to work together to face emerging and re-emerging diseases, the control of health threats associated with political ecology and defective modernization, and the rise of new assemblages of people who share a sense of biosociality. The book proposes research priorities for a new program of health social science research. Nichter calls for greater involvement by social scientists in studies of global health and emphasizes how medical anthropologists in particular can better involve themselves as scholar activists.

Unhealthy Health Policy

A Critical Anthropological Examination

Author: Merrill Singer,Arachu Castro

Publisher: Rowman Altamira

ISBN: 0759115338

Category: Medical

Page: 408

View: 1782

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This new collection turns a critical anthropological eye on the nature of health policy internationally. The authors reveal the prevailing social inequalities that often represent significant threats to the health and well being of the poor, ethnic minorities, and women. The authors define an 'anthropology of policy' concerned with decision-making and the impact of health policy on human lives. It will be a critical resource for researchers and practitioners in medical anthropology, medical sociology, public policy, and public health care.

When Experiments Travel

Clinical Trials and the Global Search for Human Subjects

Author: Adriana Petryna

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400830824

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 6160

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The phenomenal growth of global pharmaceutical sales and the quest for innovation are driving an unprecedented search for human test subjects, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. Our hope for medical progress increasingly depends on the willingness of the world's poor to participate in clinical drug trials. While these experiments often provide those in need with vital and previously unattainable medical resources, the outsourcing and offshoring of trials also create new problems. In this groundbreaking book, anthropologist Adriana Petryna takes us deep into the clinical trials industry as it brings together players separated by vast economic and cultural differences. Moving between corporate and scientific offices in the United States and research and public health sites in Poland and Brazil, When Experiments Travel documents the complex ways that commercial medical science, with all its benefits and risks, is being integrated into local health systems and emerging drug markets. Providing a unique perspective on globalized clinical trials, When Experiments Travel raises central questions: Are such trials exploitative or are they social goods? How are experiments controlled and how is drug safety ensured? And do these experiments help or harm public health in the countries where they are conducted? Empirically rich and theoretically innovative, the book shows that neither the language of coercion nor that of rational choice fully captures the range of situations and value systems at work in medical experiments today. When Experiments Travel challenges conventional understandings of the ethics and politics of transnational science and changes the way we think about global medicine and the new infrastructures of our lives.

Will to Live

AIDS Therapies and the Politics of Survival

Author: João Biehl

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691143854

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 466

View: 8684

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Will to Live tells how Brazil, against all odds, became the first developing country to universalize access to life-saving AIDS therapies--a breakthrough made possible by an unexpected alliance of activists, government reformers, development agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry. But anthropologist João Biehl also tells why this policy, hailed as a model worldwide, has been so difficult to implement among poor Brazilians with HIV/AIDS, who are often stigmatized as noncompliant or untreatable, becoming invisible to the public. More broadly, Biehl examines the political economy of pharmaceuticals that lies behind large-scale treatment rollouts, revealing the possibilities and inequalities that come with a magic bullet approach to health care. By moving back and forth between the institutions shaping the Brazilian response to AIDS and the people affected by the disease, Biehl has created a book of unusual vividness, scope, and detail. At the core of Will to Live is a group of AIDS patients--unemployed, homeless, involved with prostitution and drugs--that established a makeshift health service. Biehl chronicled the personal lives of these people for over ten years and Torben Eskerod represents them here in more than one hundred stark photographs. Ethnography, social medicine, and art merge in this unique book, illuminating the care and agency needed to extend life amid perennial violence. Full of lessons for the future, Will to Live promises to have a lasting influence in the social sciences and in the theory and practice of global public health.

Subjectivity

Ethnographic Investigations

Author: João Biehl,Byron Good,Arthur Kleinman

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520247930

Category: Social Science

Page: 464

View: 5853

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Talks about the ways personal lives are being undone and remade today. This book examines the ethnography of the modern subject, probes the continuity and diversity of modes of personhood across a range of Western and non-Western societies. It considers what happens to individual subjectivity when environments such as communities are transformed.

Fault Lines of Care

Gender, HIV, and Global Health in Bolivia

Author: Carina Heckert

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813586933

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 204

View: 728

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The HIV epidemic in Bolivia has received little attention on a global scale in light of the country’s low HIV prevalence rate. However, by profiling the largest city in this land-locked Latin American country, Carina Heckert shows how global health-funded HIV care programs at times clash with local realities, which can have catastrophic effects for people living with HIV who must rely on global health resources to survive. These ethnographic insights, as a result, can be applied to AIDS programs across the globe. In Fault Lines of Care, Heckert provides a detailed examination of the effects of global health and governmental policy decisions on the everyday lives of people living with HIV in Santa Cruz. She focuses on the gendered dynamics that play a role in the development and implementation of HIV care programs and shows how decisions made from above impact what happens on the ground.

Blind Spot

How Neoliberalism Infiltrated Global Health

Author: Salmaan Keshavjee,Paul Farmer

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520282841

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 6198

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Neoliberalism has been the defining paradigm in global health since the latter part of the twentieth century. What started as an untested and unproven theory that the creation of unfettered markets would give rise to political democracy led to policies that promoted the belief that private markets were the optimal agents for the distribution of social goods, including health care. A vivid illustration of the infiltration of neoliberal ideology into the design and implementation of development programs, this case study, set in post-Soviet Tajikistan’s remote eastern province of Badakhshan, draws on extensive ethnographic and historical material to examine a “revolving drug fund” program—used by numerous nongovernmental organizations globally to address shortages of high-quality pharmaceuticals in poor communities. Provocative, rigorous, and accessible, Blind Spot offers a cautionary tale about the forces driving decision making in health and development policy today, illustrating how the privatization of health care can have catastrophic outcomes for some of the world’s most vulnerable populations.

Medicine, Mobility, and Power in Global Africa

Transnational Health and Healing

Author: Hansjörg Dilger,Abdoulaye Kane,Stacey A. Langwick

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253005329

Category: Medical

Page: 358

View: 1848

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Recent political, social, and economic changes in Africa have provoked radical shifts in the landscape of health and healthcare. Medicine, Mobility, and Power in Global Africa captures the multiple dynamics of a globalized world and its impact on medicine, health, and the delivery of healthcare in Africa--and beyond. Essays by an international group of contributors take on intractable problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, and insufficient access to healthcare, drugs, resources, hospitals, and technologies. The movements of people and resources described here expose the growing challenges of poverty and public health, but they also show how new opportunities have been created for transforming healthcare and promoting care and healing.

Building Partnerships in the Americas

A Guide for Global Health Workers

Author: Margo J. Krasnoff

Publisher: UPNE

ISBN: 161168420X

Category: Medical

Page: 304

View: 6055

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A historical, cultural, and medical guide for those planning to do health-related work in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean

A History of Global Health

Interventions Into the Lives of Other Peoples

Author: Randall M. Packard

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421420333

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 6494

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Over the past century, hundreds of billions of dollars have been invested in programs aimed at improving health on a global scale. Given the enormous scale and complexity of these lifesaving operations, why do millions of people in low-income countries continue to live without access to basic health services, sanitation, or clean water? And why are deadly diseases like Ebola able to spread so quickly among populations? In A History of Global Health, Randall M. Packard argues that global-health initiatives have saved millions of lives but have had limited impact on the overall health of people living in underdeveloped areas, where health-care workers are poorly paid, infrastructure and basic supplies such as disposable gloves, syringes, and bandages are lacking, and little effort has been made to address the underlying social and economic determinants of ill health. Global-health campaigns have relied on the application of biomedical technologies—vaccines, insecticide-treated nets, vitamin A capsules—to attack specific health problems but have failed to invest in building lasting infrastructure for managing the ongoing health problems of local populations. Designed to be read and taught, the book offers a critical historical view, providing historians, policy makers, researchers, program managers, and students with an essential new perspective on the formation and implementation of global-health policies and practices.

Biomedicine in an Unstable Place

Infrastructure and Personhood in a Papua New Guinean Hospital

Author: Alice Street

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822376660

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 8661

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Biomedicine in an Unstable Place is the story of people's struggle to make biomedicine work in a public hospital in Papua New Guinea. It is a story encompassing the history of hospital infrastructures as sites of colonial and postcolonial governance, the simultaneous production of Papua New Guinea as a site of global medical research and public health, and people's encounters with urban institutions and biomedical technologies. In Papua New Guinea, a century of state building has weakened already inadequate colonial infrastructures, and people experience the hospital as a space of institutional, medical, and ontological instability. In the hospital's clinics, biomedical practitioners struggle amid severe resource shortages to make the diseased body visible and knowable to the clinical gaze. That struggle is entangled with attempts by doctors, nurses, and patients to make themselves visible to external others—to kin, clinical experts, global scientists, politicians, and international development workers—as socially recognizable and valuable persons. Here hospital infrastructures emerge as relational technologies that are fundamentally fragile but also offer crucial opportunities for making people visible and knowable in new, unpredictable, and powerful ways.

SARS in China

Prelude to Pandemic?

Author: Arthur Kleinman,James L. Watson

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804753142

Category: History

Page: 244

View: 2589

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This book examines the structure and impact of the SARS epidemic, and its short- and medium-range implications for an interconnected, globalized world. In so doing, it poses a question of the greatest possible significance: Can we learn from SARS before the next pandemic?

Chasing Polio in Pakistan

Why the World's Largest Public Health Initiative May Fail

Author: Svea Closser

Publisher: Vanderbilt University Press

ISBN: 0826517102

Category: Medical

Page: 256

View: 4092

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The number of global polio cases has fallen dramatically and eradication is within sight, but despite extraordinary efforts, polio retains its grip in a few areas. Anthropologist Svea Closser follows the trajectory of the polio eradication effort in Pakistan, one of the last four countries in the world with endemic polio. Journeying from vaccination campaigns in rural Pakistan to the center of global health decision making at the World Health Organization in Geneva, the author explores the historical and cultural underpinnings of eradication as a public health strategy, and reveals the culture of optimism that characterizes--and sometimes cripples--global health institutions. With a keen ethnographic eye, Closser describes the complex power negotiations that underlie the eradication effort at every level, tracking techniques of resistance employed by district health workers and state governments alike. This book offers an analysis of local politics, social relations, and global political economy in the implementation of a worldwide public health effort, with broad implications for understanding what is possible in global health, now and for the future. This book is the recipient of the annual Norman L. and Roselea J. Goldberg Prize for the best project in the area of medicine.

Women's Empowerment and Global Health

A Twenty-First-Century Agenda

Author: Shari Dworkin,Monica Gandhi,Paige Passano

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520962729

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 5259

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What is women’s empowerment, and how and why does it matter for women’s health? Despite the rise of a human rights–based approach to women’s health and increasing awareness of the synergies between women’s health and empowerment, a lack of consensus remains as to how to measure empowerment and successfully intervene in ways that improve health. Women’s Empowerment and Global Health presents thirteen multidisciplinary case studies that demonstrate how science and advocacy can be creatively merged to enhance the agency and status of women. The content is enriched by ancillary videos that give background about programs in India, the United States, Mexico, Nicaragua, Zimbabwe, and South Africa. Women’s Empowerment and Global Health provides the next generation of researchers and practitioners, as well as students in global and public health, sociology, anthropology, women’s studies, law, business, and medicine, with cutting-edge and inspirational examples of programs that point the way toward achieving women’s equality and fulfilling the right to health.

Tell Me Why My Children Died

Rabies, Indigenous Knowledge, and Communicative Justice

Author: Charles L. Briggs,Clara Mantini-Briggs

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822374390

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 4087

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Tell Me Why My Children Died tells the gripping story of indigenous leaders' efforts to identify a strange disease that killed thirty-two children and six young adults in a Venezuelan rain forest between 2007 and 2008. In this pathbreaking book, Charles L. Briggs and Clara Mantini-Briggs relay the nightmarish and difficult experiences of doctors, patients, parents, local leaders, healers, and epidemiologists; detail how journalists first created a smoke screen, then projected the epidemic worldwide; discuss the Chávez government's hesitant and sometimes ambivalent reactions; and narrate the eventual diagnosis of bat-transmitted rabies. The book provides a new framework for analyzing how the uneven distribution of rights to produce and circulate knowledge about health are wedded at the hip with health inequities. By recounting residents' quest to learn why their children died and documenting their creative approaches to democratizing health, the authors open up new ways to address some of global health's most intractable problems.