Williamson on Modality

Author: Mark McCullagh

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781138739499


Page: 418

View: 8620

Timothy Williamson is one of the most influential living philosophers working in the areas of logic and metaphysics. His work in these areas has been particularly influential in shaping debates about metaphysical modality, which is the topic of his recent provocative and closely-argued book Modal Logic as Metaphysics (2013). This book comprises ten essays by metaphysicians and logicians responding to Williamson's work on metaphysical modality, as well as replies by Williamson to each essay. In addition, it contains an original essay by Williamson, 'Modal science,' concerning the role of modal claims in natural science. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Canadian Journal of Philosophy.


Metaphysics, Logic, and Epistemology

Author: Bob Hale,Aviv Hoffmann

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199565813

Category: Philosophy

Page: 363

View: 4647

Modality brings together contributions from both well-established leaders in the field and up-and-coming philosophers. Between them, the papers address fundamental questions concerning realism and anti-realism about modality, the nature and basis of facts about what is possible and what is necessary, the nature of modal knowledge, modal logic and its relations to necessary existence and to counterfactual reasoning, and other issues central to thecurrently highly active debate among philosophers in this area. The general introduction locates the individual contributions both in the specific context of the research project for which they were produced, and in the wider context of the contemporary discussion of the metaphysics and epistemology of modality.

A Critical Introduction to the Metaphysics of Modality

Author: Andrea Borghini

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472521943

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 1156

A Critical Introduction to the Metaphysics of Modality examines the eight main contemporary theories of possibility behind a central metaphysical topic. Covering modal skepticism, modal expressivism, modalism, modal realism, ersatzism, modal fictionalism, modal agnosticism, and the new modal actualism, this comprehensive introduction to modality places contemporary debates in an historical context. Beginning with a historical overview, Andrea Borghini discusses Parmenides and Zeno; looks at how central Medieval authors such as Aquinas, and Buridan prepared the ground for the Early Modern radical views of Leibniz, Spinoza, and Hume and discusses advancements in semantics in the later-half of the twentieth century a resulted in the rise of modal metaphysics, the branch characterizing the past few decades of philosophical reflection. Framing the debate according to three main perspectives - logical, epistemic, metaphysical- Borghini provides the basic concepts and terms required to discuss modality. With suggestions of further reading and end-of-chapter study questions, A Critical Introduction to the Metaphysics of Modality is an up-to-date resource for students working in contemporary metaphysics seeking a better understanding of this crucial topic.

AnalyOmen 2

Proceedings of the 2nd Conference "Perspectives in Analytical Philosophy"

Author: Georg Meggle,Andreas Mundt

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110152531

Category: Analysis (Philosophy)

Page: 573

View: 9060


Modal Logic as Metaphysics

Author: Timothy Williamson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019955207X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 464

View: 5409

Are there such things as merely possible people, who would have lived if our ancestors had acted differently? Are there future people, who have not yet been conceived? Questions like those raise deep issues about both the nature of being and its logical relations with contingency and change. In Modal Logic as Metaphysics, Timothy Williamson argues for positive answers to those questions on the basis of an integrated approach to the issues, applying thetechnical resources of modal logic to provide structural cores for metaphysical theories. He rejects the search for a metaphysically neutral logic as futile, and proposes higher-order modal logic as a new settingin which to resolve such metaphysical questions scientifically, by the construction of systematic logical theories embodying rival answers and their comparison by normal scientific standards.

Wissen, was möglich ist

Author: Sebastian J. Müller

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 1614518335

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 2356

This book investigates how it is possible for us to know what is metaphysically possible. The author discusses the key empiricist and rationalist propositions advanced by Chalmers, Williamson, and others since Kripke’s Naming and Necessity. He demonstrates that only an anti-realist understanding of modality opens up epistemic access to this question while at the same time depriving it of philosophical relevance.

Narrow Content

Author: Juhani Yli-Vakkuri,John Hawthorne

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192557971

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 5765

It is natural to distinguish, for any thinking creature, those events and states that are internal to the creature — its brain states, for example — from those that are not. Narrow mental content, if there is such a thing, is content that is entirely determined by the goings-on inside the head of the thinker. A central question in the philosophy of mind since the mid-1970s has been whether there is a kind of mental content that is narrow in this sense. One important line of thought — by 'externalists' — has been that so-called intentional states, such as wishing that they sky were blue and believing that the sky is blue, are, perhaps surprisingly, not internal: there could be twins who are exactly alike on the inside but differ with respect to such intentional states. In the face of this wave of externalism, many philosophers have argued that there must be some good sense in which our intentional states are internal after all, and that such narrow content can play various key explanatory roles relating, inter alia, to epistemology and the explanation of action. This book argues that this is a forlorn hope, and defends a thoroughgoing externalism. The entanglement of our minds with the external world runs so deep that no internal component of mentality can easily be cordoned off.

Content and Modality

Themes from the Philosophy of Robert Stalnaker

Author: Judith Thomson,Alex Byrne

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 0191515736

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 312

View: 8788

Eleven distinguished philosophers have contributed specially written essays on a set of topics much debated in recent years, including physicalism, qualia, semantic competence, conditionals, presuppositions, two-dimensional semantics, and the relation between logic and metaphysics. All these topics are prominent in the work of Robert Stalnaker, a major presence in contemporary philosophy, in honour of whom the volume is published. It also contains a substantial new essay in which Stalnaker replies to his critics, and sets out his current views on the topics discussed. Contributors: Richard Heck, Frank Jackson, William Lycan, Vann McGee, John Perry, Paul Pietroski, Sydney Shoemaker, Scott Soames, Daniel Stoljar, Timothy Williamson, and Stephen Yablo.


Author: Anthony O'Hear

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521138581

Category: Philosophy

Page: 139

View: 8666

This collection brings together essays from leading figures in a rapidly developing field of philosophy.

Epistemic Modality

Author: Andy Egan,Brian Weatherson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199591598

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 335

View: 3311

There's a lot we don't know, which means that there are a lot of possibilities that are, epistemically speaking, open. What these epistemic possibilities are, and how we understand the semantics of epistemic modals, are explored here through a variety of philosophical approaches.

Perception and Its Modalities

Author: Dustin Stokes,Mohan Matthen,Stephen Biggs

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199381615

Category: Psychology

Page: 352

View: 5336

This volume is about the many ways we perceive. In nineteen new essays, philosophers and cognitive scientists explore the nature of the individual senses, how and what they tell us about the world, and how they interrelate. They consider how the senses extract perceptual content from receptoral information and what kinds of objects we perceive and whether multiple senses ever perceive a single event. Questions pertaining to how many senses we have, what makes one sense distinct from another, and whether and why distinguishing senses may be useful feature prominently. Contributors examine the extent to which the senses act in concert, rather than as discrete modalities, and whether this influence is epistemically pernicious, neutral, or beneficial. Many of the essays engage with the idea that it is unduly restrictive to think of perception as a collation of contents provided by individual sense modalities. Rather, contributors contend that to understand perception properly we need to build into our accounts the idea that the senses work together. In doing so, they aim to develop better paradigms for understanding the senses and thereby to move toward a better understanding of perception.

Modal Epistemology After Rationalism

Author: Bob Fischer,Felipe Leon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319443097

Category: Philosophy

Page: 308

View: 2593

This collection highlights the new trend away from rationalism and toward empiricism in the epistemology of modality. Accordingly, the book represents a wide range of positions on the empirical sources of modal knowledge. Readers will find an introduction that surveys the field and provides a brief overview of the work, which progresses from empirically-sensitive rationalist accounts to fully empiricist accounts of modal knowledge. Early chapters focus on challenges to rationalist theories, essence-based approaches to modal knowledge, and the prospects for naturalizing modal epistemology. The middle chapters present positive accounts that reject rationalism, but which stop short of advocating exclusive appeal to empirical sources of modal knowledge. The final chapters mark a transition toward exclusive reliance on empirical sources of modal knowledge. They explore ways of making similarity-based, analogical, inductive, and abductive arguments for modal claims based on empirical information. Modal epistemology is coming into its own as a field, and this book has the potential to anchor a new research agenda.

Kant und die Philosophie in weltbürgerlicher Absicht

Akten des XI. Kant-Kongresses 2010

Author: Kant-Gesellschaft e.V.

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 311024649X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 4000

View: 2955

The five-volume set Kant and Philosophy in a Cosmopolitan Sense contains the proceedings of the Eleventh International Kant Congress, held in Pisa in 2010. The proceedings consist of 25 plenary talks as well as more than 300 invited papers comprising 14 sections. Various aspects of Kant’s philosophy are addressed, with special emphasis on his cosmopolitanism.

Modality and Explanatory Reasoning

Author: Boris Kment

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191668990

Category: Philosophy

Page: 384

View: 6138

Since the ground-breaking work of Saul Kripke, David Lewis, and others in the 1960s and 70s, one dominant interest of analytic philosophers has been in modal truths, which concern the question what is possible and what is necessary. However, there is considerable controversy over the source and nature of necessity. In Modality and Explanatory Reasoning, Boris Kment takes a novel approach to the study of modality that places special emphasis on understanding the origin of modal notions in everyday thought. Kment argues that the concepts of necessity and possibility originate in a common type of thought experiment—counterfactual reasoning—that allows us to investigate explanatory connections. This procedure is closely related to the controlled experiments of empirical science. Necessity is defined in terms of causation and other forms of explanation such as grounding, a relation that connects metaphysically fundamental facts to non-fundamental ones. Therefore, contrary to a widespread view, explanation is more fundamental than modality. The study of modal facts is important for philosophy, not because these facts are of much metaphysical interest in their own right, but because they provide evidence about explanatory relationships. In the course of developing this position, the book offers new accounts of possible and impossible worlds , counterfactual conditionals, essential truths and their role in grounding, and a novel theory of how counterfactuals relate to causation and explanation.

Philosophische Studien

Author: George Edward Moore

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 311032346X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 283

View: 3401

Der vorliegende Band vereint Aufsätze Moores, die zwischen den Jahren 1903 und 1922 entstanden sind. Sie alle verdeutlichen Moores Bemühen, vom common sense ausgehend Antworten auf die sich ihm stellenden philosophischen Probleme zu finden. Dabei kann sein Stil auch heute noch als Musterbeispiel an Einfachheit, Klarheit und Präzision gelten. Sein in diesem Band vorgelegtes Themenspektrum ist immens, und umfasst neben seiner berühmten Kritik am Idealismus und diversen historischen Untersuchungen zur Philosophie David Humes und William James weitere Überlegungen zu verschiedenen Problemstellungen der Metaphysik und Epistemologie. Abgerundet wird die Sammlung durch zwei metaethische Aufsätze, die nach der Möglichkeit intrinsischer Werte fragen und das Wesen grundlegender moralischer Begriffe zum Thema haben. Der Band eignet sich sowohl für den Moore-Experten, der tiefere Einblicke in dessen philosophische Entwicklung erhalten möchte als auch den Studenten der Philosophie, der hier eine hervorragende Einführung in die Denk- und Argumentationsmuster analytischen Philosophierens erhält.

The Philosophy of Philosophy

Author: Timothy Williamson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470695919

Category: Philosophy

Page: 352

View: 8018

The second volume in the Blackwell Brown Lectures in Philosophy, this volume offers an original and provocative take on the nature and methodology of philosophy. Based on public lectures at Brown University, given by the pre-eminent philosopher, Timothy Williamson Rejects the ideology of the 'linguistic turn', the most distinctive trend of 20th century philosophy Explains the method of philosophy as a development from non-philosophical ways of thinking Suggests new ways of understanding what contemporary and past philosophers are doing

In a Queer Time and Place

Transgender Bodies, Subcultural Lives

Author: J. Jack Halberstam

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814737498

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 213

View: 1897

In her first book since the critically acclaimed Female Masculinity, Judith Halberstam examines the significance of the transgender body in a provocative collection of essays on queer time and space. She presents a series of case studies focused on the meanings of masculinity in its dominant and alternative forms’especially female and trans-masculinities as they exist within subcultures, and are appropriated within mainstream culture. In a Queer Time and Place opens with a probing analysis of the life and death of Brandon Teena, a young transgender man who was brutally murdered in small-town Nebraska. After looking at mainstream representations of the transgender body as exhibited in the media frenzy surrounding this highly visible case and the Oscar-winning film based on Brandon's story, Boys Don’t Cry, Halberstam turns her attention to the cultural and artistic production of queers themselves. She examines the “transgender gaze,” as rendered in small art-house films like By Hook or By Crook, as well as figurations of ambiguous embodiment in the art of Del LaGrace Volcano, Jenny Saville, Eva Hesse, Shirin Neshat, and others. She then exposes the influence of lesbian drag king cultures upon hetero-male comic films, such as Austin Powers and The Full Monty, and, finally, points to dyke subcultures as one site for the development of queer counterpublics and queer temporalities. Considering the sudden visibility of the transgender body in the early twenty-first century against the backdrop of changing conceptions of space and time, In a Queer Time and Place is the first full-length study of transgender representations in art, fiction, film, video, and music. This pioneering book offers both a jumping off point for future analysis of transgenderism and an important new way to understand cultural constructions of time and place.