Reef Evolution

Author: Postdoctoral Researcher Empires of Faith Project Rachel Wood,Rachel Wood

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198577843

Category: Science

Page: 414

View: 3103

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Reefs are an extraordinary natural phenomenon. Visible from outer space, coral reefs are the largest biologically constructed features known; in close proximity their spectacular beauty and abundance of life is dazzling. Reefs are estimated to occupy only a small percentage of the oceans, buttheir importance to the marine environment is many-faceted and global. Reefs create harbours and allow the development of shallow basins with associated mangrove or seargrass communities; they protect coastlines from erosion; reefs are involved in the regulation of atmospheric carbon, which in turncontributes to climate control; ancient reefs can provide extensive oil and gas reservoirs. From a biological standpoint, however, the great significance of reefs lies in their ability to generate and maintain a substantial proportion of tropical marine biodiversity. This text documents thosebiological innovations which have moulded the evolution of reef ecosystems and given rise to the highly complex communities found today. The appearance of clonality, the acquisition of photosymbiosis and the radiation of predator groups are all discussed in depth. Throughout the book, Rachel Wooduses data from the fossil record to document the evolutionary development of reef ecosystems. This interdisciplinary approach has the aim of providing an analytical text which will be of value not only to advanced undergraduates and postgraduate courses, but also to researchers in ancient reefecology. Rachel Wood is Royal Society University Research Fellow, and Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge

The History and Sedimentology of Ancient Reef Systems

Author: George D. Stanley Jr.

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461512190

Category: Science

Page: 458

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From the Preface: The chapters of this book contain contributions from an international group of specialists. They address some important themes in both modern and ancient reef systems. Some chapters contain `snapshots' of reefs of particular intervals, while others touch on relevant themes of both modern and ancient reefs - themes that weave their way through reefs of all ages. This book opens and sets the stage with an introduction to both modern and ancient reefs and reef ecosystems. This chapter is also intended as a basic introduction for students, general geologists, and professionals or others who may be unfamiliar with reefs and reef ecosystems. The chapter addresses the living coral reef ecosystem, stressing among other relevant factors, the importance of ecological and physical interactions between the organisms and their environment. The chapter also addresses mass extinction and provides a general overview of the history of reefs.

The Geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef

Development, Diversity and Change

Author: David Hopley,Scott G. Smithers,Kevin Parnell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139463926

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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This 2007 book reviews the history of geomorphological studies of the Great Barrier Reef and assesses the influences of sea-level change and oceanographic processes on the development of reefs over the last 10,000 years. It presents analyses of recently attained data from the Great Barrier Reef and reconstructions of the sequence of events which have led to its more recent geomorphology. The authors emphasise the importance of the geomorphological time span and its applications for present management applications. This is a valuable reference for academic researchers in geomorphology and oceanography, and will also appeal to graduate students in related fields.

Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs

Structure, Form and Process

Author: David Hopley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 904812638X

Category: Science

Page: 1236

View: 9022

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Coral reefs are the largest landforms built by plants and animals. Their study therefore incorporates a wide range of disciplines. This encyclopedia approaches coral reefs from an earth science perspective, concentrating especially on modern reefs. Currently coral reefs are under high stress, most prominently from climate change with changes to water temperature, sea level and ocean acidification particularly damaging. Modern reefs have evolved through the massive environmental changes of the Quaternary with long periods of exposure during glacially lowered sea level periods and short periods of interglacial growth. The entries in this encyclopedia condense the large amount of work carried out since Charles Darwin first attempted to understand reef evolution. Leading authorities from many countries have contributed to the entries covering areas of geology, geography and ecology, providing comprehensive access to the most up-to-date research on the structure, form and processes operating on Quaternary coral reefs.

Pangea: Paleoclimate, Tectonics, and Sedimentation During Accretion, Zenith, and Breakup of a Supercontinent

Author: George O. Klein

Publisher: Geological Society of America

ISBN: 0813722888

Category: Science

Page: 295

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Summarizes invited and contributed papers from the May 1992 Project pangea workshop in Lawrence, Kansas. Topics include the climatic evolution of India and Australia, pangean orogenic and epeirogenic uplifts, permian climatic cooling in the Canadian Arctic, and pangean shelf carbonates. Annotation c

Carbonate Systems During the Olicocene-Miocene Climatic Transition

Author: Maria Mutti,Werner E. Piller,Christian Betzler

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444348353

Category: Science

Page: 312

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The Oligocene and Miocene Epochs comprise the most important phases in the Cenozoic global cooling that led from a greenhouse to an icehouse Earth. Recent major advances in the understanding and time-resolution of climate events taking place at this time, as well as the proliferation of studies on Oligocene and Miocene shallow-water/neritic carbonate systems, invite us to re-evaluate the significance of these carbonate systems in the context of changes in climate and Earth surface processes. Carbonate systems, because of a wide dependence on the ecological requirements of organisms producing the sediment, are sensitive recorders of changes in environmental conditions on the Earth surface. The papers included in this Special Publication address the dynamic evolution of carbonate systems deposited during the Oligocene and Miocene in the context on climatic and Earth surfaces processes focusing on climatic trends and controls over deposition; temporal changes in carbonate producers and palaeoecology; carbonate terminology; facies; processes and environmental parameters (including water temperature and production depth profiles); carbonate producers and their spatial and temporal variability; and tectonic controls over architecture. This book is part of the International Association of Sedimentologists (IAS) Special Publications. The Special Publications from the IAS are a set of thematic volumes edited by specialists on subjects of central interest to sedimentologists. Papers are reviewed and printed to the same high standards as those published in the journal Sedimentology and several of these volumes have become standard works of reference.

Biotic Evolution and Environmental Change in Southeast Asia

Author: David Gower,Kenneth Johnson,James Richardson,Brian Rosen,Lukas Rüber,Suzanne Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139536222

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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The flora and fauna of Southeast Asia are exceptionally diverse. The region includes several terrestrial biodiversity hotspots and is the principal global hotspot for marine diversity, but it also faces the most intense challenges of the current global biodiversity crisis. Providing reviews, syntheses and results of the latest research into Southeast Asian earth and organismal history, this book investigates the history, present and future of the fauna and flora of this bio- and geodiverse region. Leading authorities in the field explore key topics including palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, biogeography, population genetics and conservation biology, illustrating research approaches and themes with spatially, taxonomically and methodologically focused case studies. The volume also presents methodological advances in population genetics and historical biogeography. Exploring the fascinating environmental and biotic histories of Southeast Asia, this is an ideal resource for graduate students and researchers as well as environmental NGOs.

Reef Fish Spawning Aggregations: Biology, Research and Management

Author: Yvonne Sadovy de Mitcheson,Patrick L. Colin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400719809

Category: Science

Page: 622

View: 9195

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Reef fish spawning aggregations, ranging from small groups to many tens of thousands of individuals, are spectacular but poorly known natural phenomena whereby fish assemble at specific times and locations to spawn. For some species these large groups may be the only form of reproduction, the high fish numbers briefly giving a false impression of stability and abundance—an ‘illusion of plenty’. They are often a focus for intensive seasonal fishing because of their predictability and because many important commercial fishes form them. Highly vulnerable to overexploitation, many aggregations and their associated fisheries, have disappeared or are in decline. Few are effectively managed or incorporated into protected areas. Aggregations are not well understood by fishery scientists, managers and conservationists and their significance little appreciated by fishers or the wider public. To ensure their persistence to replenish important fisheries in coral ecosystems, maintain their ecosystem function and continue to delight divers, a significant change in perspective is needed to foster protection and management. This book provides comprehensive and practical coverage of the biology, study and management of reef fish aggregations, exploring their how, when, where, and why. It explores ways to better protect, study, manage and conserve them, while identifying key data gaps and questions. The text is extensively illustrated with many unique, never before published, photographs and graphics. Case studies on over 20 interesting and important fishes are included, outlining their biology and fisheries and highlighting major concerns and challenges.