William and Lawrence Bragg, Father and Son

The Most Extraordinary Collaboration in Science

Author: John Jenkin

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199235201

Category: History

Page: 458

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This book is a joint biography of William and Lawrence Bragg, who changed all of science in the 20th-century with the development of X-ray crystallography, and by mentoring the mid-century discovery of the structure of DNA. Their stories are vivid examples of science teaching and research in a colonial setting (Australia).

Elements of Ethics for Physical Scientists

Author: Sandra C. Greer

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262342820

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 7198

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This book offers the first comprehensive guide to ethics for physical scientists and engineers who conduct research. Written by a distinguished professor of chemistry and chemical engineering, the book focuses on the everyday decisions about right and wrong faced by scientists as they do research, interact with other people, and work within society. The goal is to nurture readers' ethical intelligence so that they know an ethical issue when they see one, and to give them a way to think about ethical problems. After introductions to the philosophy of ethics and the philosophy of science, the book discusses research integrity, with a unique emphasis on how scientists make mistakes and how they can avoid them. It goes on to cover personal interactions among scientists, including authorship, collaborators, predecessors, reviewers, grantees, mentors, and whistle-blowers. It considers underrepresented groups in science as an ethical issue that matters not only to those groups but also to the development of science, and it examines human participants and animal subjects. Finally, the book examines scientifically relevant social issues, including public policy, weapons research, conflicts of interest, and intellectual property. Each chapter ends with discussion questions and case studies to encourage debate and further exploration of topics. The book can be used in classes and seminars in research ethics and will be an essential reference for scientists in academia, government, and industry.

Crystal Clear

The Autobiographies of Sir Lawrence and Lady Bragg

Author: A. M. Glazer,Patience Thomson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191061794

Category: Science

Page: 448

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Crystal Clear takes you behind the scenes in the life of one of the most prominent scientists of the twentieth century, William Lawrence Bragg (WLB) - an innovative genius, who together with his father, William Henry Bragg (WHB) founded and developed a whole new branch of science, X-ray Crystallography. The main body of the text contains the hitherto unpublished autobiographies of both WLB and his wife, Alice. Alice Bragg was a public figure in her own right. She was Mayor of Cambridge and National Chairman of the Marriage Guidance Council among other roles. She and WLB were as different as chalk and cheese. Their autobiographies complement each other to give a rounded picture of the real personalities behind their public appearance. They write of their travels, their family life, their friends and their joys and sorrows. They write most of all about each other. Their younger daughter, Patience Thomson, provides anecdotes and vignettes, bringing her parents to life. She has also included extracts from previously unpublished letters and from articles which Alice Bragg wrote for National newspapers. The result is an unusual insight into the lives of two distinguished people. The two accounts reveal a fascinating interaction between these two characters, neither of whom could have achieved on this scale without the other. There is an underlying love story here which humanises and transforms. This is a unique book, adopting an original viewpoint, which will take the reader far beyond the scope of a normal biography.

The Man in the Monkeynut Coat

William Astbury and the Forgotten Road to the Double-Helix

Author: Kersten T. Hall

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019100989X

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 8431

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Sir Isaac Newton once declared that his momentous discoveries were only made thanks to having 'stood on the shoulders of giants'. The same might also be said of the scientists James Watson and Francis Crick. Their discovery of the structure of DNA was, without doubt, one of the biggest scientific landmarks in history and, thanks largely to the success of Watson's best-selling memoir 'The Double Helix', there might seem to be little new to say about this story. But much remains to be said about the particular 'giants' on whose shoulders Watson and Crick stood. Of these, the crystallographer Rosalind Franklin, whose famous X-ray diffraction photograph known as 'Photo 51' provided Watson and Crick with a vital clue, is now well recognised. Far less well known is the physicist William T. Astbury who, working at Leeds in the 1930s on the structure of wool for the local textile industry, pioneered the use of X-ray crystallography to study biological fibres. In so doing, he not only made the very first studies of the structure of DNA culminating in a photo almost identical to Franklin's 'Photo 51', but also founded the new science of 'molecular biology'. Yet whilst Watson and Crick won the Nobel Prize, Astbury has largely been forgotten. The Man in the Monkeynut Coat tells the story of this neglected pioneer, showing not only how it was thanks to him that Watson and Crick were not left empty-handed, but also how his ideas transformed biology leaving a legacy which is still felt today.

Crystallography: A Very Short Introduction

Author: A. M. Glazer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191027111

Category: Science

Page: 144

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Crystals have fascinated us for centuries with their beauty and symmetry, and have often been invested with magical powers. The use of X-ray diffraction, first pioneered in 1912 by father and son William and Lawrence Bragg, enabled us to probe the structure of molecules, and heralded the scientific study of crystals, leading to an understanding of their atomic arrangements at a fundamental level. The new discipline, called X-ray crystallography, has subsequently evolved into a formidable science that underpins many other scientific areas. Starting from the determination of the structures of very simple crystals, such as that of common salt, today it has become almost routine to determine the positions of tens of thousands of atoms in a crystal. In this Very Short Introduction Mike Glazer shows how the discoveries in crystallography have been applied to the creation of new and important materials, to drugs and pharmaceuticals and to our understanding of genetics, cell biology, proteins, and viruses. Tracing the history of crystallography, he analyses astonishing developments in new sources of X-rays, as well as of neutrons, and in electron microscopy, and considers the impact they have on the study of crystals today. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Energy in Nature and Society

General Energetics of Complex Systems

Author: Vaclav Smil

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262693569

Category: Science

Page: 480

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A comprehensive, systematic, analytically unified, and interdisciplinary treatment ofenergy in nature and society, from solar radiation and photosynthesis to our fossil fuelledcivilization and its environmental consequences.

Principles of Protein X-ray Crystallography

Author: Jan Drenth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387985879

Category: Science

Page: 341

View: 9566

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New textbooks at all levels of chemistry appear with great regularity. Some fields such as basic biochemistry, organic reaction mechanisms, and chemical thermodynamics are well represented by many excellent texts, and new or revised editions are published sufficiently often to keep up with progress in research. However, some areas of chemistry, especially many of those taught at the graduate level, suffer from a real lack of up to-date textbooks. The most serious needs occur in fields that are rapidly changing. Textbooks in these subjects usually have to be written by scientists actually involved in the research that is advancing the field. It is not often easy to persuade such individuals to set time aside to help spread the knowledge they have accumulated. Our goal, in this series, is to pinpoint areas of chemistry where recent progress has outpaced what is covered in any available textbooks, and then seek out and persuade experts in these fields to produce relatively concise but instructive intro ductions to their fields. These should serve the needs of one-semester or one-quarter graduate courses in chemistry and biochemistry. In some cases, the availability of texts in active research areas should help stimulate the creation of new courses. Charles R. Cantor v Preface to the Second Edition Since the publication of the previous edition in 1994, X-ray crystallography of proteins has advanced by improvements in existing techniques and by addition of new techniques.

Book Review Index 2009

Cumulation

Author: Dana Ferguson

Publisher: Gale Cengage

ISBN: 9781414419121

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 1262

View: 4494

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Optical Properties of Solids

Author: Mark Fox

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199573360

Category: Science

Page: 396

View: 1848

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The second edition of this successful textbook provides an up-to-date account of the optical physics of solids. All of the chapters have been updated and improved, and new sections on optical control of spin, quantum dots, plasmonics, negative refraction, carbon nanostructures and diamond NV centres have been added.

Portraits in Science

Author: Ann Moyal

Publisher: National Library Australia

ISBN: 0642106169

Category: Australia

Page: 203

View: 9302

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Twelve of Australia's leading scientists speak about their lives and their work. They convey the variety, excitement and accomplishment of science, explore its processes and reveal its challenges. Together their informal stories illuminate a remarkable landscape of science in Australia and shed fascinating light on the formative influences that have shaped these men and women towards a life in science.

Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of Madame Marie Sklodowska Curie’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Author: M. -H. Chiu,P. J. Gilmer,D. F. Treagust

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9460917194

Category: Science

Page: 253

View: 5845

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This book is a companion to the IYC-2011 celebration. The eleven chapters are organized into three sections: Section 1: Marie Curie’s Impact on Science and Society, Section 2: Women Chemists in the Past Two Centuries, and Section 3: Policy Implications. The authors invited to contribute to this book were asked to orient their chapter around a particular aspect of Marie Curie’s life such as the ethical aspects of her research, women’s role in research or her influence on the image of chemists. Our hope is that this book will positively influence young women’s minds and decisions they make in learning of chemistry/science like Marie Curie’s biography. But we do hope this book opens an avenue for young women to explore the possibility of being a scientist, or at least to appreciate chemistry as a human enterprise that has its merit in contributing to sustainability in our world. Also we hope that both men and women will realize that women are fully competent and capable of conducting creative and fascinating scientific research.

Shaping Written Knowledge

The Genre and Activity of the Experimental Article in Science

Author: Charles Bazerman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780299116941

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 356

View: 1077

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The forms taken by scientific writing help to determine the very nature of science itself. In this closely reasoned study, Charles Bazerman views the changing forms of scientific writing as solutions to rhetorical problems faced by scientists arguing for their findings. Examining such works as the early Philosophical Transactions and Newton's optical writings as well as Physical Review, Bazerman views the changing forms of scientific writing as solutions to rhetorical problems faced by scientists. The rhetoric of science is, Bazerman demonstrates, an embedded part of scientific activity that interacts with other parts of scientific activity, including social structure and empirical experience. This book presents a comprehensive historical account of the rise and development of the genre, and views these forms in relation to empirical experience.

Molecular Biology of the Gene

Author: James D. Watson,Tania A. Baker,Stephen P. Bell

Publisher: Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company

ISBN: 9780321762436

Category: Medical

Page: 872

View: 5829

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Now completely up-to-date with the latest research advances, the Seventh Edition retains the distinctive character of earlier editions. Twenty-two concise chapters, co-authored by six highly distinguished biologists, provide current, authoritative coverage of an exciting, fast-changing discipline.

RAND in Southeast Asia

A History of the Vietnam War Era

Author: Mai Elliott

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833049151

Category: History

Page: 694

View: 4595

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This volume chronicles RAND's involvement in researching insurgency and counterinsurgency in Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand during the Vietnam War era and assesses the effect that this research had on U.S. officials and policies. Elliott draws on interviews with former RAND staff and the many studies that RAND produced on these topics to provide a narrative that captures the tenor of the times and conveys the attitudes and thinking of those involved.

After the War

US Women in Physics

Author: Ruth H. Howes,Caroline L. Herzenberg

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 168174158X

Category: Science

Page: 124

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This book examines the lives and contributions of American women physicists who were active in the years following World War II, during the middle decades of the 20th century. It covers the strategies they used to survive and thrive in a time where their gender was against them. The percentage of PhD’s in physics has risen for 6% in 1983 to 20% in 2012 (an all-time high for women). By understanding the history of women in physics, these gains can continue. It discusses to major classes of women physicists; those who worked on military projects, and those who worked in industrial laboratories and at universities largely in the late 1940s and 1950s. While it includes minimal discussion of physics and physicists in the 1960s and later, this book focuses on the challenges and successes of women physicists in the years immediately following World War II and before the eras of affirmative actions and the use of the personal computer.

Light is a Messenger

The Life and Science of William Lawrence Bragg

Author: Graeme K. Hunter

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 019852921X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 301

View: 5951

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"Light is a Messenger" is the first biography of Sir Lawrence Bragg, the youngest person ever to win a Nobel Prize. Bragg won the Nobel Prize for discovering how to use X-rays to determine the atomic structures of crystals and molecules. He was director of the research unit in which James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the double helix structure of DNA.

Journalism, Science and Society

Science Communication between News and Public Relations

Author: Martin W. Bauer,Massimiano Bucchi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134187289

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 2269

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Analyzing the role of journalists in science communication, this book presents a perspective on how this is going to evolve in the twenty-first century. The book takes three distinct perspectives on this interesting subject. Firstly, science journalists reflect on their ‘operating rules’ (science news values and news making routines). Secondly, a brief history of science journalism puts things into context, characterising the changing output of science writing in newspapers over time. Finally, the book invites several international journalists or communication scholars to comment on these observations thereby opening the global perspective. This unique project will interest a range of readers including science communication students, media studies scholars, professionals working in science communication and journalists.

Electron Crystallography

Author: D. Dorset,Sven Hovmuller,Xiaodong Zou

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401589712

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 9880

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The re-emergent field of quantitative electron crystallography is described by some of its most eminent practitioners. They describe the theoretical framework for electron scattering, specimen preparation, experimental techniques for optimum data collection, the methodology of structure analysis and refinement, and a range of applications to inorganic materials (including minerals), linear polymers, small organic molecules (including those used in nonlinear optical devices), incommensurately modulated structures (including superconductors), alloys, and integral membrane proteins. The connection between electron crystallography and X-ray crystallography is clearly defined, especially in the utilisation of the latest methods for direct determination of crystallographic phases, as well as the unique role of image analysis of high-resolution electron micrographs for phase determination. Even the aspect of multiple beam dynamic diffraction (once dreaded because it was thought to preclude ab initio analysis) is considered as a beneficial aid for symmetry determination as well as the elucidation of crystallographic phases, and as a criterion for monitoring the progress of structure refinement. Whereas other texts have hitherto preferentially dealt with the analysis of electron diffraction and image data from thin organic materials, this work discusses - with considerable optimism - the prospects of looking at `harder' materials, composed of heavier atoms. Audience: Could be used with profit as a graduate-level course on electron crystallography. Researchers in the area will find a statement of current progress in the field.