Environmental Contaminants

Assessment and Control

Author: Daniel Vallero

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080470351

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 832

View: 327

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Environmental Contaminants serves as a tool for environmental professionals to produce technically sound and reproducible scientific evidence. It identifies ways to clean up environmental problems in air, water, soil, sediment and living systems. Ethical issues, environmental management, and professionalism, and environmental economic problems are illustrated to assist the reader in understanding and applying quantitative analysis of environmental problems. Real life solutions for practicing environmental professionals. Example problems, sidebars, and case studies to illustrate ethical issues, environmental economic problems, and environmental management. Explanation of scientific principles and concepts needed for risk assessment, waste management, contaminant transport, environmental hydrogeology, and environmental engineering & chemistry. A fully supportive glossary, appendices and tables throughout the text contain physical, chemical and biological resources necessary for all environmental practitioners.

Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants

Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet,Philip S. Rainbow,Michele Romeo

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439817711

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 2983

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Tolerance, the ability of populations to cope with the chemical stress resulting from toxic contaminants, has been described in many organisms from bacteria to fungi, from phytoplankton to terrestrial flowering plants, and from invertebrates such as worms to vertebrates like fish and amphibians. The building of tolerance, be it by physiological acclimation or genetic adaptation, can have great consequences for the local biodiversity, and hence the ecology and ecosystem functioning of many of the world’s habitats. Understanding the frequency of the occurrence of tolerance has tremendous implications for the sustainability of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants takes a multidisciplinary approach across contaminant types, habitats, organisms, biological levels of organization and scientific disciplines. The book examines the general principles governing the acquisition and biological consequences of tolerance, genetically or physiologically based, at different levels of biological organization, taxonomically from bacteria and archaea to flowering plants and vertebrates, and within organisms from molecular biology and biochemistry through physiology to whole organism, community, and ecosystem levels of organization. Presenting a state-of-the-art synthesis of the many aspects of the phenomenon of tolerance to environmental contaminants, this volume covers mechanisms of defense involved in the acquisition of tolerance, different classes of environmental contaminants, positive and negative ecological consequences of tolerance and the impact of tolerance in bacteria, plants, and insects on society. The reviews presented in this book supply the tools for carrying out more informed and therefore more reliable risk-benefit analyses when assessing the ecotoxicological risks to life in any of the contaminated habitats that now surround us in our industrialized society.

Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife

Interpreting Tissue Concentrations

Author: James P. Meador

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781566700719

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 800

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Many books have been written about the effects of toxic chemicals on wildlife, but none has focused on the practical question, "How much of a chemical in the tissues of an animal is harmful?" This book deals exclusively with that question. This comprehensive reference will certainly become the standard resource on the topic, offering authoritative and sound advice on many environmental contaminants. With chapters written by outstanding experts in their respective fields, this is not only a scholarly collection of discussions on different chemicals, but, for those who have the day-to-day task of evaluating the harm of environment contaminants to wildlife, this book will provide answers on, for example, how to interpret 1 ppm lead in the liver of a duck or fish. The authors explain the snags of interpreting data that are sometimes conflicting or insufficient, providing the reader with helpful advice on how to cope with such data. Each chapter reviews literature on a specific chemical, followed by a easy-to-understand summary providing technical guidance. For many years this book will remain the preeminent reference on how to interpret contaminant levels of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, PAHs, metals, selenium, and fluorides in wildlife.

Handbook of Environmental Contaminants

A Guide for Site Assessment

Author: Chris Shineldecker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780873717328

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 1417

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Handbook of Environmental Contaminants: A Guide for Site Assessment is an indispensable working reference for environmental assessment professionals faced with determining potential environmental contaminants that might be found in the soil, groundwater, or air of a property or facility. The book provides a comprehensive listing of potential contaminants associated with hundreds of industries, activities, and processes. The types of properties covered range from agricultural to heavy industrial. The products and processes covered range from the processing of yeast to the constituents of rocket fuel. The book also discusses products associated with the degradation of common chemical solvents in the environment. Handbook of Environmental Contaminants: A Guide for Site Assessment is an important reference for environmental consultants, workers on Superfund sites, public health and safety professionals, attorneys, educators and students, and lenders.

Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility and Mobility of Environmental Contaminants

Author: John R. Dean

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470025778

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 9942

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This book covers all aspects of bioavailability, as related to environmental contaminants. After a discussion of the definition of bioavailability and its context, focus is placed on the role of risk assessment and bioavailability. Methods of analysis are then discussed including a range of atomic spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques for metal analysis and chromatographic approaches for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The occurrence, properties and eco-toxicity of POPs and metals in the soil/sediment environment are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the uptake of POPs and metals by plants (phytoextraction). Examples of POPs and metals in the environment are reviewed. Methods to assess the bioavailability of POPs and metals in the environment are discussed. The particular approaches considered are: non-exhaustive extraction techniques single extraction techniques sequential extraction techniques use of cyclodextrin and surfactants in-vitro gastrointestinal methods including physiological-based extraction test the use of bioasssays including earthworms. Finally, selected case studies highlight the importance of determining the bioavailability of POPs and metals.

Handbook of Comparative Veterinary Pharmacokinetics and Residues of Pesticides and Environmental Contaminants

Author: Stephen F. Sundlof,Jim E. Riviere,Arthur L. Craigmill

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849332133

Category: Medical

Page: 592

View: 3322

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Residues of drugs and chemicals in edible tissues of food-producing animals are a major public health concern. Until now, information on applications of pharmacokinetic principles to drug and chemical residue avoidance has been spread throughout literature. For the first time, this handbook brings this information together in a convenient and concise volume. For easier reference, text is divided into three parts: physicochemical constants and chemical structures, legal tissue tolerances, and pharmacokinetic parameters derived from open literature. This is the only publication that offers all this information in a single source. For fast access, numerous tables present valuable pharmacokinetic data for drugs in serum, plasma, or blood and in other matrices. The authors include their own previously unpublished pharmacokinetic parameters, results of statistical analyses performed on time/concentration data tabulated in the primary sources. Helpful appendices contain FDA approved tolerances and action levels as well as chemical structures and physicochemical properties. This is an essential handbook for veterinarians, toxicologists, pharmacologists, animal scientists, food hygienists, and regulatory personnel involved in human food safety.

Phytotechnologies

Remediation of Environmental Contaminants

Author: Naser A. Anjum,Maria E. Pereira,Iqbal Ahmad,Armando C. Duarte,Shahid Umar,Nafees A. Khan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439875189

Category: Science

Page: 617

View: 1323

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Phytotechnologies: Remediation of Environmental Contaminants highlights the use of natural and inherent traits of plants and associated microbes to exclude, accumulate, or metabolize a variety of contaminants, with the goal of efficiently and sustainably decontaminating the biosphere from unwanted hazardous compounds. Contributed by an international team of authors, the book ensures a balance between theory and practice without compromising the basic conceptual framework of Phytotechnologies. Divided into three major sections, the book: Introduces contaminants and contaminated sites, and also highlights the significance of genus Brassica and vetiver grass species for varied environmental contaminants’ remediation Presents an exhaustive exploration of potential strategies for enhancing plants and associated microbes-mediated environmental contaminants’ remediation Overviews major physiological, biochemical, and genetic-molecular mechanisms responsible for plant tolerance and adaptation to varied environmental contaminants A one-stop source of cutting edge answers and time-saving access, Phytotechnologies: Remediation of Environmental Contaminants is a common platform for engineers, environmental microbiologists, plant physiologists, and molecular biologists with the common aim of sustainable solutions to vital environmental issues. In short, the book provides a conceptual overview of ecosystems approaches and phytotechnologies, and their cumulative significance in relation to various environmental problems and potential solutions.

Environmental Contaminants in Biota

Interpreting Tissue Concentrations, Second Edition

Author: W. Nelson Beyer,James P. Meador

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420084062

Category: Science

Page: 768

View: 2055

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Examining tissue residues of contaminants in biota reveals the movement of contaminants within organisms and through food chains as well as the context for understanding and quantifying injuries to organisms and their communities. Yet tissue concentrations of some contaminants are especially challenging to interpret and the ability of today’s analytical chemists to provide reliable analytical data of most important environmental contaminants often surpasses the ability of ecotoxicologists to interpret those data. Offering guidance on the ecotoxicologically meaningful interpretation of tissue concentrations, Environmental Contaminants in Biota, Interpreting Tissue Concentrations, Second Edition is updated with current data and new ways of analyzing those data as well as additional contaminants not previously considered. Beginning with a history of wildlife toxicology and data interpretation, chapters cover a wide range of contaminants and their hazardous and lethal concentrations in various animals including DDT, Dioxins, PCBs, and PBDEs in aquatic organisms; methylmurcury, selenium, and trace metals in fishes and aquatic invertebrates; and pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants in marine mammals. The book considers the impact of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans, and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers; cyclodiene; and other organochlorine pesticides in birds and mammals. Later chapters examine the effects and analysis of lead, cadmium, and radionuclides in biota. With thousands of published research papers reporting tissue concentrations each year, Environmental Contaminants in Biota, Interpreting Tissue Concentrations, Second Edition gives ecotoxicologists the ability to draw actionable value regarding the toxicological consequences of those concentrations and relate tissue concentrations quantitatively to injury: the core of ecotoxicology.

Mutagenic Effects of Environmental Contaminants

Author: H.E. Sutton

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323160107

Category: Medical

Page: 212

View: 8171

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Mutagenic Effects of Environmental Contaminants investigates the mutagenic consequences of environmental contaminants, such as pesticides, industrials, food additives, drugs, and biologicals, as well as the possible relationships between mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. It describes the monitoring of chemical mutagens in the environment and the ways that genetic mutations cause disease in humans. Organized into 14 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the current burden of human genetic disease and the biochemical mechanisms of mutation. It then discusses practical and feasible methods that use a variety of organisms to screen potential mutagenic agents, increased mutation rates in human populations, mutagens that are currently used commercially, and the interrelationships between mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. The reader is also introduced to genetic toxicology, detection of chemically induced mutations in experimental animals, and chromosome and somatic mutations in humans. This book is a valuable resource for scientists, policymakers, and administrators of environmental programs.